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1 1 J      It  I 


k  'Q 


/  ^  \' 


PL  I 


U.S.  ENSIGNS  a_PENNANTS.   1880 

NAVY    PENNANT 


HISTORY 


OF    THE 


I^FLAG  OF  THE   UNITED   STATES 


OF 


AMERICA, 


AND   OF   THE 

NAVAL  AND  YACHT-CLUB  SIGNALS,   SEALS,   AND  ARMS, 

AND   PRINCIPAL   NATIONAL   SONGS   OF 

THE   UNITED  STATES, 

THE  SYMBOLS,  STANDARDS,  BANNERS,  AND  FLAGS   OF 
ANCIENT  AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


GEO.  HENRY   FREE  Li:, 

REAE- ADMIRAL  U.  S.  N',  *, 


FOURTH  EDITION. 


Elustratefi  fajitfj  Zen  Colorefi  opiates,  Zioa  fiuriDui  Engrabings  on  IJaooB; 
anlJ  iHaps  anB  'autograpjjks. 


BOSTON  AND   NEW  YORK: 
HOUGHTOX,   MIFFLIN  AND  COMPANY. 

(iri)c  EtticrBtUc  Prces,  CamferiUffe. 

1894. 


.'  "*'.'•  By  Geo.  Henry  ,Pi?eblA. 


♦*jQot  to  tht  libinff,  but  to  tl)e  ^eaU.' 


THIS  BOOK  IS  DEDICATED 


MEMORY   OF   THOSE   GALLANT   SPIRITS 


WHO,   BY  LAND  OR  SEA,  HAVE  FOUGHT, 
CONQUERED, 


JTalleu  m  Defence 


THE    BANNER     WHICH     IT    COMMEMORATES. 


/6/7i 


"  Thin  Ik  a  iiinxim  whlcli  I  liavo  rocolvwl  by  luTodltary  trn<lition,  not  only  from  my  father,  but 
also  froui  luy  gruiulfutlicr  unil  hin  anci.>t<toi'i«,  that,  af(or  what  I  owe  toGixl,  nothing  Hhuuld  bo  uioro 
dear  or  sacred  than  the  lovo  and  r&«jK'ct  1  owe  to  my  country."  —  DeTiioo. 

"  Land  of  my  birth  !  thy  glorious  stars 

Float  over  shore  and  sea. 
Mode  sacred  by  a  thousand  scars 

They  were  not  born  to  flee  ; 
Oh  may  that  liug  for  ever  wave 
Where  dwell  the  jiatriot  and  the  brave, 

Till  all  the  earl h  be  free: 
Yet  still  the  shrine  be  here,  .is  now. 
Where  freeman,  pilgrim-like,  .shall  bow." 

"There  is  the  national  flag!  He  must  be  colil.  indeed,  who  can  look  upon  its  folds  rijjpling 
in  the  breeze  without  pride  of  country.  If  he  be  in  a  foreign  land,  the  Hag  is  companionship,  and 
country  itself,  with  all  its  endearments.  Who,  as  he  sees  it,  can  think  of  a  State  merely?  Whose 
eye,  once  fastened  upon  its  radiant  trophies,  can  fail  to  recognize  the  image  of  the  whole  nation  ? 
It  has  been  called  '  a  floating  piece  of  poetry; '  and  yet  I  know  not  if  it  have  any  intrinsic  beauty 
beyond  other  ensigns.  Its  highest  beauty  is  in  what  it  symbolizes.  It  is  because  it  represents  all, 
that  all  gaze  at  it  with  delight  and  reverence.  It  is  a  piece  of  bunting  lifted  in  the  air  ;  but  it 
8i)caks  sublimely,  and  every  part  has  a  voice.  Its  stripes  of  alternate  red  and  white  proclaim  the 
original  union  of  thirteen  States  to  maintain  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Its  stars,  white  on 
a  field  of  blue,  proclaim  that  union  of  States  constituting  our  national  constellation  which  receives 
a  new  star  with  every  new  Slate.  The  two  together  signify  union,  past  and  present.  The  very 
colors  have  a  language  which  was  officially  recognized  by  our  fathers.  White  is  for  purity  ;  red, 
for  valor  ;  blue,  for  justice;  and  all  together  — bunting,  stripes,  stars,  and  colors,  blazing  in  the 
Blfy  —  make  the  flag  of  our  country,  to  be  cherished  by  all  our  hearts,  to  be  upheld  by  all  our 
bands."  —  Cuarles  Sumnkr. 

"  I  have  seen  the  glories  of  art  and  architecture,  and  mountain  and  river;  I  have  seen  the  sunset 
on  Jungfrau,  and  the  full  moon  rise  over  Mont  Blanc;  but  the  fairest  vision  on  which  these  eyes 
ever  lookeil  was  the  flag  of  my  country  in  a  foreign  laud.  Beautiful  as  a  flower  to  those  who  love 
it,  terrible  as  a  meteor  to  those  who  hate,  it  is  the  symbol  of  the  power  and  glory,  and  the  honor  of 
fifty  millions  of  Americans."  —  Gi;orge  I'.  Hoar.    l!>T8. 

'•  Uji  many  a  fortress  wall 

They  charged,  those  boys  in  blue; 
'Mid  surging  smoke  and  volleyed  ball, 
The  bravest  were  the  flrst  to  fall, — 

To  fall  for  me  and  you! 
Our  brothers  mustered  by  our  side. 
They  marched  and  fought  and  nobly  died 

l'"or  me  and  you ! 
Good  friend,  for  me  and  you." 


PREFACE  TO  THE  SECOND   EDITION. 


In  preparing  this  book  in  its  permanent  form,  the  errors 
of  the  press  and  of  fact  inseparable  from  the  first  issue  of 
so  novel  and  comprehensive  a  work  have  been  corrected, 
much  new  matter  has  been  added,  and  some  of  the  original 
text  discarded,  in  order  to  keep  the  book  within  reason- 
able limits,  while  the  general  plan  and  arrangement  is  the 
same.  The  colored  plates  also  have  been  rearranged  and 
changed,  and  the  wood  engravings  largely  increased,  while 
the  maps  and  autographies  of  national  songs  and  docu- 
ments are  a  new  and  distinct  feature. 

The  aim  of  the  book  is  to  perpetuate  and  intensify  a  love 
for  our  Union,  through  the  flag  which  symbolizes  it.  The 
story  of  Our  flag  and  of  the  Southern  flags  in  the  Civil  War 
show  graphically  the  madness  of  the  time,  and  w^ill,  it  is 
hoped,  serve  to  render  the  crime  of  secession  hideous,  and 
afford  a  moral  aid  towards  preventing  a  recurrence  of  such 
fratricide  against  the  life  of  the  nation. 

To  my  sensitive  Southern  friends  who  have  objected  to 
being  called  '  traitors '  and  '  rebels '  I  would  say,  those  words 
are  not  intended  in  an  offensive  sense  ;  and  I  respectfully 
refer  them  to  General  Jackson's  opinion   of  nullification. 


Viii  I'HKKACi:. 

iuhKt  liis  own  liaml,  on  pai:*'  ■l-')!.  and  to  the  ^rni-ial 
dic-tionarv  di'linitioii  :  —  Thaiiok.  ••  One  wlio  \iolatt's  liis 
alk'i^iant'o ;  "  "  ouo  wlio  takes  amis  and  levies  war  a<^uinst 
his  countrv,"  &c.  Rebel.  "  One  wlio  defies  and  seeks  to 
overthrow  tlie  aiitliority  to  which  he  is  ri<i;litfully  subject." 
]  tliink,  under  these  delinitions.  they  must  plead  guilty 
to  both  counts.  They  were  'hail  hoys,'  who  barred  them- 
selves out,  l)ut.  having  returned  to  their  allegiance,  all  that 
is  forgiven  ;  and,  having  learned  by  experience,  it  is  hoped 
they  will  never  again  raise  a  hand  to  subvert  the  majesty 
and  authority  of  the  Union. 

Although  we  are  comparatively  a  new  nation,  our  Stars 
and  Stripes  may  to-day  claim  antiquity  among  national 
flags.  Tliey  are  older  than  the  present  flag  of  Great  Britain, 
establi.shed  in  1801 ;  than  the  present  flag  of  Spain,  estab- 
lished in  1785;  than  the  French  tricolor,  decreed  in  1794; 
than  the  existing  flag  of  Portugal,  established  in  1830  ;  than 
the  flag  of  the  Empire  of  Germany,  which  represents  the 
sovereignty  of  fourteen  distinct  flags  and  States,  established 
in  1870;  than  the  Italian  tricolor,  established  in  1848;  the 
Swedish  Norwegian  ensign ;  the  recent  flags  of  the  old 
empires  of  China  and  Japan  ;  or  the  flags  of  all  the  South 
American  States,  which  have  very  generally  been  modelled 
from  •  Our  Flag.' 

1  wish  to  return  my  acknowledgments  to  many  old 
friends  for  their  continued  interest  in  my  w^ork,  who 
have  given  me  much  valuable  aid  and  information ;  and 
I  would  also  thank  the  Hon.  A.  R.  Spofford,  Librarian 
of  Congress,  H.  A.  Homes,  LL.D.,  Librarian  of  the  New 
York  State  Library,  Hon.  William  A.  Courtenay,  Mayor  of 
Charleston,  S.  C,  Hon.  Joiix  F.  H.  Claiborne,  of  Natchez, 
ex-Governor   of  Mississippi,   Colonel  J.  P.  Nicholson,  of 


PREFACE.  ix 

•Philadelphia,  Miss  D.  L.  Dix,  of  Washington,  D.  C,  and 
the  autliors  of  our  songs  who  have  furnished  autograph 
copies  of  them,  with  many  others  too  numerous  to  name 
here,  but  whose  favors  have  been  credited  elsewhere  in  the 
text. 

Cottage  Farm,  Bbookline,  Mass. 

July  4,  1880. 


PREFACE   TO   THE   THIRD   EDITION. 

The  text  of  this  edition  is  the  same  as  that  of  the 
second,  except  that  a  few  verbal  and  typographical  errors 
have  been  corrected,  and  several  pages  of  notes  added, 
bringing  the  matter  up  to  date. 

November  15,  1881. 


PREFACE   TO   THE   FIRST  EDITION. 


Proudhon,  the  French  sociahst,  had  a  peculiar  manner  of 
proceeding  in  the  composition  of  a  work. 

''  When  an  idea  struck  him,  he  would  write  it  out  at 
length,  generally  in  the  shape  of  a  newspaper  article ;  then 
he  would  put  it  in  an  envelope,  and  whenever  a  new  idea 
occurred  to  him,  or  he  obtained  additional  information,  he 
would  write  it  on  a  piece  of  paper,  and  add  it  to  the  enve- 
lope. When  a  sufficient  quantity  of  material  was  assembled, 
he  would  write  an  article  for  some  review  or  magazine. 
This  article  he  would  place  in  a  larger  envelope,  and  add 
thoughts  and  information  until,  at  last,  the  article  became 
a  book ;  and  the  day  after  the  publication  of  his  book^  he 
would  place  it  in  a  pasteboard  box,  and  add  thoughts 
and  additional  information  as  he  came  into  possession  of 
them." 

Very  much  in  the  same  way  have  these  memoirs  grown 
to  the  size  of  this  volume.  More  than  twenty  years  since, 
their  compiler  became  interested  in  tracing  out  the  first 
display  of  Our  Flag  on  foreign  seas,  and  the  notes  he  then 
gathered  resulted  in  the  preparation  of  an  article  enti- 
tled "The  First  Appearance  of  the  Flag  of  the  Free," 
which  was  published  in  the  "  Portland  Daily  Advertiser,"  in 
1853,  and  thence  extensively  copied  into  other  journals. 
Around  that  article  from  time  to  time  became   concreted 


Xii  IMJl-FACK. 

nuiiiorous  addiiiuiml  lacts,  Nvliidi  were  cmljorliod  in  anollier 
and  l<>nj::er  nt'\vsj)a|)i'r  article  on  tiie  same  topic,  lli.s  in- 
terest in  the  snhject  iciew  with  tlie  increase  of  knowledf^e  ; 
new  facts  were  accumulated  and  songlit  for,  wherever  to  ])e 
ohtaine(l.  'I'hc  War  of  the  Rehellion  added  a  fresh  impulse 
to  iiis  in(|uiries,  ami  new  and  interesting^  incidents.  The 
result  is  the  present  volume,  wliicli.  il"  not  rendered  inter- 
esting" hy  the  graces  of  a  practised  authorship,  can  claim 
to   be   a    faithful   record   of  facts. 

Following  the  idea  of  Proudhon,  the  writer  will  be  glad 
to  receive  from  his  readers  any  facts,  incidents,  or  correc- 
tions, that  will  enable  him  to  complete  his  memorial  of  our 
grand  old  Hag,  and  help  perpetuate  it  as  the  chosen  em- 
blem of  Liberty  and  Union. 

Collected  for  his  own  amusement  and  instruction,  in 
committing  these  memoirs  to  the  public  the  compiler  hopes 
thev  may  interest  and  amuse  others  as  much  as  the  col- 
lecting of  them  has  himself  If  thej^  revive  and  preserve, 
in  the  least  degree,  a  patriotic  sentiment  for  our  starry 
banner,  his  ambition  will  be  accomplished,  his  end  attained. 

More  than  a  thousand  volumes  have  been  examined  in 
their  preparation,  and  an  extensive  correspondence  has 
been  a  necessity.  I  may  say,  therefore,  to  my  readers,  con- 
sidering the  score  of  years  I  have  spent  in  the  pursuit,  as 
Montesquieu  remarked  to  a  friend  concerning  a  particular 
part  of  his  writings,  '•  You  will  read  it  in  a  few  hours,  but 
I  assure  you  it  has  cost  me  so  much  labor  that  it  has 
■whitened  my  hair." 

I  would  express  my  obligations  to  Messrs.  William  J. 
Caxby,  William  D.  Gemmill,  and  Charles  J.  Lukens 
of  Philadelphia,  and  Messrs.  B.  J.  LossiXG  and  Chakles 
J.  Busuxell  of  New  York,  for  valuable  suggestions  and 


PREFACE.  xiii 

facts,  and  particularly  to  Mr.  John  A.  McAllister,  who  has 
been  unwearied  in  searching  for  and  completing  evidences 
of  facts  otherwise  beyond  my  reach.  Other  friends,  too 
numerous  to  mention,  who  have  given  me  their  assistance, 
will  please  accept  my  silent  acknowledgments. 

In  1864,  the  manuscript  of  this  book,  in  its  then  incom- 
plete state,  was  forwarded  from  Lisbon,  Portugal,  to  the 
managers  of  the  National  Sailors'  Fair  at  Boston,  as  a  con- 
tribution to  that  charity,  which  resulted  in  the  establishment 
of  the  National  Sailors'  Home  at  Quincy,  Mass.  It  arrived, 
however,  too  late  to  be  printed  for  its  benefit. 

Naval  Rendezvous,  Navy  Yard, 

Chaklestown.   Mass. 

September  10,  1872. 


CONTENTS. 


PART  I. 

PAGE 


The  Standards,  Flags,  Banners,  and  Symbols  of  Ancient  and  Modern 

Nations 1 


PART  II. 

A.D.  860-1777. 

1.  The  Early  Discoveries  of  America,  and  the  First  Banner  planted  on  its 
Shores,  a.d.  860-1634;  2.  Colonial  and  Provincial  Flags,  1634-1766; 
3.  Flags  of  the  Pre-Revolutionary  and  Revolutionary  Periods  preceding 
the  Stars  and  Stripes,  1766-1777.  4.  The  Grand  Union  or  Continental 
Flag  of  the  United  Colonies 157 

PART  III. 

The  Stars  and  Stripes,  1777-1818. 

1.  Theories  as  to  the  Origin  of  the  Stars  and  Stripes,  as  the  Devices  of  our 
National  Banner ;  2.  The  Flag  of  Thirteen  Stars  and  Stripes  during  the 
Revolution,  1777-1783;  3.  The  Flag  of  Thirteen  Stars  and  Thirteen  Stripes, 
1783-1795 ;  4.  The  Flag  of  Fifteen  Stars  and  Fifteen  Stripes,  1795-1818        .     249 

PART   IV. 

The  Stars  and  Stripes,  1818-1861. 

1.  The  Flag  of  Thirteen  Stripes  and  a  Star  for  each  State  of  the  Union,  1818- 

1861 ;  2.  Chronicles  of  the  Flag,  1818-1861     .......     387 

PART   V. 

The  Stars  and  Stripes,  1861-1865.     Our  Flag  in  the  Great  Rebellion. 

1.  The  Beginning  of  the  War  against  our  Flag  and  the  Union ;  2.  Our  Flag  at 
Fort  Sumter  ;  3.  Loyal  Flag  Raisings  ;  4.  Our  Flag  in  Secessia ; 
5.  Southern  Flags,  1861-1865 303 


XVI  CONTKN'IS. 

I'Aur  VI. 

The  Stars  and  Stripes.  1865-1880. 

PAGE 

1.  Till-  Knd  of  tlio  War  aji.iinst  tlic  riiion  and  the  Flap;  2.  Tlic  Kcluni  of  the 
Battletlnns  of  thr  Volunteer  Kepinients  to  tlieir  States;  :i  The  Disposition 
of  tlic  Trophy-llags  of  liie  War;  4.  Anecdotes  and  Incidents  illustrating 
the  History  of  our  Flag,  1805-1880;  6.  State  Seals,  Arms,  Flags,  and  Colors     535 


I'AKT    Vll. 

Miscellaneous. 

The  Distinguishing  Flags  and  Signals  of  the  United  States  Navy,  1770- 
1880;  2.  The  Distinguishinc  Flags  of  the  United  States  Army,  1880; 
3.  The  Seal  and  Arms  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Seals  of  the  De- 
partments, 1782-1880  ;  4.  American  Yacht  Clubs  and  Flags,  1880 ; 
6.  Our  National  and  Patriotic  Songs 659 


INDEX 769 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 


COLORED  PLATES. 

Page 
I.     United  States  National,  Revenue,  and  Yacht  Club  Ensigns  and 

Pennants,  1880 Face  Title 

II.     The  Flags  of  all  Nations,  1880 1 

ni.     The  Flags  of  United  Germany 101 

IV.     The  New  England  Colors,  1686,  1704,  and  1734;  and  the  Flag  of 

the  "  Royal  Savage,"  1775 .  157 

V.     Flags  of  1775-1777 193 

VI.     Southern  Flags,  1861-1864 393 

VII.     Returning  the  Flags  of  the  Pennsylvania  Volunteer  Regiments 

to  Independence  HaU,  Philadelphia,  1865 533 

VIIL     Distinctive  Flags  of  the  United  States  Navy,  1776-1880  ....  657 

IX.     Signal  Flags,  Pennants,  &c.,  United  States  Navy,  1880  ....  677 

X.     American  Yacht  Club  Flags,  1880 701 


Portrait  of  Elk  an  ah  Watson,  engraved  on  steel,  from  a  paint- 
ing by  Copley,  and  showing  the  first  Stars  and  Stripes  raised  in 
England,  1783 296 


WOOD   ILLUSTRATIONS. 


No. 

1.  Pulaski's  Banner 

2.  Flag  of  Washington's  Life  Guard    . 

3.  Simon  de  Montfort's  Banner    .     .     . 

4.  Cromwell's  Bannerol 

5.  Cromwell's  Funeral  Ensigns,  &c. 

6.  The  Pennon 

7.  Daubernoun's  Pennon,  1277     .     .     . 

8.  The  Pavon 

9.  Ensigns  from  the  Bayeux  Tapestry  . 

10.  The  Gonfanon 

11.  An  Ancient  Ship 

12.  French  Vessel  of  War,  16th  Centurj' 

13.  Ship  of  Henrv  VI.'s  Time,  1430-61   . 

14.  The  Mora,  1066 

15.  Siiip  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  1437   . 

16.  The  Harry  Grace  de  Dieu,  1515    .    . 

17.  English  Ship  of  War,  1520 .... 

18.  The  Sovereign  of  the  Seas,  1637  .     . 

19.  A  Knight  of  Malta 

20.  Hospitaller's  Standard 

21.  A  Knight  Templar 

22.  A  Templar  in  a  Travelling  Dress 

23.  A  Knights  Templar  Standard  .     .     . 

24.  The  Beauceant 

25.  Isis 

26.  Egyptian  Standards 

27.  Standards  of  Pharaoh 

28.  Egyptian  Standards,  from  Wilkinson 

29.  The  Horse  and  the  Grasshopper  .     . 

30.  Death's-head  and  Crescent  .... 

31.  Standards  and   Devices  of   the   He- 

brews     

32.  Two  Assyrian  Standards     .... 

33.  The  Device  of  Romulus 

34.  Roman  Standards 

35.  A  Bronze  Horse,  Roman  Standard   . 

36.  Group   of  Eleven   Roman    Imperial 

Standards 

37.  The  Lal^arum  of  Constantine    .     .     . 

38.  The  Hand 

39.  The  Doseh 

40.  The  Crescent  and  Cross  united,  1876 

41.  Tien  Huang  and  the  Dragon     .     .     . 

42.  Okl  Imperial  Standard  of  .Japan  .     . 

43.  Imperial  Arms  of  .Japan,  1880  .     .     . 

44.  The  Banner  of  Cortez 

45.  A  Spanish  Standard,  1558  .... 

46.  Banner  of  Balboa 

47.  The  Roval  Standard  of  Russia     .     . 

48.  Russian  Flag,  1386 

49.  Old  East  India  Flag  of  Portugal .     . 

50.  Banner  of  Charlemagne 

51.  Three  Banners  of  St.  Denis      .     .     . 

52.  The  Oritlamme 

53.  The  Bourbon  Standard 

54.  A  French  Eagle 

55.  Head  of  a  French  Standard,  1878     . 

56.  The  Royal  Arms  of  England,  1066- 

1880 

57.  The  Arms  of  London,  ad.  44      .     . 


9 

10 
15 
17 
17 
18 
19 
19 
21 
22 
24 
26 
27 
28 
29 
31 
32 
34 
43 
44 
46 
47 
47 
48 
48 
49 
50 
50 
51 
52 

53 
54 
55 
56 
57 

58 
59 
60 
62 
66 
72 
78 
78 
82 


90 
95 

96 
99 
104 
105 
105 
107 
117 
117 


118 
119 


No.  Page 

58.  The  Three    Saxes   or   Swords  of 

Essex,  .530 121 

59.  Eleanor  of  Guyenne 126 

60.  Margaret,  Daughter  of  Henry  III., 

1252 .     :  127 

61.  Standard  of  Edward  III.,  1337  .     .  128 

62.  The  Crest  of  the  Black  Prince .     .  1.30 

63.  Standard  of  Henry  IV 131 

64.  Standard  of  Edward  IV 133 

65.  Two  Standards  of  Henry  VIII.      .  136 

66.  Standard  of  Henrv  VIlL,  1544      .  1.36 

67.  Standard  of  the  Douglas,  1382       .  141 

68.  Arms  of  Henry  V.  of  England  .     .  143 

69.  The  Formation  of  the  Union  Flag  of 

Great  Britain 149 

70.  A  Union  Device  of  1800  ....  1.50 

71.  The  Shields  of  St.  George,  St.  An- 

drew, and  St.  Patrick  ....  151 

72.  Nelson's  Signal  at  Trafalgar    .     .  155 

73.  A  Northman  Vessel,  860-1014  .     .  159 

74.  Standard  of  Spain,  1492  ....  168 

75.  The  Caravel  of  Columbus     .     .    .  169 

76.  Banner  of  Columbus 169 

77.  Ptaleigh's  Ship.  1.585 174 

78.  Formation  of  the  Union  Colors  of 

1606 176 

79.  The  Long  Parliament  Flag,  1648  .  177 

80.  Standard    of    tiie    Three    County 

Troop,  1659 ^  182 

81.  Colors   of  Captain   Xoyes's  Com- 

pany, 1684 183 

82.  The  King's  Colors  at  New  York,  1679  184 

83.  St.  Georsre's  Cross,  1679  .     ...  185 

84.  Colonial  Merchant  Flag,  1701    .     .  186 

85.  Six  Flags  from  the   "Dominion of 

the  Sea,"  1705 188 

86.  Pavilion  de  la  Nouvelle  Angleterre 

en  Ameri(|ue,  1737 189 

87.  Bas-relief  c,f  Boston  Liberty  Tree  .  194 

88.  Colonial  Seal  of  New  Netherland  .  197 

89.  Bunker's  Hill  Flag 199 

90.  Boston  North  Battery,  &c.,  show- 

ing Flags  of  1775  " 200 

91.  The  Pine  Tree  Flag.  1776      ...  201 

92.  American  Floating  Battery,  1775  .  202 

93.  Flag  of    the   Pennsylvania  West- 

moreland County"  Brigade,  1775  205 

94.  The  Cowpens  and  Eutaw  Flag  .     .  207 

95.  Rattlesnake  Device 214 

96.  Flag  of  the  Roval  Savatfo.  1776      .  219 

97.  Flag  destroyed  at  Cheapside,  1644  .  220 

98.  East  India ('ompanv'sEnsiiin,  1704  221 

99.  East  India  Company's  Ensign,  18.34  221 

100.  Commodore  Hopkins,  &e.,  1776     .  222 

101.  Formation  of  the  Grand  Union  Flag 

of  1776 223 

102.  Flag  of  the  Dutch  West  India  Com- 

pany    224 

103.  Fac-simile  of  Washington's  Book- 

plate    225 


XX 


WUUlJ    ILIA.VIKATIUN.V 


N...  Taob 

104.  Amorican    V\t\n  at  While   Ploinit, 

ITTtl 240 

105.  Tlif  Slaw  aiul  .SiriiH-N   1777-1880, 

mill  till'  i>ri>iM.«.<l  Stniuliinl  .  .  248 
lOG.  Staiitiiird  of   liio  riiiIa(U'l|>liiii  Citv 

Tr.M)|..  1775 252 

107.  Tlif  \h-\kv 25:{ 

KW.  Thr  I'lirv^'ian  Cap 254 

l«r.t.  A  liiioirDfvi..-.  I77ii 264 

110.  lloiiM' wluTi' Kir>I  .Star>  niid  .Strii>es 

art'  sail!  to  have  Ih-oii  mailo    .     .  205 

111.  Dia^niin  of  a  I'liioii 272 

112.  Old  SwciU's'  Chunh.  rhila<l(lpliia  .  237 

113.  A  l-'Ia^of  the  Bon  Iloinnie  Kii-lianl, 

177!i 282 

114.  Silk  Klagdisjilaj-ed  at  New  Maveii, 

17H.1 288 

115.  Tlic  Hark  Maria,  18.W 200 

116.  A  Medal,  l)i>eov.'iv  of  the  Colum- 

bia i:iver.  1787  ■ 302 

117.  Stoniii^rtnii  lla;r,  1814 327 

118.  Fla>,'of  the  Knlcri.risc,  1813.     .     .  327 

119.  I'ortrait  of  Sainl.  ('.  Keid      .     .     .  33'J 

120.  Desifjn    for  a  National   Standard, 

1818 343 

121.  Fac-simile  of  an  Enjrravini;of  1785  340 

122.  Diaj^rani  of  Stars  in  a  Union,  17!(5  347 

123.  Two  iJia.urains  of  tlie    Unions  of 

Navy  Fiafjs.  1818 349 

124.  Joel  K.  Poinsett  and  our  Flag  in 

Mexico,  1825 352 

125.  "  The  Warders  r>f  the  Antarctic  "  357 
1^6.  The  Schooner  FIviiig  Fish  beset     .  3.59 

127.  The  Antarctic  Contiiient  ....  364 

128.  Arctic  Expedition  Flag,  1801      .     .  387 

129.  Prof.  S.  F.  B.  Morse's  Suirgestion  .  403 

130.  State  Mouse  Montgonierv,'Ala.,  1861    406 

131.  Fort  Sumter,  S.C.,180()   ....  417 

132.  Raising  the  Flag  at  Sumter,  Dec. 

26.  1860 420 

1.33.  Steamer  Star  of  the  West,  1861     .  425 

134.  Nailing  the  Flag  to  the  Staff    .     .  440 

135.  Ke|)ossession  of  Fort  Sumter,  April 

14,  1865 4.52 

1.36.  Portrait  of  Barbara  Frietdiie     .     .  482 

137.  Barbara  Frietdiie's  House     .     .     .  483 

1.38.  Street  Flag-stalT,  Charleston,  S.  C.  495 

139.  Banner  of  the  South  Carolina  Con- 

vention    496 

140.  Banner  of  South  Carolina.  1861     .  408 

141.  The  Pelican  Flag.  I^ouisiana       .     .  498 

142.  The  Confederate  States  Seal  .     .     .  .525 

143.  F'iremen  Saluting  the  Flag,  1867    .  590 

144.  Stanley  meeting  Livingstone      .     .  597 

145.  Pennsylvania    Battle-Hags  in  Pro- 

cession, .lune  17,  1879  ....  601 

146.  Anns  of  Maine 606 

147.  Arms  of  New  Hampshire  ....  006 

148.  .Seal  of  Vennont 008 

149.  Arms  of  Massachusetts      ....  609 
1.50.           „      Rhode  I>Iand      ....  Oil 

151.  „      Connecticut 012 

152.  „      New  York '.  014 

153.  „      New  Jersey 617 


No. 

154. 

1.55. 

1.50. 

157. 

158. 

1.59. 

160. 

101. 

102. 

103. 

104. 

105. 

106. 

107. 

108. 

109. 

170. 

171. 

172. 

173. 

174. 

17.5. 

170. 

177. 

178. 

179. 
180. 
181. 
1.S2. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
180. 
187. 

188. 

189. 

190, 
191. 


192. 
193. 
194. 
195. 
196. 
197. 

198. 
199. 
200. 
201. 
202. 
203. 
204. 


205. 
206. 


Paci 

Arms  of  Pennsylvania      ....     018 

,,       I  tela  ware 021 

,,      Maryland 622 

,,      Virginia 023 

„      West  Virginia     ....     025 

,.      North  Carolina  ....     626 

South  Carolina   ....     628 

,,       Louisiana 634 

,,      Texas 635 

,,      Arkansa.s 037 

,,      Tennessee  .  .     (538 

„      Kentucky  .  .     638 

„      Ohio.     ."    .  .     040 

,,      Michigan    .  )i42 

,,       Mi«souri    .  •i45 

„      Iowa (i46 

,,      Wisconsin 047 

,,      Minnesota 048 

,,      California 048 

,,      Kansas 0.50 

,,      Nebraska 051 

,,      Colorado 0.52 

Seal  of  Utah 6.53 

Seal  of  New  Mexico 053 

F'lag  of  the  Naval  Commander-in- 
Chief,  1770 

Dav  Siirnals  U.  S.  Navv,  180-3-4   . 

Night  Signals  U.  S.  Navy,  1803-4 

Day  Signals  U.  S.  Navy,  1812-14 

Perr\''s  Battle  Flag      .".... 

Day"Signals  U.  S.  Navy,  1858-65. 

Anny  Signals,  1862 

United  States  Seal  commonly  used 

l)u  Simitiere's  Design  for  U.  S.  Seal 

Jefferson's  Design,  1776,  obverse 
and  reverse 

Design  submitted  1779,  obverse  and 
reverse 

Design  submitted  1880,  obverse  and 
reverse 

Barton's  Design.  1782 

The  (Jn-at  Seal  of  the  I'nited  States, 
adopted  June  20,  1782,  obverse 
and  reverse 

The  President's  Seal     .... 

Franklin's  I'ost-Hider  .... 

Naval  Seal,  1779 

Navv  Department  Seal,  1879 

War"  Department  Seal,  1778-1880 

Treasury  Department  Seal,  1778- 
1880" 

State  Department  Seal  .     .     . 

Department  ot'tlie  Interior  Seal 

Dejiartnient  of  Justice  Seal    . 

( 'imnnodore's  ( 'hallenge  Cup  . 

The  America's  Cup   .... 

Yacht  Henrietta 

The  Author  of  'Hail  Columbia,' 
with  the  House  in  which  it  was 
Written,  and  the  Theatre  in 
which  it  was  first  Sung      .     .     . 

The  Original  '  Star-Spangled  Ban- 
ner'   

Bombardment  of  Fort  McHenry    . 


659 
660 
601 
663 
663 
666 
667 
683 
683 

684 

686 

687 
687 


691 
697 
0!t7 
098 
698 
098 


699 
099 
099 
699 
701 
709 
711 


ri4 


721 
724 


HEPv.iLDIC  COLORS  OF  THE  ENGRAVINGS  OF  FLAGS. 


Red.  Perpendicular  lines. 

Blue.  Horizontal  lines. 

Black.  Vertical  crossi-d  by  horizontal  lines. 

Green.  Diagonal  lines  froin  left  to  right. 


Purnle.     Diagonal  lines  from  right  to  left. 
Yellow.     Black  dots  on  white. 
White.      A  plain  white  field. 


MAPS  AXD  AUTOGRAPHIES. 


XXI 


MAPS. 


No.  Page 

1.  Map  of  Vineland 163 

2.  Map  of  North  America,  1500     ...    172 
3    Reinel's  Map  of  Nova  Scotia,   &c., 

1504 172 


No.  Page 

4.  Map  of  the  Antarctic  Continent    .     .     363 

5.  Map  showing  the  Progress  of  our  Flag 

towards  the  North  Pole   ....     389 

6.  Map  of  Charleston  Harbor  ....    418 


AUTOGRAPHIES. 


No.  Page 

1.  Bills  of  the  Philadelphia  City  Troop 

Standard,  September,  1775  .     .     .     257 

2.  Letter  of  James  Mevler 281 

3.  H.  W.  Longfellow,'  'The  Stars  and 

Stripes  Everywhere ' 290 

4.  Signature  of  Saml.  C.  Reid.     .     .     .     339 

5.  Signatureof  Joel  R.  Poinsett    .     .     .     352 

6.  Andrew    Jackson    on    Nulbtication, 

1833 354 

7.  John    A.   Dix's  '  Shoot  him  on  the 

Spot '  Order,  Jan.  21,  1861    ...     399 

8.  John  G.  Whittier,  a  Verse  of  Barbara 

Frietchie 485 

9.  H.    W.    Longfellow,    '  The    Ship  of 

State' 542 


No.  Page 

10.  Jos.  Hopkinson,  Signature .     .     .     .     ri4 

11.  Jos.  Hopkinson,  '  Hail  Columbia,'  717, 718 

12.  F.     S.    Key,    'The    Star-Spangled 

Banner ' 720 

13.  O.  W.  Holmes,  Additional  Verse  to 

'  The  Star-Spangled  Banner '  .     .730 

14.  Samuel  Francis  Smith, '  America '  742,  743 

15.  Francis  de  Haes  Janvier,  '  God  Save 

our  President ' 744-746 

16.  Thomas   a  Becket,    '  Columbia  the 

Gem  of  the  Ocean '   .     .     .     .  756,  757 

17.  Francis  Miles  Finch,  '  The  Blue  and 

the  Gray ' 759,  760 

18.  Julia  Ward  Howe,  'Battle-Hymn  of 

the  Republic ' 767,  768 


■PLU 


FLAGS  OF  FOREIGN  NATIONS.  18  80 


GREAT    BRITAIN 


ROnU.    ST«MDAIIO 


Lonij  KibK  >DMm*L 


^IL^ 


EUROPEAN  STATES 


GERMANY 

I  OF  WM  I        MLCRCHANT  ]|  FRANCt 

2< 


MAN  or  WAR  I  MERCHANT 

NORWAr 


■AM  or  WAR 


MERCHANT 


MAN  or  WAR 


r 

I     MA 


DENMARK 


r 


MAN  OF  WAR 


AMERICAN  STATES. 


ADMIRAL    SRAZI. 


s« 


US.OFCOUJMeh 


VCWt^UILA 


o 


I 

a 

1        WPUUU. 


ORIENTAL   NATIONS 


WPUUU. 

PACIFIC       ISLAND 


ffl 


jAOHIRAUMAUa 


'^ 


USTOM  HOUU 


f 


SAN  SALVADOK 


w 

auArtk 

1ALA 

1^ 

PARAOUAV  ADMIRAL 


^i' 


AFRI CA. 


ORANGE  FREE  STATE 


TfioseS/offxnmj^ed *  arrmart  o/'u-wJ^iifs, MenJtanl/nen  fim-e same  tvtOiOuilhe arms ordmcf,eirF/ot  Sim Sajiti/ior,  n'/tit/i  /las  rime 

ii-hi/f  stars  m  i7.s  Fnwn  . 


PART   I. 

♦ — 

THE  SYMBOLS,  STANDARDS,  FLAGS,  AND  BANNERS 
OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


"  Ct  is  in  anti  tijrougf)  sgmbols  tfjnt  man  consciouslg  or  unrongriouslj 
Ktirs,  mofars,  nnti  ijns  Ijis  bring.  iEl)osr  ages,  morcobcr,  arc  arronntrt) 
ti)c  noblest  faoljiclj  ran  best  rccognnc  sumfaoUcal  tnortij  anli  prijc  it  at  tijc 

^'5^^'^^'"  Carlyle. 

"  ©ut  of  monumrnts,  names,  iuortics,  profacrbrs,  prifaatc  rccortics  anli  cbi= 
iJcncES,  fragments  of  stories,  passages  of  books,  anlj  ttje  like,  toe  toe  safae 
anlJ  recober  somebafjat  from  tlje  tieluge  of  time."  Bacon 

"  iBang  tfjings  eontainet)  in  tljis  book  arc  no  ot|)er  f^an  eollections  of 
ot()er  autt)ors,  antj  mo  labor  is  no  more  tf)ercin  tfjan  tfieirs  bof)0  gather  a 
barieto  of  flotoers  out  of  sefaeral  garbens  to  compose  one  sigf)tlg  garlanb." 

Sir  AVm.  Moxson. 

"  ©reat  room  t!)cre  is  for  amcntiments,  as  bell  as  atitiitions.  lEitfjer  of 
tljrsr,  in  bol^at  bress  socbcr  tl[)eg  come,  rougfj  or  smootf),  liiill  be  Ijeartilg  toeU 
come." 


A    HISTORY 


FLAG  or  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA, 

WITH  A  CHRONICLE  OF  THE  SYiiPGJ.£^    STANDARDS,    FLAGS, 
AND   BANNERS  OF  ANCIEN'T/:&NP\%0D£RN  'ivli^TIONS. 


Symbols  and  colors  enabling  nations  to  distinguish  themselvfes  from 
each  other  have  from  the  most' re-m'ote  periods  exercised  a"powerfid 
influence  upon  mankind.  It  isaf^-et  well  established  both  by  sacred 
and  profane  history  that  a  standard  or -ensign  vrai  borhe  in  the  armies 
of  all  nations  from  the  most  distarlt  eh.  A  coiored  Banner  was  one 
of  the  earliest,  as  it  was  the  simplest,  of  military  e'Qsigns.  As  tribes 
and  nations  multiplied,  these  banners  naturally  became  particolored 
by  stripes  and  other  linear  divisions,  and  finally  emblazoned  with  the 
devices  of  the  several  chieftains.  Thus  these  symbols,  which  during 
peaceful  times  were  but  trivial  ornaments,  became  in  political  or  re- 
ligious disturbances  a  lever  like  that  of  Archimedes,  and  convulsed 
the  world. 

Before  commencing  the  memoir  of  the  flag  which  this  volume  com- 
memorates, I  propose  to  notice  some  of  the  symbols,  standards,  and 
banners  of  other  nations.  History,  in  general,  has  failed  to  appreciate 
the  value  of  these  symbols,  which  have  given  ascendancy  to  party, 
and  led  armies  to  victory  with  more  certainty  and  despatch  than  all 
the  combinations  of  tactics  and  the  most  disinterested  valor. 

We  talk  of  the  eagles  of  the  Eomans,  of  the  contest  between  the 
crescent  and  the  cross,  and  of  the  wars  of  the  white  and  red  roses ;  of 
the  meteor  flag  of  England,  and  of  the  cross  of  St.  George  ;  of  the 
white  plume  and  banner  of  Henry  IV.,  and  the  lilies  and  tricolor  of 
France ;  and  of  our  own  starry  banner,  which,  said  Edward  Everett 
(May  27,  1861),  "speaks  for  itself     Its  mute  eloquence  needs  no 


4  THE    SVMUoLS,    SIWN 1  )Ai;i  )S.    AND    P.ANNKKS 

aid  It)  iMU'r]iivi  iis  si^iniicuiiLi'.  IkU'IiI}  lo  Lliu  L  uioii  lilazes  I'rom 
its  stars,  alk-giauce  tu  the  yovuiiiiiieiit  beueath  wliicli  we  live  is 
wraiijjed  iu  its  folds." 

Tlie  tassels  which  are  customarily  pendent  Ironi  the  up])er  ])art  of 
niililarv  liauners  and  standards,  and  the  fringes  whicli  surnnind  tiieni, 
have  their  origin  in  sacred  emblems,  which,  passing  from  gentile, 
mosaic,  pagan,  and  Christian  banners  and  sacerdotal  garments,  have 
finally  crei)t  upon  profane  standards  and  dresses.  The  high-priests 
of  Brahma,  Baal,  Osiris,  Mithras,  Jehovah,  the  priestesses  of  Vesta, 
Isis,  Lucinia,  Ceres,  and  Diana,  were  adorned  with  tassels,  fringes, 
ribbons,  and  colors  consecrated  to  their  respective  worships.  When 
Moses  had  abj,ure(jl' tlie  godsof  Egypt,  his  native  country,  to  follow 
the  Jehovah^^  of  ,Hidian,  :b§  .wrpte^  a  ritual,  bidding  pomegranates  of 
blue,  of  pjn'p'li?,  o-iid  of  soarl?v,'  alternating  with  golden  bells,  to  be 
placed  abdut  the  hem  of  the  blue  robe  of  Aaron,  to  minister  in  the 
priest's  office  (Exodus  xxviii.  31-35).  The  pomegranates  were  some- 
times figured  by  tassels.  The  Mosaic  la^\•  bade  the  Israelites  to  border 
their  gailuents  with  fringes  and  blue  ribands,  as  being,  in  their  eyes,  a 
remembl;^'jice* .against  lusting  (NuFjfcrs  xv.  38,  39).  Thus  early  was 
blue  the  eiableni  of  purity  and  innocence.  The  Pojies  having  wedded 
the  Jewish  aM,  ijeutlren  rites  yith  the  Christian  worship,  the  Christian 
prelates  adopted  ,ttie,''pagan  garments  with  tassels.  Hence  the  warlike 
priests  of  Christ,' on- their  ]»etiirn  from  the  crusades,  having  assumed  ar- 
morial bearings,  the  sacred  tassels  became  the  badge  of  prelacy  iu  eccle- 
siastical armories.  The  archbishops  had  their  shields  suimounted  with 
a  green  chajpeau,  or  hat,  with  tassels,  interlaced  by  several  rows  of  cordon 
or  strings,  pendent  on  both  sides.  The  green  color  w^as  the  symbol  of  a 
See,  which  never  dies,  or  always  revives  as  foliage  regenerates.  The 
chapcau,  or  cardinal's  hat,  with  the  same  tassels,  is  of  scarlet,  the 
emblematic  hue  of  the  criminal  court  of  the  Holy  Inquisition.  The 
tassels,  having  passed  into  proiane  customs,  became  ornaments  for  na- 
tional standards,  which  were  often  blessed  by  the  priests,  and  for  royal 
girdles  or  cordelieres.  These  were  a  silk  or  gold  cord,  terminating  in 
two  heav}'^  tassels  of  the  form  of  pomegranates,  and  a  fringe,  with  which 
the  royal  robe  of  kings  and  queens  is  fastened  around  the  waist. 

Our  English  word,  Flag,  —  which  iu  Danish  is  the  same,  in  Swedish 
Jtayg,  in  German  flwjrjc,  in  Teutonic  and  Old  French  flackc,  Icelandic 
jiaka,  Belgian  Jlack,  flak,  —  signifying  that  which  hangs  down  loosely, 
is  said  to  be  derived  from  the  early  use  of  rushes  for  streamers,  and 
also  from  an  Anglo-Saxon  word  meaning  "  to  fly,"  because  the  light 
material  of  which  it  is  made  is  floated  or  lifted  by  every  breeze. 


OF  ANCIENT   AXD   MODERN   NATIONS.  5 

In  modem  j)arlance,  under  the  generic  name  of  flag  is  included 
standards,  ancients  or  ensigns,  banners,  bannerolls,  pavons,  colors, 
streamers,  pennons,  pennoncelles,  gonfanons,  guidons,  coronetts  or  cor- 
onells  ( hence  the  title  of  colonel),  and  the  like. 

A  flag  is  defined  by  the  '  London  Encyclopedia '  as  "  a  small  banner 
of  distinction  used  in  the  army,  and  stuck  in  a  baggage-wagon,  to 
distinguish  the  baggage  of  one  brigade  from  another,  and  of  one  bat- 
talion from  another."  It,  however,  properly  denotes  in  our  time  the 
colors  worn  at  the  mastheads  of  national  vessels  to  mark  the  rank  or 
quality  of  the  pei-son  commanding  a  squadron  or  fleet.  The  admiral 
of  a  squadron  or  fleet  is  styled  the  flag-ofiicer,  from  the  square  flag- 
hoisted  at  one  of  the  mastheads  of  the  vessel  on  which  he  is  em- 
barked, and  which  denotes  to  the  re?t,of  the  fleet  his  presence  there, 
and  causes  his  ship  to  be  designated  as  "tije*  fiag-sliip.", , , 

The  first  fiag  of  Great  Britain,  generally  known  as  the  Eoyal  stand- 
ard, is  a  square  flag,  blazoned  with  the  arms  of  the  United  Kingdom. 
When  hoisted  at  the  masthead  it  denotes  that  the  sovereign,  or  some 
member  of  the  royal  family,  is  embarked  on  board  the  vessel :  or,  when 
hoisted  on  the  flag-staff  over  a  residence,  wherever  they'oiay  be  on 
shore.     The  royal  salute  for  this  flag_is  twenty-one  guns. 

The  second  fl,ag,  that  of  the  lord  high  admijal,  ox  of,''  tne  commis- 
sioners performing  the  duties  of  that  high  office,'^  is  '•'  a  crimson  ban- 
ner," with  "  an  anchor  argent  gorged  in  the  arm  with  a  coronet  and  a 
cable  through  the  ring  fretted  in  a  true  lover's  knot  with  the  ends 
pendant." 

Thus  it  was  carried  by  the  Earl  of  Southampton  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIIL,  and  by  the  Earl  of  Lincoln  in  the  time  of  Mary,  except 
that  he  bore  the  stem  and  flukes  of  the  anchor  argent,  the  ring  and 
stock  or,  and  the  cable  azure.  The  Duke  of  Buckingham  used  the 
anchor  with  cable  entwined,  all  or,  much  as  it  is  now.  In  the  reign 
of  Charles  11. ,  the  Duke  of  York  placed  his  arms  on  an  anchor  sur- 
mounted by  his  coronet.  Among  the  first  acts  of  Charles  II.,  after  his 
restorati(jn  to  the  throne,  was  one  declaring  his  brother  the  Duke  of 
York  lord  high  admiral,  on  the  4th  of  June,  1660.  The  Duke,  having 
hoisted  his  flag  on  board  the  Eoyal  Charles,  put  to  sea  on  the  25th  of 
April,  1665,  with  a  squadron  of  fourteen  sail,  besides  five  ships  and 
smaller  vessels,  and  met  and  defeated  the  fleet  of  Holland  under  Op- 
dam  on  the  3d  of  June.  On  the  commencement  of  tlie  second  Dutch 
war,  the  Duke  again  hoisted  his  flag  on  board  the  St.  Michael,  and  en- 
gaging the  great  De  Ruyter's  ship,  the  St.  ]\Iichael  was  reduced  almost 
to  a  wreck,  when  he  shifted  his  flag  to  the  Eoyal  London,  and  was 
successful 


G  rili:    SVMI'.dl.S.    SlANhAKDS.    AND    IIANNKKS 

Tlie  (luly  aiotuiil  we  Imvc  ol'  the  (lag  of  tlic  lonl  liigli  admiral 
beiii"  carried  at  sea  Iiy  an  iiulividiial  ikjI  of  the  blijud  ruyal  is  in  the 
Memoii-s  ol"  Sir  dohii  Leake,  whicli  say,  "The  Earl  of  Berkeley  being 
then  (21st  -March,  171'J)  vice-admiral  of  Great  IJritain,  and  first  lord 
commissioner  of  tlie  admiralty,  endeavored  to  come  as  near  the  lord 
high  admiral  as  possible  lioth  in  power  and  state;  liy  a  particular 
warrant  from  the  crown  he  hoisted  the  lord  high  admiral's  flag,  and 
had  three  captains  ai)pointed  under  him  as  lord  high  admiral,  Little- 
ton, then  vice-admiral  of  the  white,  being  his  first  captain."  The  Earl 
of  Berkeley  was  one  of  fortune's  favorites.  As  Lord  Dursley,  at  the 
age  of  twenty  he  commanded  the  Lichfield,  50,  it  being  his  second 
command.  Wl)wr,lwe'nty-t>hree  he  commanded  the  Boyne,  80;  at 
twenty-sevqn  'h&/i^as  vicV^dbiiml  of  the  blue,  and  a  few  months 
afterward.  yice''{tvrpMrul'  bf  the^Uyltitfej  and  the  following  year,  being 
then  only  tVeiity-eight,  vice-ddiiiirai  of  the  red.  At  the  age  of 
thirty-eight  he  hoisted  his  flag  gn  the-  Dorsetshire  as  lord  high  ad- 
miral, being  -then  actually  vice-adrniraL  of  England  and  first  lord  of 
the  adrnil^tky.     He  died  near  Iloclioile,  .in  France,  Aug.  17,  1730,  aged 

fifty-five: '.%•'•  "^  .'/•'."' ." 

The  iortniigli  admiral's  flag  is-'^ehtitled  to  a  salute  of  nineteen  guns. 

The  //i»Yt- /(!((//;•  tliat;  of  the .IvprcJ' Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  is  the  Union 
Jack,  having  .m'Wie  .'centre  of' the  crosses  a  blue  .shield  emblazoned 
with  a  golden  harp..  .  Tins'  flag  is  worn  at  the  main  of  any  ship  in 
which  his  Excellency  may  embark  Avithin  the  Irish  waters  or  in  St. 
George's  Channel,  and  is  entitled  to  the  same  salute  as  that  of  the 
lord  high  admiral. 

The  fourth  Jla(j,  the  Union,  or  Union  Jack,  in  which  are  blended 
the  crosses  of  St.  George,  St.  Andrew,  and  St.  Patrick,  eml)lematic 
of  the  United  Kingdoms  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  is 
appropriated  to  the  admiral  of  the  fleet  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and 
is  worn  at  the  main,  and  entitled  to  a  salute  of  seventeen  guns. 

Somewhere  before  1692,  Sir  Francis  Wheeler,  Knt.,  a  rear-admiral, 
sent  to  command  in  chief  in  the  West  Indies,  was  granted  the  privi- 
lege of  wearing  "  the  Union  flag  "  at  the  maintop-masthead  "  as  soon  as 
he  was  clear  of  soundings.  "  ^ 

Fifth  in  rank  is  the  cross  of  St.  George,  a  white  flag  with  a  red 
cross,  the  sign  of  the  old  crusaders,  now  worn  by  the  admirals  of  the 
royal  navy  at  the  main,  by  vice-admirals  at  the  fore,  and  by  rear- 
admirals  at  the  mizzen  mastheads  of  their  respective  ships.  Lentil 
1864,  Great  Britain  had  admirals,  and  vice  and  rear  admirals  of  the 
1  Schomberg's  Naval  Chronology,  vol.  v.  i>.  227. 


OF   A^X'IEXT   AND   MODERN   NATIONS.  7 

red,  white,  and  blue.  By  an  act  of  Parliament  of  that  year,  the  red 
ensign  was  given  up  to  the  use  of  the  merchant  marine,  the  blue 
ensign  assigned  to  merchant  and  packet  ships  commanded  by  the 
officers  of  the  newly  organized  naval  reserve  or  naval  militia,  and  the 
white  ensign  alone  reserved  for  the  royal  navy.  The  salute  of  an 
admiral  in  the  royal  navy  is  fifteen,  of  a  vice-admiral  thirteen,  and 
of  a  rear-admiral  eleven  guns. 

Merchant  vessels  frequently  carry  small  flags  at  their  mastheads, 
bearing  the  arms,  monograms,  or  devices  of  their  owners  or  command- 
ers, or  designating  the  province  or  port  to  which  the  vessel  belongs. 

The  flag  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  hoisted  at  the  main, 
and  denoting  his  presence  on  board  a  vessel  of  war,  is  appropriately 
the  National  Eiisign,  the  flag  of  the  sovereign  people  of  whom  he  is 
the  popular  representative,  and  from  whom  he  derives  power  and 
authority. 

The  Vice-President  and  members  of  the  Cabinet  (the  Secretary  of 
the  Xavy  excepted)  are  also  designated  by  the  national  flag  worn  at 
the  fore  during  their  presence  on  board  a  vessel  of  war,  and  it  always 
floats  at  the  Capitol  over  the  Senate-Chamber  and  House  of  Piepre- 
sentatives  whenever  those  bodies  are  in  session,  —  a  custom  followed 
in  all  or  most  of  the  States  of  the  Union  whenever  their  legislative 
bodies  are  in  session. 

A  special  mark  for  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  established  in  1866, 
was  a  square  blue  flag  having  a  white  foul  anchor  placed  vertically 
in  the  centre  with  four  white  stars  surrounding  it,  one  in  each  corner 
of  the  flag.  By  an  order  dated  1869,  this  flag  became  obsolete,  and 
the  Union  Jack  was  ordered  to  be  hoisted  at  the  main  whenever  he 
embarked  on  board  a  vessel  of  the  navy;  but  the  flag  of  1866  was 
restored  by  another  order  on  the  4th  of  July,  1876. 

The  first  rear-admiral's  flag  in  our  navy  was  a  plain  blue  flag,  such 
as  had  been  used  by  the  rank  of  flag-officer  before  the  introduction  of 
admirals  to  the  service.  This  flag  was,  by  law,  required  to  be  worn 
at  the  main  by  the  three  senior  rear-admirals,  at  the  fore  by  the  next 
three  in  seniority,  and  at  the  mizzen  by  the  three  junior  rear-admirals, 
and  was  first  hoisted  at  the  main  on  board  the  Hartford,  in  1862, 
by  Piear- Admiral  Farragut,  who  had  previously,  as  flag-officer,  earned 
it  at  the  fore.^     The  absurdity  of  a  rear-admiral's  wearing  liis  flag  at 

1  I  have  in  my  possession  this  flag,  whii-li  was  worn  by  Flag-Offic-er  Farragut  at  tlio 
passage  of  the  forts  below  New  Orleans,  and  lioisted  on  the  Hartford  on  his  promotion  to 
rear-admiral.  Later,  the  two  stars  were  added  to  it.  The  admiral  presented  the  flag  to 
Lieut.  D.  G.  McRitchie,  U.S.N.,  who  gave  it  to  me  in  1S75. 


8  'llIK    S^Ml'.ol.S,    SIANDAKI'S.    AND    r.A\\i:i:S 

the  foro  or  main  was  so  tiiiitiaiy  tn  the  cu.sLoiii  ol'  ollu-r  nations,  that, 
l»y  thi'  suggestion  of  lion.  JI.  II.  Dana,  Jr.,  the  next  ('(ingress  repealed 
the  law,  after  which  a  .square  Hag  hoisted  at  the  niiz/en,  blue,  red, 
or  white,  according  to  the  seniority  of  the  ollicer,  was  adojited.  In 
18t>(j,  after  the  introduction  of  the  grades  of  admiral  and  vice-admiral, 
the  device  atlo])ted  for  the  admiral  was  four  five-pointed  white  stars 
arranged  as  a  diamond  in  a  Line  iield,  to  be  hoisted  at  the  main.  Vor 
the  vice-admiral,  three  white  stars  arranged  as  an  equilateral  triangle 
on  a  blue  field,  to  be  hoisted  at  the  fore.  For  rear-ad nurals,  a  scjuare 
flag,  blue,  red,  or  white,  according  to  seniority,  at  the  inizzen,  with 
two  stars  placed  vertically  in  the  centre  of  the  flag.  The  color  of 
the  stars  to  be  white  when  the  flag  was  blue  or  red,  and  Idue  wlien 
the  flag  was  white.  The  commodore's  broad  pennants  were  swallow- 
tailctl  flags,  the  same  in  color  according  to  their  seniority  as  the  rear- 
admiral's  Hags.  From  the  organization  of  our  navy  until  the  regu- 
lation of  1866  they  had  been  studded  with  a  constellation  of  stars 
equal  in  number  to  the  States  of  the  Union,  by  the  regulations  then 
established  only  one  star  in  the  centre  was  to  be  emblazoned  on  their 
field. 

In  1869,  a  radical  change  was  made  in  the  flags  of  our  admirals 
and  commodores;  square  flags,  with  thirteen  alternate  red  and  white 
stripes,  were  then  prescribed  for  all  grades  of  admirals,  their  position 
on  the  fore,  main,  or  mizzen  mast  showing  whether  the  officer  was 
an  admiral,  vice,  or  a  rear  admiral;  and  if  two  rear-admirals  should 
happen  to  meet  in  the  same  port  in  command,  then  the  junior  was 
directed,  while  in  the  presence  of  his  senior,  to  wear  two  red  stars 
perpendicular  in  a  white  canton  on  the  upper  luff  of  his  flag.  T^Jie 
commodore's  pendant  was  swallow-tailed,  but  otherwise  like  the 
admiral's  flag,  and  w'orn  at  the  main  (u-  fore,  according  to  seniority, 
when  more  than  one  were  in  port  together.  The  order  of  Jan.  6, 
1876,  restored  the  flags  of  1866  on  our  centennial  birthday. 

Each  of  the  States  of  our  Union  and  most  of  the  Territories  have 
flags  of  their  owm,  generally  of  one  color,  white,  blue,  or  red,  and 
blazoned  with  the  arms  of  the  State.  This  flag  is  carried  by  the  State 
militia  into  battle  or  on  parade  side  by  side  with  the  national  stand- 
ard.    We  shall  treat  of  these  under  an  appropriate  heading. 

An  interesting  relic  of  the  American  revolution  is  the  banner  of 
Count  Pulaski,  presented  to  him  by  the  Moravian  Sisters  of  Beth- 
lehem, Penn.,  in  1778.  Count  Pulaski  was  appointed  a  brigadier  in 
the  Continental  army  on  the  loth  of  September,  1777,  just  after  the 
battle  of  the  Brandywine,  and  given  the  command  of  the  cavalry. 


OF   ANCIENT   AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


9 


He  resigned  that  command  in  a  few  months,  and  obtained  permis- 
sion to  raise  and  command  an  independent  corps,  to  consist  of  68 
horse  and  200  foot,  which  was  chiefly  levied  and  fully  organized  in 
Baltimore  in  1778.  Pulaski  visited  Lafayette  while  wounded,  and 
was  a  recipient  of  the  care  and  hospitality  of  the  Moravian  Sisters  at 
Bethlehem,  Penn.  His  presence  and  eventful  history  made  a  deep 
impression  upon  that  community,  and,  when  informed  that  he  was 
organizing  a  corps  of  cavalry,  they  prepared  a  banner  of  crimson  silk, 
with  designs  beautifully  \vrought  with  the  needle  by  their  own  hands, 
and  sent  it  to  Pulaski,  with  their  blessing.  The  memory  of  this  event 
has  been  embalmed  in  beautiful  verse  by  Longfellow. 

Pulaski  received  the  banner  with  grateful  acknowledgments,  and 
bore  it  gallantly  through  many  a  martial  scene,  until  he  fell  at 
Savannah,  in  the  autumn  of  1779.  His  banner  was  saved  by  his 
first  lieutenant,  who  received  fourteen  wounds,  and  delivered  to 
Captain  Bentalon,  who,  on  retiring  from  the  army,  took  the  banner 
home  with  him  to  Baltimore.  It  was  in  the  procession  that  wel- 
comed Lafayette  to  that  city  in  1824,  and  was  then  deposited  in 
Peale's  Museum,  where  it  was  ceremoniously  received  by  young  ladies 
of  the  city.  Mr.  Edmund  Peale  presented  it  to  the  Mar}iland  Histor- 
ical Society  in  1844,  where  it  is  carefully  preserved  in  a  glass  case. 
Little  of  its  pristine  beauty  remains.  It  is  composed  of  double  silk, 
now  faded  to  a  dull  brownish  red.  The  designs  on  each  side  are  em- 
broidered with  yellow  silk,  the  letters  shaded  with  green,  and  a  deep 
bullion  fringe  ornaments  the  edge.  The  size  of  the  banner  is  twenty 
inches  square.     It  was  attached  to  a  lance  when  borne  in  the  field. 

On  one  side  of  the  banner  are  the  letters  U.  S.,  and  in  a  circle 
around  them  the  words  Unitas  Virtus  Forcior,  —  Union  makes  valor 

stronger.  The  letter  c  in  the  last 
word  is  incorrect,  it  should  be  t. 
On  the  other  side,  in  the  centre,  is 
the  all-seeing  eye,  with  the  words 
NoN  Alius  PtEciT,  —  "  No  other  gov- 
erns." 

Another  interesting  Revolutionary 

« «•" »"" "-^^         relic  is  the  flag  of  Washington's  Life 

Pulaski's  Banner.  Guard,  which  is  preserved   in  the 

Museum  of  Alexandria,  Va.  It  is  of  white  silk,  on  which  the  device 
is  neatly  painted.  One  of  the  guard  is  holding  a  horse,  and  in  the 
act  of  receiving  a  uag  from  the  Genius  of  Liberty  personified  as  a 
woman  leaning  upon  the  L^nion  shield,  near  which  is  an  American 


^>e> 


10 


'riii:  s^Mi'.oLs,  siAM)Ai:i)s,  and  i;anm:i:s 


eagle.    Tlie  motto  of  the  corps,  Conqueu  cm  Dii:,  i.s  on  a  ribbon  over 
the  lU'vice.     This  Life  (luartl  was  a  distinct  corps  of  mounted  men, 

attached  to  the  person  of  Washington, 
Imt  never  spared  in  battle.  It  was  or- 
ganized in  177G,  soon  after  the  siege  of 
Boston,  wliilc  the  American  army  Ma;? 
encami)ed  near  tlie  city  ol'  New  York.  It 
consisted  of  a  major's  connnand  ;  viz.,  one 
hundred  and  eighty  men,  and  its  chief 
bore  tlie  title  of  Captain  Commandant. 
The  uniform  of  the  guard  consisted  of  a 
blue  coat  with  white  facings,  white  waist- 
coat and  breeches,  Ijlue  lialf-gaiters,  and 
a  cocked  hat  with  a  white  plume.  They 
carried  muskets,  and  occasionally  side-arms.  Care  was  taken  to  have 
all  the  States  from  which  the  Continental  army  was  supplied  witli 
troops  represented  in  this  corps. 


Flag  of  the  Washington  Life  Guard. 


BANK'ERS,    BANDEROLES,   GUIDONS,   PENNONS, 
ENSIGNS,  ETC. 

Several  varieties  of  flags  were  formerly  employed,  indicating  by 
their  form  and  size  the  rank  of  the  bearer.  The  use  of  many  of  these, 
however,  has  become  obsolete ;  but,  as  frequent  allusion  is  made  to 
them  in  history  and  in  ancient  ballads,  it  is  necessary  that  the  modern 
reader  should  be  acquainted  with  the  names  and  significations  of  these 
flags  of  former  times. 

A  passage  in  '  Marmion '  alludes  to  several  flags  now  fallen  into 
disuse. 

"  Nor  marked  tlicy  loss,  whore  in  the  air 
A  thousand  streamers  flaunted  fair  ; 
Various  in  shape,  device,  and  hue,  — 
Green,  sanguine,  jiurph",  red,  and  blue, 
Broad,  naiTow,  swallow-tailed,  and  square, 
Scroll,  pennon,  pensil,  bandrol,  there 

O'er  the  pavilions  flew. 
Highest  and  midmost  was  descried 
The  Royal  banner,  floating  wide  ; 

The  stafl",  a  pine-tree  strong  and  straight, 
Pitched  deeply  in  a  massive  stone 
Which  still  in  memory  is  shown. 


OF   ANCIENT  AND   MODERN  NATIONS.  H 

Yet  beneath  the  standard's  weight, 
Whene'er  the  western  wind  unrolled, 
With  toil,  the  huge  and  cumbrous  fold. 

It  gave  to  view  the  dazzling  field, 

Where,  in  proud  Seotliuid's  royal  shield, 
The  ruddy  lion  ramped  in  gold."  ^ 

Banner  —  in  Dutch,  hanierc  ;  French,  hanniere  ;  German,  hanner  ; 
Spanish,  handcra ;  Italian,  handiera  ;  Swedish,  hancr  —  signifies  in 
these  languages  a  flag,  the  emblem  of  a  bond-roll  or  bond-sign,  the 
sign  of  union,  the  standard  under  which  men  were  united  or  bound 
for  some  common  purpose. 

Some  derive  the  etymology  of  the  name  from  the  Latin  handum, 
a  band  or  flag ;  others,  from  the  German  ban,  a  rallying-point,  a  field, 
a  tenement,  because  only  landed  men  were  allowed  a  banner  ;  others, 
again,  believe  it  a  corruption  of  ixtnnicrc,  from  i^annus,  cloth,  because 
banners  were  originally  made  of  cloth.  The  Germans  are  said  to 
have  fastened  a  streamer  to  a  lance,  which  the  duke  carried  in  front 
of  the  army,  and  which  was  called  land ;  afterwards,  a  large  cloth  was 
used,  ornamented  with  emblems  and  inscriptions. 

Knights  wore  a  pointed  flag  or  pennon.  A  squire's  mark  was  a  long 
pennant  similar  to  the  coach -whip  pennant  of  modern  ships  of  war. 
Bannerets  were  of  a  rank  above  a  simple  knight,  and  yet  below  that 
of  a  baron,  and  carried  a  knight's  pennon  slit  at  the  end.  Barons 
were  usually  created  on  a  battle-field,  when  the  candidate  presented 
his  pennon  to  the  king  or  general,  who  cut  oft^  the  train  of  it,  and  thus 
making  it  square,  returned  it  to  him  as  the  symbol  of  his  increased 
rank.  Thenceforward  the  knight  was  entitled  to  emblazon  his  arms 
upon  a  square  shield,  and  was  styled  a  Knight  Banneret.  Barnes,  in 
his  '  Wars  of  Edward  III.,'  writes  that,  before  the  battle  of  Xagera, 
Lord  John  Chandos  brought  his  pennon  to  Edward  the  Black  Prince, 
requesting  to  hoist  it  as  a  l^anner.  The  Prince  took  the  flag,  and, 
having  torn  off  the  tail,  returned  it,  saying,  "Sir  John,  behoW,  here 
is  your  banner ;  God  send  you  much  joy  and  honor  with  it."  From 
these  customs  may  be  traced  the  coach-whip  and  broad  pennants  worn 
by  commanding  officers  of  ships,  and  of  commodores,  and  the  square 
flags  of  the  admirals  of  our  own  and  foreign  navies. 

The  banner  has  been  made  to  assume  almost  every  shape  a  paral- 
lelogram so  small  could  be  converted  into.  As  a  rule,  in  banners  of 
cognizance  or  individual  escutcheons,  its  size  bore  relation  to  the  ranlc 
of  the  owner;  thus  the  banner  of  an  earl  was  larger  than  that  of 
a  baron,  and  the  baron's  larger  than  that  of  a  banneret.     At  first, 

^  Sir  Walter  Scott's  Marmion,  Canto  III.,  28. 


12  Illi:    SYMIJOI.S.    SIANDAKDS,    AM)    I'.AN.NKKS 

banucTs  were  plain  or  of  seveiiil  colors,  l»ut  they  were  early  orna- 
menteil  with  devices  of  men  and  animals,  and  finally  used  as  a  Hying 
shield,  to  display  the  blazonry  of  the  bearer,  the  syndjols  oi'  a  nation, 
or  the  heraldry  of  a  particular  order,  or  of  a  department  of  the  State. 

The  banner,  says  JJurke.^  is  coeval  with  the  introduction  of  her- 
ahlry,  and  dates  from  the  twelfth  century.  The  l)anner  was  of  a 
square  form,  and  served  as  a  rallying-poiut  for  the  divisions  of  which 
the  army  was  composed.  Judging  from  the  siege  of  Carleverock,^  as 
early  as  the  fourteenth  century  there  was  a  banner  to  every  twenty- 
five  or  thirty  men  at  arms,  and  tlnis  the  battle  array  was  marshalled. 
At  that  period  the  English  forces  comprised  tenants  m  ccqntc  of 
the  crown,  M-ith  their  followers ;  and  such  tenants  were  entitled 
to  lead  their  contingent  under  a  banner  of  their  arms.  When  the 
tenant  in  ccqnte  was  unable  to  attend  in  person,  from  illness  or  other 
cause,  he  sent  his  quota  of  soldiers  and  archers  which  the  tenure  of 
his  lands  enjoined,  and  his  banner  was  committed  to  the  charge  of  a 
deputy  of  rank  equal  to  his  own.  Thus,  at  Carleverock,  the  Bishop 
of  Durham  sent  one  hundred  and  sixty  of  his  men  at  arms,  with  his 
banner,  intrusted  to  John  de  Hastings ;  and  Edmund,  Lord  d'P2yn- 
court,  who  could  not  attend  himself,  sent  his  two  brave  sons  in  his 
stead  with  his  banner  of  blue  biletee  of  gold,  wdth  a  dancettee  over 
all.  The  right  to  bear  a  banner  was  confined  to  bannerets  and  per- 
sons of  higher  rank.  According  to  the  roll  of  Carleverock,  the  ban- 
ners of  the  principal  nobles  were  made  of  silk.  The  banner  of  the 
Earl  of  Lincoln  is  described  as 

"  Of  saffron  silk  his  banner  good, 
Whereon  a  purple  li(ni  stood  ;  " 

and  the  banner  of  Hugh  de  Vere,  the  younger  son  of  the  Earl  of 
Oxford,  "  As  a  banner  both  long  and  wide,  of  good  silk,  and  not  of 

1  Burke's  Heraldic  Register,  1849-50. 

-  The  '  Siege  of  Carleverock '  is  the  title  of  a  poem  descriptive  of  the  banners  of  the 
l>eers  and  knights  of  the  English  army  who  were  present  at  the  siege  of  Carleverock  Cas- 
tle, in  Scotland,  in  Febraary,  1301.  This  roll  or  poem  was  first  iirinted  in  1779,  in  the 
second  edition  of  tlie  'Antiquarian  Repertoiy,'  from  the  MS.  in  the  Cottonian  collection, 
but  with  a  text  "as  corrupt,"  says  Sir  Harris  Nicolas,  "as  imfortunate."  In  1828,  the 
work  was  edited  by  Sir  H.  Nicolas,  and  published  in  a  handsome  quarto  of  more  than 
400  pages,  the  larger  portion  of  wliich  is  occupied  by  memoirs  of  tlie  persons  commem- 
orated by  the  poet,  forming  in  a  great  measure  a  baronage  for  the  reign  of  Edward  I.  In 
1864,  a  third  edition  was  printed,  under  the  following  title  :  — 

"The  Roll  of  Anns  of  the  Princes,  Barons,  and  Knights  who  attended  King  Edward  I. 
to  the  Siege  of  Caerlaverock  in  1300.  Edited  from  the  MS.  in  the  Britisli  Museum, 
with  a  translation  and  notes  by  Thos.  Wright,  Esqr.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  &c.,  Corresponding 
Member  of  the  Institute  of  France.  With  Coat  Armory  emblazoned  with  gold  and 
colors.     London  :  John  Camden  Hottcn,  Piccadilly.     1864.     4to,     viii,  39." 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         13 

eloth."  The  latter  was  the  material  with  which  knights-banneret 
were  content.  The  banner  of  the  constable,  the  good  '  Earle  of  Here- 
ford,' was  "  of  strong  blue  cendal,"  a  superior  kind  of  silk. 

In  1361,  Edward  III.  granted  to  Sir  Guy  de  Bryan  two  hundred 
marks  a  year  for  having  discreetly  borne  the  king's  banner  at  the 
siege  of  Calais,  in  1347 ;  and  Thomas  Strickland,  the  esquire  who  so 
gallantly  sustained  Henry's  banner  at-  Agincourt,  urged  the  service  as 
worthy  of  remuneration  from  Henry  VI.  In  Scotland,  the  representa- 
tive of  the  great  house  of  Scrimgeour  still  enjoys  the  honor  of  being 
"  hereditary  banner-bearer  of  the  queen,"  an  office  to  which  by  special 
grant  Alexander  I.,  a.d.  1107,  appointed  a  member  of  the  Carron 
family,  giving  him  the  title  Scrimgeo^ir,  for  his  valor  in  a  sharp  fight. 

Two  manuscripts  in  the  British  Museum,  not  older  than  Henry 
VIII.,  afford  us  authentic  information  as  to  the  size  of  banners, 
standards,  and  pennons ;  extracts  from  them  are  printed  in  the  '  Ret- 
rospective Eeview,'  in  1827.  That  valuable  work,  'Excerpta  Historica,' 
also,  has  many  interesting  details  on  the  subject.^ 

Bannerets.  —  Everard,  a  correspondent  of  the  '  Gentleman's  Maga- 
zine,' in  1792,  states  that  bannerets  "  were  feudal  lords  who,  possessing 
several  large  fees,  led  their  vassals  to  battle  under  their  own  flag  or 
banner,  when  summoned  thereto  by  the  king,  whereas  the  hachlarius 
eques,  or  little  knights,  in  contradistinction  to  bannerets,  who  were 
gi^eat  knights,  followed  that  of  another."  To  be  qualified  for  a  ban- 
neret, one  must  have  been  a  gentleman  of  family,  and  must  have  had 
the  power  to  raise  a  certain  number  of  armed  men,  with  an  estate 
enough  to  subsist  twenty-eight  or  thirty  men.  This  must  have  been 
very  considerable,  as  each  man,  beside  his  servants,  had  two  horsemen 
to  wait  on  him,  armed,  the  one  with  a  cross-bow,  the  other  with  a  bow 
and  hatchet.  As  no  one  was  allowed  to  be  a  haron  who  had  not 
above  thirteen  knights'  fees,  so  no  one  was  admitted  to  be  a  banneret 
if  he  had  less  than  ten. 

Some  assert  '  Bannerets '  were  originally  persons  who  had  por- 
tions of  a  barony  assigned  them,  and  enjoyed  it  under  the  title  haro 
irroximus.  Others  find  the  origin  of  bannerets  in  France ;  some, 
again,  in  Brittany  ;  others,  in  England.  The  last  attribute  the  institu- 
tion of  bannerets  to  Conan,  a  lieutenant  of  Maximus,  who  commanded 
the  Eoman  legions  in  England  under  the  empire  of  Gratiau,  a.d.  383. 
This  general,  revolting,  divided  England  into  forty  cantons,  and  in 

1  Retrospective  Eeview,  2(1  series,  vol.  i.  p.  113  ;  Excei-pta  Historica,  or  Illustrations 
of  English  History.     One  volume,  8vo.     London,  1833,  pp.  50,  &Q,  163,  170. 


14  llli:    SV.Ml'.nl.S.    STANI)Ai:i)S,    AND    I'.ANXKU.S 

the  cantons  distributed  forty  knights  ;  to  each  he  gave  the  power  of 
asseniMinu  under  their  several  banners  as  many  ellective  men  as  were 
in  their  di.slriets ;  whence  they  were  called  baniunts.  'Froissart' 
says  that  anciently  such  military  men  a.s  were  rich  enough  to  raise 
and  subsist  a  company  of  armed  men,  and  had  a  riijht  tu  do  so,  were 
called  h(()i)H/rts ;  not  that  these  qualifications  rendered  them  knights, 
but  only  bannerets,  —  the  appellation  of  knights  Ijeing  added  because 
they  were  kniglits  Ijcfore.  Sir  John  Chandos  was  made  a  knight-ban- 
neret by  the  Black  Trince,  and  the  King  of  Castile  was  made  one  at 
Nagera,  April  3,  1367. 

Bannerets  in  England  were  only  second  to  knights  of  the  garter. 
They  were  next  in  degree  below  nobility,  and  were  allowed  to  Ijcar 
arms  with  supporters,  which  no  one  else  could  under  a  baron.  In 
France  the  dignity  was  hereditary,  but  in  England  it  died  witli  the 
person  who  gained  it.  The  order,  after  the  institution  of  baronets  or 
hereditary  knighthood  by  King  James  I.,  in  IGll,  dwindled  and  be- 
came extinct  in  England.^  Tlie  last  person  created  a  banneret  was  Sir 
John  Smith,  who  was  created  a  banneret  after  the  Edgehill  fight, 
Oct.  23,  1(342,  for  his  gallantry  in  rescuing  the  standard  of  Charles  I. 
George  III.,  liowever,  in  1764,  made  Sir  "William  Ersldne  a  baimeret. 

According  to  Froissart,  the  degrees  of  chivalry  were  three  :  knights- 
bannerets,  knights,  and  esquires.  Before  a  man  could  become  a  knight- 
banneret,  he  had  to  serve  as  a  squire  and  a  knight  to  attain  renown 
in  arms,  and  to  have  a  considerable  military  following.  This  was  the 
letter  of  the  law,  but  it  M-as  not  always  strictly  enforced.  The  knight 
who  aspired  to  tlie  higher  distinction  could  carry  his  pennon  to  the 
leader  of  the  army  in  which  he  served,  and  demand  to  raise  his  banner ; 
wlien  his  qualifications  were  proved,  the  leader  cut  off  the  end  of  the 
pennon,  which  thus  became  a  square  banner.  This  simple  ceremony 
was  completed  with  a  short  address  on  the  banneret's  duties,  pronounced 
by  the  leader,  or  by  a  herald.  The  knight-l»anneret  had  no  superior 
except  the  king,  and  was  the  equal  of  the  feudal  baron. 

The  banners  of  the  Knights  of  the  Garter,  blazoned  with  their  arms, 
hang  over  their  stalls  in  Sir  George's  Chapel  at  Windsor ;  those  of  the 
Knights  of  the  Bath  over  their  stalls  in  Henry  A^II.'s  Chapel,  West- 
minster Abbey.  In  lioman  Catholic  countries,  banners  form  an 
important  feature  in  religious  services,  jDrocessions,  &c.  Before  the 
Beformation,  all  the  monasteries  in  England  had  banners  preserved  in 

1  Tlie  tirst  haronet,  Sir  Nicolas  Bacon,  was  created  May  22,  1611  ;  baronets  of  Ire- 
land were  created  1629  ;  of  Nova  Scotia,  1625.  All  baronets  created  since  the  Irish 
union,  ISOl,  arc  of  the  United  Kincrdoni. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODEEN  NATIONS.         15 

their  wardrobes,  from  whence  they  were  brought  on  .anniversaries, 
festivals,  and  important  occasions,  and  were  sometimes  displayed  in 
battle.  Edward  I.  paid  eight  and  a  half  pence  per  day  to  a  priest  of 
Beverley  for  carrying  in  his  army  the  banner  of  St.  John,  and  one 
penny  per  day  while  taking  it  back  to  his  monastery. 

The  celebrated  painting  of  the  '  Madonna  di  San  Sisto '  which  is 
now  in  the  Dresden  Gallery,  was  painted  by  Raphael  as  a  banner  to 
be  used  in  processions  for  the  Benedictine  Cloister  of  St.  Sixtus,  in 
Piacenza.  It  was,  however,  soon  placed  upon  the  high  altar  of  the 
church,  where  it  remained  until  purchased  by  Augustus  III.,  Elector 
of  Saxony,  and  was  removed  to  Dresden  in  1753  or  1754.  The  price 
paid,  according  to  Wickelmann,  was  60,000  gulden.  In  1827,  the 
painting  was  restored,  and  a  portion  that  had  been  concealed  in  the 
framing  was  brought  to  light,  —  the  top  of  the  curtain  with  the  rod 
and  rings  supporting  it.  Engravings  by  Schulze  and  Mliller  were 
made  before  this  discovery ;  and  by  Nordheim,  Steinla,  and  Keller 
after.     Hence  the  difference  in  their  details. 

The  union  jack  of  Great  Britain  is  a  religious  banner,  composed 
of  the  crosses  of  St.  George,  St.  Andrew,  and  St.  Patrick.  The  cor- 
porations in  former  times  had  their  banners,  and  several  of  the 
livery  companies  of  London  still  retain  them  for  public  occasions,  as 
do  the-  St.  Patrick,  St.  Andrew,  and  other  societies  of  the  United 
States.  No  political,  religious,  or  secular  procession  would  be  con- 
sidered complete  in  the  United  States  without  a  display  of  banners. 
The  study  of  this  .subject  is  of  great  importance  to  the  historical  painter, 
and  few  sources  of  information  are  available. 

Drayton,  in  his  '  Battle  of  Agincourt,'  says  :  — 
"  A  silver  tower  Dorset's  red  banner  bears, 
The  Cornishnien  two  wrestlers  had  fur  theirs." 

All   the  great  nobles  of  England  and  Scotland  carried   banners 

blazoned  with  the  family  arms. 

John  of  Dreux,  Earl  of  Piichmond,  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  I.,  bore  a  banner  charged  with  the  chequey 
coat  of  Dreux,  surrounded  by  a  bordure  of  England,  and 
a  canton  of  Bretagne.  The  bordure  of  England  is  de- 
scribed as  "  a  red  orle  with  yellow  leopards."  The  ban- 
ner of  Simon  de  Montfort,  Earl  of  Leicester,  is  repre- 
sented on  a  window  of  the  cathedral  at  Chartres.  On  his 
shield  he  carries  a  lion  rampant.  Banners  and  bannerols 
were  carried  at  funerals  of  the  great  in  England,  from 

^fort's  BaImeI^^'     the  elcveuth  to  the  sixteenth  century.      They  usually 


\(y  riir.    >VMl!(iI.S.    Sl'ANhAlJDS.    AND    r.ANNEKS 

consi.stoil  (•!'  liainu-i.s  l»la/.iiUL'tl  with  the  firms  of  the  individual,  and  tlii' 
Inmilies  with  which  he  was  allietl.  On  some  occasions  ecclesiastical 
banners  were  disi»layed.  In  138S,  John  Lord  Montecute,  a  brother  of 
the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  ordered  in  his  will  that  no  painting  should 
be  ]>laced  about  his  hearse,  excepting  one  banner  of  the  arms  of 
England,  two  charged  with  that  of  Montecute,  and  two  with  the 
arms  of  Monthermer.  In  the  fourteenth  century,  those  who  were 
descended  from  or  connected  l»y  marriage  with  the  royal  family  used 
the  royal  arms  with  their  own.  Isabel,  Countess  of  Suflulk,  l-iKi, 
and  the  Earl  of  Huntington,  1380,  forbade  any  banners  to  be  borne 
at  their  funerals ;  but  Ilichard,  Earl  of  Salisbury,  1458,  ordered  at  his 
interment  "  there  be  banners,  standards,  and  other  accoutrements, 
according  as  was  usual  to  a  person  of  his  degree."  At  the  exposing 
of  tlie  body  of  Richard  II.  in  St.  Pauls  Cathedral,  1400,  four  banners 
were  affixed  to  the  carriage  or  bier  supi)orting  it,  —  two  of  which  con- 
tained the  arms  of  St.  George,  and  the  other  two  the  arms  of  Edward 
the  Confessor.  In  1542,  Sir  Gilbert  Talbot,  of  Grafton,  desired  four 
banners  should  be  carried  at  his  funeral,  —  one  of  the  Trinity,  one 
of  the  Annunciation  of  Our  Lady,  one  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
and  one  of  St.  Anthony.  Sir  David  Owen,  who  died  the  same  year, 
ordered  by  his  will,  1529,  his  body  should  be  buried  after  the  degree 
of  banneret ;  that  is,  Avith  his  helmet,  sword,  coat  armor,  l^anner, 
standard,  and  pendant,  and  set  over  all  a  banner  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
one  of  Our  Lady,  and  another  of  St.  George,  borne  after  the  order  of 
a  man  of  his  degree ;  and  the  same  should  be  placed  over  his  tomb  in 
the  priory  of  Essebourne. 

The  L.\.^'^'EI;,  blazoned  with  all  the  quarterings  of  him  to  whom 
it  belonged,  M-as  either  attached  to  a  staff  or  lance,  or  frec[uently 
depended  from  a  trumpet,  —  a  custom  which  is  still  retained  by  the 
trumpeters  of  the  Household  Brigade. 

We  read  in  Shakspeare,  — 

"  1  will  a  lianiier  from  a  trumpet  take,  and  use  it  fur  my  haste; " 
and  in  Chaucer,  —  . 

"  On  every  trum]>  hanging  a  bi'ode  bannere 
Of  fine  tartariuui  full  richly  bete, 
Every  trumpet  his  lordis  armes  bere." 

The  flags  carried  by  cavalry  regiments,  though  usually  called  '  stand- 
ards,' might  properly  be  styled  '  banners.'  The  term  '  colors '  is  applied 
to  the  flags  of  foot  regiments.  Shakspeare  uses  colors  to  denote  mil- 
itary flags. 


OF   A^X'IENT   AND   MODERN   NATIONS. 


17 


During  the  reigns  of  Edward  VI.,  Mary,  and  Elizabeth,  and  even 
later,  care  was  observed  that  the  proper  banners  should  be  carried  at 
the  funerals  of  persons  of  rank. 

The  Banderole,  Baxxerol,  or  Baxdroll  was  a  small  banner  about 
a  yard  sc|uare,  generally  but  not  always  rounded  at  the  fly,  several  of 
which  were  carried  at  funerals.  They  dis- 
]3layed  the  arms  and  the  matches  of  the  de- 
ceased's ancestors,  especially  of  those  which 
brought  honor  or  estate  into  the  family.  These 
arms  filled  the  entire  flag,  which  was  gener- 
ally fringed  with  the  principal  metal  and 
color  of  the  arms  of  the  deceased.  The 
bannerol  which  was  placed  at  the  head  of 
Cromwell,  at  his  magnificent  funeral,  ex- 
hibited his  arms,  viz.,  sahle  ;  a  lion  rampant 
Oliver  cromweU's  Bannerol.  argcnt ;  impaling  Stuart  or ;  on  a  fess  cheeky 

argent  and  azure ;  an  escutcheon  argent  debruised  with  a  bend  fretty. 

//  /    //</'      ,..//    At  his  funeral  there 


Willie  III  f£>i/i<;>iSi^/ciwi:Mon^)i^v,-  tp/iis  fir/r .  S', 


were  also  displayed 
four  standards,  eight 
great  banners,  and 
twelve  bannerols, 
with  a  guvdon,  of 
which  we  give  a  re- 
duced fac-similefrom 
Prestwick's  '  Pies  Ee- 
publicie.'  These 
standards  exhibit  the 
shape  and  design  of 
the  standards  of  Eng- 
land, Scotland,  Ire- 
land, and  Wales  at 
the  period  of  the 
great  Protector's 
death,  and  also  the 
banners  of  the 
'  Union  or  States,' 
'  St.  George,'  '  St. 
Andrew,'  'King  Da- 
vid,' and  of  the  Com- 
monwealth, the  ban- 


18  THE   SV.Mr.dLS,    STANDAIJDS.    ANh    HANNEKS 

ner  of  Cronnvt'll  and  his  L^uydon,  and  tlie  bannerols  of  the  families  with 
which  he  was  allied. 

It  appears  by  the  lull  rendered  lor  the  funeral  expenses  that  the 
six  great  banners  cost  £<>  each,  and  the  live  large  standards,  "  wrought 
in  rich  tallety,  in  oyle,  and  guilt  with  fine  gold  and  silver,"  cost  £10 
each ;  the  guydon,  "  as  large  as  a  great  banner,"  £G ;  and  the  twelve 
bannerols,  £oO. 

At  the  Eestoration,  Cromwell's  body  and  the  bodies  of  his  associ- 
ates were  dug  up,  suspended  on  Tyburn  gallows  lor  a  day,  and  then 
buried  under  it.  The  head  of  Cromwell  was  taken  off,  carried  to  West- 
minster Hall,  and  fixed  there,  where  it  remained  until  the  great  tempest 
at  the  commencement  of  the  eighteenth  century,  which  blew  it  down, 
when  it  was  picked  up  by  the  great-grandfather  of  its  present  posses- 
sor, a  citizen  of  London,  —  a  significant  commentary  on  earthly  great- 
ness. "  The  body  of  Cromwell,  carried  to  his  burial  in  royal  state, 
only  a  few  years  after  his  interment  is  rudely  torn  from  its  last  rest- 
ing-place, and  the  half-decayed  carcass,  dragged  by  the  heels  through 
the  mud  and  mire  of  London,  is  hanged  upon  Tyburn  tree,  the  head 
afterwards  torn  off  and  placed  so  that,  in  grinning  horror,  it  ever 
looked  towards  the  spot  where  King  Charles  was  executed."  ^ 

The  Guydon,  or  Guidon,  Fr.  (derived  from  (juidc-liomme),  resem- 
bled a  banner  in  form  and  emblazonment,  but  was  one-third  less  in 
size,  and  had  the  end  rounded  off.  It  was  the  standard  of  a  company 
of  soldiers,  and  borne  by  their  cornet. 

"  The  guydhome  must  be  two  yards  and  a  half  or  three  yards 
longe,  and  therein  shall  no  armes  be  putt,  but  only  the  mans  crest, 
cognizance  &  devyce,  and  from  that,  from  his  standard  and  streamer, 
a  man  may  flee,  but  not  from  his  banner  or  pennon  bearinge  his 
armes." 

"  Place  under  the  guidhome  fifty  men,  by  the  conduct  of  an 
esquire  or  gentleman."  ^ 

Every  guydon  carried,  in  chief,  a  cross  of  St.  George. 

The  Pennon  (Fr.),  sometimes  spelled  Pinionc,  was  a  small  streamer 
half  the  size  of  the  guydon,  of  a  swallow-tailed  form,  at- 
tached to  the  handle  of  a  spear  or  lance,  such  as  the  lan- 
cers of  the  present  day  carry.     Afterwards,  by  increase 


/    ^  in  length  and  breadth,  it  became  a  military  ensign,  and 

was  charged  with  the  crest,  badge,  or  war-cry  of  the 


Peunoii . 


1  AIlon}^nous  ;  Prestwiek.  ^  jyjs.  British  Museum. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODEEN  NATIONS         19 

knight,  —  his  arms  being  emblazoned  on  his  banner,  so  arranged  as 
to  appear  correctly  when  the  lance  was  held  in  a  horizontal  position. 

The  pennon  charged  with  a  cross  is  borne 
by  St.  George,  St.  Michael,  and  St.  Ursula ; 
that  of  John  the  Baptist  is  inscribed  with 
his  words  announcing  the  coming  of  Christ : 
"  Ecce  Agnus  Dei."  The  illustration,  a  pen- 
non of  the  earliest  form,  is  copied  from  one 
Daubernouu's  Pennon,  1277.  i^eld  by  the  figure  of  Sir  Johu  Daubemouu, 

1277,  on  his  monumental  brass  in  the  church  of  Stoke  D'Aubernoun, 
Surrey. 

A  manuscript,  giving  the  size  of  banners,  &c.,  in  tlie  fifteenth  cen- 
tury, says  :  "  Every  knight  may  have  his  pennon,  if  he  be  chiefe  cap- 
taine,  and  in  it  sett  his  amies ;  and  if  he  be  made  a  banneret  by  the 
king  or  the  lieutenant,  shall  make  a  slitte  in  the  end  of  the  pennon, 
and  the  heraldes  shall  raze  it  oute  :  and  when  a  knight  is  made  a  ban- 
neret the  heralds  shall  bringe  him  to  his  tente,  and  receive  for  their 
fees,  three  pounds,  eleven  shillings  and  four  pence  for  every  bachelor 
knight,  and  the  trumpetter  twenty  shillings." 

In  '  Canterbury  Tales,'  Chaucer's  knight  says  :  — 

**  Aud  by  liys  bannere  borne  is  bis  peunon 
Of  gold  full  riche." 

Sir  Walter  Scott  thus  alludes  to  the  pennon  in  '  j\Iarmion  : '  — 

"  The  trustiest  of  tbe  four, 
On  high  bis  forky  peunon  bore  : 

Like  swallow's  tail  in  shape  and  hue, 

Fluttered  the  streamer,  glossy  blue, 
AVhere  blazoned  sable,  as  before, 
The  towering  falcon  seemed  to  soar." 

The  Pa  VON  was  a  peculiar-shaped  flag,  somewhat  like  a 
gryon  attached  to  a  spear.  The  cut  is  from  an  illuminated 
Psalter  executed  in  1340.  The  original  is  charged  with  the 
arms  of  Sir  Geoffrey  Loutterell :  azure ;  a  lend  between  six 
martlets  argent. 


Pa von. 


Penoncels,  or  Pexsils,  were  small  narrow  pennons,  usually  borne 
to  ensign  the  helmet,  or  to  form  part  of  the  caparisons  of  the  knight's 
charger,  though  they  were  sometimes  affixed  to  lances,  as  appears  from 
a  line  of  the  '  Lyfe  of  Alesaunder,'  a  metrical  romance  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  — 

"  Many  a  fair  ]iencel  on  spere." 


20  Tin:   SYMI'.oLS.    STAM>Ai;i)S.    AND    P.ANNKUS 

Ensign  {Wal.  i /is ir/na;  Si)an.  cnscna;  Lai.  i)isig)ic;YY.  cnscig7ic  ;  Rho 
in  Ku;j;lisli,  tniticnf  or  (incunt),  ai>i>lied  Hrst  to  the  Hag,  is  now  apjilied 
both  to  the  llai,'  and  its  liearer.  In  '  OlheHo,'  Cassio,  in  speaking  ol'  lago, 
says,  "  The  lieutenant  is  to  be  saved  before  the  ancient."  Kdward  tlie 
lUaek  rrince  connuanded  liis  'ancient'  Itearer,  Sir  WaUer  ^^'o(»dland, 
tu  niarth  lurward.^  King  liichard  tonk  with  him  on  his  crusade  the 
standard  and  ensigns  of  his  kingdom.  Of  kite  years,  the  national 
thigs  borne  l>y  vessels  of  war  or  mercliant  ships  have  been  known  as 
cmir/ns,  and  a  grade  of  junior  oHicers  has  been  introduced  into  the 
United  States  navy,  who  are  styled  '  ensigns,'  though  their  duties  nec- 
essarily have  no  connection  witli  the  colors.  Tlie  French  also  lune 
a  class  of  officers  in  their  navy  styled  enseignes  <h  vaisscaiu:.^ 

Wiuthrop,  in  his  '  History  of  New  England,'  mentions,  under  date 
Saturday,  May  22, 1634,  his  meeting,  on  his  passage  across  the  Atlantic, 
a  small  French  vessel,  and  "  when  we  drew  near  her,  we  put  forth  our 
'ancient^  and  she  luffed  up  the  wind  to  us." 

That  celebrated  piece  of  royal  embroidery,  the  Bayeux  tapestry, 
the  handiwork  of  Matilda,  the  consort  of  William  the  Conqueror,  and 
her  ladies,  exhibits  a  display  of  the  military  ensigns  in  use  at  the 
period  of  the  conquest  by  the  Norman  invaders  and  the  Saxon  occu- 
pants of  England.  The  examples  I  have  given  from  it  afford  an  idea 
of  the  shape  and  devices  of  the  ensigns  of  the  chieftains  of  the  eleventh 
century.2 

The  Bayeux  tapestry,  divided  into  compartments  showing  the  events 
from  Harold's  visit  to  the  Norman  court  to  his  death  at  Hastings,  is 
preserved  in  the  public  library  at  Bayeux,  near  Caen,  Normandy. 
Only  within  a  few  years  has  it  been  where  it  could  be  seen  with 
comfort  or  ability  to  appreciate  its  merits,  having  formerly  been 
kept  on  a  huge  cylinder,  from  which  an  offisial  unrolled  seventy-two 
yards  on  to  another  cylinder.  In  this  way  it  was  carried  througli 
France  in  1803,  by  order  of  Bonaparte,  to  be  displayed  from  the 
stages  of  the  theatres  as  an  incentive  to  the  public  mind  not  to 
revive  this  kind  of  work,  but  to  awaken  tlie  people  to  a  project  then 
on  foot  for  the  invasion  of  England.  Noav  this  grand  work  is  shown 
on  the  walls  of  the  town  library,  it  consisting  of  a  strip  of  linen  cloth 
218  feet  long,  and  1  foot  8  inches  wide,  having  worked  upon  its  entire 
length  a  series  of  fifty-eight  scenes,  representing  the  events  in  the 
'  Norman  Conquests,'  in  which  there  are  more  than  ten  thousand 
figures,  many  of  them  being  men  who  are  10  to  12  inches  high; 
then  there  are  horses,  dogs,  ships,  and  houses,  and  a  running  border 

1  Bouleir.s  Heiakhv.  2  gfo^^. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


21 


with  innumerable  figures,  all  worked  in  worsted,  and  with  only  eight 
colors,  dark  and  light  blue,  red,  yellow,  buff,  and  two  shades  of  green ; 
the  horses  are  either  blue,  red,  green,  or  yellow,  to  suit  the  sur- 
roundings. 


Ensigns  from  the  Bayeux  Tapestiy. 

Thus  the  queen .  has  handed  down  to  the  present  day  a  memorial 
so  explicit  in  its  details  and  graphic  in  its  delineations  as  to  form  a 
valuable  standard  of  reference  in  an  archreological  point  of  view,  and 
at  the  same  time  a  perfect  ndrror  of  the  curious  usages,  economy, 
manners,  and  even  looks  of  the  people  of  her  time.     Over  each  scene 


22  'iin:  symbols.  si"ani>ai;|)s,  and  r.AWERS 

is  written,  also  in  needle-\vork,  the  subject,  in  Koiuan  cajiitals,  in  the 
Latin  lanj^uaj^'e.^ 

The  number  of  pennons  carried  by  tlie  Norniau  soldiers  h.^ured  in 
the  entire  tajiestry  amounts  to  thirty-seven,  and  of  these  no  less  than 
twenty-eight  have  their  ends  cut  into  three  points  or  flames. 

Mr.  French  argues  that  the  three-pointed  ends  on  these  pennons 
symbolize  the  Holy  Trinity,  as  did  those  of  crusaders  of  the  first  cru- 
sade subsequently.  Whether  the  pennons  with  their  triple  termina- 
tions were  intended  to  symboli/e  the  Trinity  or  not,  there  is  no  doul»t 
of  their  having  been  used  extensively.  When  the  crusader  returned, 
this  symbol  of  his  hostility  to  the  Saracen  was  removed,  as  shown 
on  the  tomb  of  Edward  Crookljack,  Earl  of  Lancaster,  the  Ijrother  of 
Edward  L,  who  returned  from  the  first  crusade  of  1270.  The  tomb 
remains  to  this  day,  though  defaced.  In  1783,  the  colors  were  copied, 
and  each  of  the  figures  of  the  ten  knights  who  accompanied  him  to 
the  East  and  returned  with  him  to  England  are  represented  as  hold- 
ing a  square  banner. 

GoNFAXONS  were  properly  sacred  banners  carried  in  religious  pro- 
cessions, and  as  such  Chaucer  and  Milton  speak  of  them.     The  great 


^-JN^ 


standard  or  banner  of  St.  Wdvk  was  styled  a  gonfanon. 
The  gonfanon  was  bordered  with  fringe  or  twisted  silk, 
and  usually  supported  as  shown  in  the  illustration.  In 
the  '  Lyfe  of  Alesaunder '  we  read,  — 

"  Ther  gonfannons  and  their  penselles 

„    ,  Wcr  woU  wroueht  off  erene  sendels." 

Gonfanon.  '^ 

Dr.  jMyrick  considers  the  small  pennon  attached  to  a  lance  in 
the  hand  of  AVilliam  the  Conqueror  on  his  great  seal  as  a  gonfanon, 
differing  from  a  banner,  being,  instead  of  square  and  fastened  to  a 
tronsure  bar,  of  the  same  figure  as  the  gonfanon,  fixed  in  a  frame,  and 
made  to  turn  like  a  modern  ship's  vane,  with  two  or  three  streamers 
or  tails.  The  object  of  the  gonfanon  was  principally  to  render  the 
leaders  more  conspicuous  to  their  followers,  and  to  terrify  the  horses 

1  Mrs.  Emma  D.  Southworth,  Cor.  Boston  'Traveller,'  Oct.  4,  1879.  A  copy  dmvra 
hy  C.  Stothard,  and  colored  after  the  oiiginals,  was  published  by  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries in  1821-23.  A  fac-simile  in  chromo-lithogiaph,  the  full  size  of  the  original,  has 
been  published.  In  1856,  the  Rev.  Jolni  Colling\vood  Bruce  published  a  quarto  volume, 
entitled  '  The  Bayeux  Tapestry  elucidated,'  which  has  reduced  colored  illustrations  of 
the  entire  roll.  In  1857,  the  Journal  of  the  Archreological  Association  of  Great  Britain 
printed  a  paper  by  Gilbert  J.  French  on  the  '  Banners  of  the  Bayeux  Tapestry,'  which  was 
subsequently  published  in  a  tliin  8vo  volume,  for  presentation  only. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         23 

of  their  adversaries ;  hence  the  gonfanon  was  a  mark  of  dignity.  From 
the  Bayeux  tapestry  it  would  appear  that  a  standard  was  borne  near 
the  person  of  the  commander-in-chief,  which  is  described  by  the  writer 
of  the  period  as  a  gonfanon.     Wace  says  :  — 

^'  The  bcarons  had  goiifanons, 
The  kuights  had  peunous." 

The  Conqueror's  gonfanon,  depicted  on  the  Bayeux  tapestry/  has 
three  tails,  and  is  white,  within  a  blue  border  cliarged  with  a  cross, 
or.  The  same  charge  also  occurs  on  the  mast  of  his  ship,  though  in 
a  square  form.  Wace  says,  Harold's  standard  was  a  noble  one,  —  a 
dragon  sparkling  with  gems  and  precious  stones. 

One  of  the  banners  of  the  Bayeux  tapestry,  of  which  an  illustration 
is  given,  represents  a  bird  within  a  semicircle  of  rays,  and  has  usually 
been  called  a  Danish  war-flag,  the  bird  supposed  to  be  the  raven 
sacred  to  Odin;  and  Herr  Worsac^  adopts  the  opinion  that  it  is 
the  danhrog  or  war-flag  of  the  Scandinavian  vikings.  He  goes  on  to 
state  that  the  banners  (or  marks)  of  the  ancient  Danes  were  in  times 
of  peace  light- colored,  but  in  war  times  of  a  blood  color,  with  a  black 
raven  on  a  red  ground.  This  is  entirely  against  the  supposition  that 
the  flag  of  the  tapestry  represents  the  raven  of  Denmark,  since,  after 
the  lapse  of  six  hundred  years,  the  bird  remains  of  a  pale  blue  color, 
upon  what  appears  to  have  been  white,  and  it  is  represented  with 
closed  wings,  —  a  peaceful  and  dovelike  attitude.  There  is,  therefore, 
reason  for  a  belief  that  this  singular  and  interesting  banner  bears  a 
dove,  the  symbol  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  within  a  nimbus  of  rays.^ 
Speed  informs  us  that  the  Duke  of  Normandy,  "  with  three  hun- 
dred ships  fraught  full  of  his  Normans,  Flemings,  Frenchmen,  and 
Britaimes,  weighed  anchor."  In  this  list  there  is  no  mention  of 
Danes  or  Norwegians,  and  there  is  good  reason  for  supposing  that  no 
soldiers  of  Scandinavian  nations  were  present  in  the  army  of  the 
Conqueror. 

The  strength  of  these  nations  had  invaded  England  in  the  north, 
and  been  subdued  in  a  sanguinary  and  decisive  battle,  only  four  days 
before  the  Duke  of  Normandy  landed  at  Hastings.  The  probability, 
therefore,  is  that  neither  Dane  nor  Danish  banner  was  in  the  Norman 
army.^ 

The  StanDxVED  was  a  flag  somewhat  reseml)ling  an  elongated  pen- 
non.   It  did  not,  like  the  banner,  indicate  a  distinctive  mark  of  honor, 

1  Retrospective  Review  — Sir  Harris  Nicolas.  '-  The  Danes  in  England. 

3  Gilbert  J.  French.     Banners  of  the  Bayeux  Tapestry,  1857. 


4 


TIIK    SYMH()!>S.    STANI».\!;i>s.    AND    r.ANNKKS 


but  mi^nlit  l>e  borne  by  any  noble  comniamk'r  irrespective  f»i'  bis  rank, 
the  only  restrictit»n  being  that  of  its  length.  A  king's  standard  was 
eight  or  nine  yards  long ;  a  duke's,  seven ;  a  niar(|ui.s's,  six  and  a 
half ;  an  earl's,  six ;  a  viscount's,  live  and  a  half ;  a  baron's,  five ;  a 
banneret's,  four  and  a  half;  and  a  knight's,  four. 

The  banner  was  always  charged  with  tlie  arms  of  its  owner ;  but 
on  the  standard  only  the  crest  or  badge  and  motto  were  exhibited ;  the 
field  being  composed  of  the  livery  colors.  When  the  livery  of  a  family 
consisted  of  more  than  one  color,  —  as  the  Tudor  sovereigns,  for  ex- 
ample, who  hoYQ  argent  and  vert, — the  standard  was  always  parted  per 
fcss  of  such  colors.  Next  the  staff  was  emblazoned  the  cross  of  St. 
George;  then  followed  tlie  badge  or  badges,  re})eated  an  indefinite 
number  of  times,  surmounted  by  narrow  bands,  on  which  was  inscribed 
the  motto,  or  cri-de-guerre ;  the  whole  being  usually  surrounded  by 
a  roll  of  silk  composed  of  the  livery  colors. 

The  charges  were  so  depicted  upon  the  standard  as  to  appear  correct 
when  it  was  developed  by  the  wind  in  a  horizontal  position.  On 
account  of  its  size,  it  was  not  generally  carried  in  the  hand,  like  a 
banner,  but  the  staff  to  which  it  was  attached  was  fixed  in  the  ground, 
—  hence  its  name.  The  Koyal  standards  of  the  present  time  are 
really  square  banners,  blazoned  with  the  royal  arms  over  the  entire 
field. 


THE  EARLY  USE  OF  ENSIGNS  AND  COLOES  ON 
BOARD  SHIP. 

According  to  Wilkinson  and  Bonomi,  there  are  no  flags  depicted 
upon  Egyptian  or  Assyrian  representations  of  vessels ;  but  in  lieu  of 
a  flag  certain  devices  are  embroidered  on  the 
sail,  such  as  a  phenix,  flowers,  &c.,  whence 
the  sail  bearing  the  device  was  called  ncs,  or 
ensign. 

The  utility  of  vanes  and  pennons  must 
have  been  soon  suggested  as  a  means  of 
ascertaining  the  direction  of  the  wind.  The 
Ijlazoning  them  with  the  arms  of  the  owner  or  the  name  of  the  vessel 
naturally  followed.  Livy  mentions  that  Scipio,  B.C.  202,  was  met 
by  a  ship  of  the  Carthaginians,  "garnished  with  infules,  ribbands, 
and  white  flags  of  peace,  and  beset  with  branches  of  olives,"  &c.  A 
medal  of  the  time  of  Antiochus  VII.,  king  of  Syria,  B.C.  123,  shows 
a  galley   without   mast   or   sail,   having   a   swallow-tailed   flag,  not 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         25- 

slung  upon  a  spreader,  but  hoisted  on  an  ensign-staff  abaft.  The 
Prophet  Ezekiel,  whose  prophecies  date  600  years  B.C.,  metaphori- 
cally comparing  the  maritime  city  of  Tyre  to  one  of  the  ships  by 
which  they  carried  on  their  commerce,  speaks  of  her  banner  as  made 
of  fine  linen. 

Pliny  tells  us  that  the  sterns  and  prows  of  trading  vessels  and  men- 
of-war,  without  exception,  were  decorated  with  colors  ;  and  at  Athens, 
Corinth,  and  Sicyon  the  profession  of  ship-painters  founded  the  famous 
school  of  painters  in  those  cities. 

At  first,  merely  to  preserve  the  wood,  the  ship-builders  covered 
every  part  of  the  vessel  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  air  and  water  with 
a  coating  of  pitch ;  but  this  sombre  and  uniform  tint  soon  wearied  the 
eye.  A  more  brilliant  color,  prepared  with  wax,  was  painted  over  the 
pitch ;  the  costlier  class  of  ships  glistened  in  all  the  splendor  of  white, 
ultramarine,  and  vermilion  ;  wdiile  pirates  and  occasionally  men-of-war 
were  covered  with  a  coat  of  green  paint,  which,  blending  with  the  color 
of  the  sea,  prevented  them  from  being  seen  at  a  distance.  Gildings 
glistened  on  the  vessels  of  the  rich,  and  the  sculptor's  chisel  added 
busts  and  figures  to  the  decoration  of  their  bows  and  sterns.  Even  in 
this  respect  the  Middle  Ages  still  followed  the  traditions  of  antiquity. 

The  decorations  of  ships  varied  according  to  the  caprice  of  owners 
and  the  fashion  of  the  times.  The  Saracen  dromon  boarded  and 
taken  by  Eichard  Coeur  de  Lion  had  one  side  colored  green,  and  the 
other  yellow.  The  Gen'oese  at  first  painted  their  ships  green  ;  but  in 
1242,  when  they  were  at  w^ar  with  the  Pisans,  they  colored  them 
white,  spotted  with  vermilion  crosses  ;  that  is,  "  red  crosses  on  a  silver 
ground,  which  resembled  the  arms  of  Monsieur  Saint-Georges."  Red 
was  the  color  generally  adopted  for  ships'  hulls  in  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, though  a  pattern  in  black  and  white  was  sometimes  added,  and 
sometimes  the  ground  was  painted  black,  and  the  pattern  only  ver- 
milion. In  1525,  when  Francis  I.,  made  prisoner  at  the  battle  of 
Pavia,  was  taken  to  Barcelona,  the  six  galleys  which  carried  the  captive 
sovereign  and  his  suite  were  painted  entirely  black,  from  the  top  of  the 
masts  to  the  water-line.  The  Knights  of  St.  Stephen,  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  hid  the  brilliant  hues  of  the  principal  galley  of  their  squad- 
ron, and  painted  its  sails,  pennants,  awnings,  oars,  and  hull  with  black, 
and  swore  never  to  alter  the  sombre  hue  till  their  order  had  recap- 
tured from  the  Turks  a  galley  lost  by  the  Pisans.  The  Normans,  or 
men  of  the  Xorth,  were  as  fond  of  these  brilliant  standards  as  the 
nations  of  the  Mediterranean :  when  they  sailed  on  a  warlike  expe- 
dition, or  when  they  celebrated  a  victory  over  pirates,  they  covered 


26 


'I'lIK    SVMHoLS.    S'I'ANI>Ai:i>S.    AND    I'-ANNKKS 


their  vessels  with  Hags.  The  poet  lienoit  de  Saute-More  tells  us  that 
it  was  iu  this  tashiou,  covered  with  seveu  huudred  bauners,  that  liollo 
brought  his  lleet  l»aek  u\>  the  Seine  to  Meulan.  The  Middle  Ages 
made  use  ol"  all  kinds  of  fanciful  decorations  for  their  vessels.    During 

the  Itenaissance, 
this  taste  was  re- 
newed, and  was 
an  inii)rovenient 
ujHju  the  cus- 
toms ol'antitiuity, 
whence  it  Aww 
its  inspirations, 
and  on  those  of 
the  thirteenth 
century. 

A  galley,  says 
the  learned  ^I. 
Jal, "  was  in  those 
days  a  species  of 
jewel,  and  was 
] landed  over  for 
endjellishnient  to 
the  hands  of  gen- 
ius,  as  a  piece  of  metal  was  given  to  Benvenuto  Cellini." 

Sculptors,  painters,  and  poets  combined  their  talents  to  adorn  a 
ship's  stern.  A  striking  example  of  this  artistic  refinement  in  naval 
ornamentation  was  the  Spanish  galley  constructed  in  1568  by  order 
of  Philip  II.,  for  his  brother,  Don  John  of  Austria,  to  whom  he  con- 
fided the  command  of  the  fleet  intended  to  fight  the  barbarous  IMoor- 
ish  States  of  Africa.  The  vessel's  cut-water  was  painted  white,  and 
emblazoned  with  the  royal  arms  of  Spain  and  with  the  personal  arms 
of  Don  John.  The  prince  being  a  Knight  of  the  Golden  Fleece,  the 
history  of  Jason  and  of  the  good  ship  Argo  was  represented  in  col- 
ored sculpture  on  the  stern,  above  the  rudder.  This  pictured  poem 
was  accompanied  with  four  symbolical  statues,  —  I'rudence,  Temper- 
ance, Power,  and  Justice,  —  above  which  floated  angels  carrying  the 
symbols  of  the  theological  virtues.  On  one  side  of  the  poop  might 
be  seen  I\Iars  the  avenger,  ]Mercury  the  eloquent,  and  Ulysses  stop- 
ping his  ears  against  the  seductions  of  the  Sirens  ;  on  the  other,  Pal- 
las, Alexander  the  Great,  Argus,  and  Diana.  Between  these  were 
inserted  pictures,  which  conveyed  either  a  moral  lesson  for  the  benefit 


French  Man-of-war  of  the  bixteentli  Century. 
From  the  Collection  of  Drawings  in  the  National  Library,  Paris. 


OF   ANCIENT   AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


27 


of  the  young  admiral,  or  a  delicate  eiilogium  on  Charles  V.,  his  father, 
or  on  Philip  II.,  his  brother.  All  these  emblems  were  chefs-cVceuvre 
of  drawing  and  sculpture,  which  the  brilliancy  of  their  gold,  azure, 
and  vermilion  settings  tended  to  enhance.^ 

The  illuminated  copies  of  Froissart's  '  Chronicles,'  in  the  British 
Museum,  present  many  curious  illustrations  of  the  manner  of  carrying 
flags  at  sea.  Some  of  the  vessels  have  a  man  at  arms  in  the  top  holding 
on  a  staff  the  banner  of  the  nation  to  which  it  belongs.    One  of  the  illu- 


Ship  of  Henry  VI.  's  Time,  1430-61. 

minations  of  the  time  of  Henry  VI.  (1430-61)  represents  a  ship  with 
shields  slung  along  her  topsides,  —  a  very  ancient  practice,  which  was 
continued  by  painting  the  arms  and  devices  on  the  bulwarks,  and 
from  whence  come  the  figure-heads  and  stern  carvings  of  modern 
ships.  Two  trumpeters  at  the  stern  have  standards  blazoned  with 
fleurs-de-lis,  attached  to  their  trumpets,  and  a  similar  standard  is  dis- 
played from  her  masthead.  In  some  instances,  the  banners  of  ships 
were  consecrated.  Baldwin,  Earl  of  Flanders  (1204),  had  one,  and 
William  the  Conqueror,  when  he  invaded  England  (1066),  hoisted  at 
the  masthead  of  the  ]\Iora,  the  sliip  tliat  conveyed  him  to  its  shores, 

1  Le  Croix's  Military  ami  Eelipfious  Life  in  the  Middle  Ages. 


28  THE  sY:\n',()Ls.  si-andai^ds.  and  1'.anni:i:s 

a  S(|uaio  wliite  Ihuiikt.  This  Iiuiiirt  was  cliarged  ^vitli  a  gold  cross 
within  a  hlue  border,  sunnoimtcd  liy  another  cross  of  gold,  conse- 
crated by  Tope  Alexander  II. 
expressly  for  the  occasion. 
Her  name,  the  Mira,  or  Mora, 
is  supposed  to  mean  Man- 
sion. She  was  presented  to 
the  Conqueror  by  liis  duch- 
ess as  a  parting  gift.  A  pic- 
ture of  her,  from  which  our 
illustration  is  drawn,  is  pre- 
served on  the  Bayeux  tai)estry. 
Her  sail  is  painted  in  three  stripes  ;  viz.,  red  or  brown,  yellow,  and  red. 
All  the  ships  of  William's  fleet  were  painted  in  horizontal  stripes,  dif- 
ferently colored.  The  Mora  was  painted  alternately  brown  and  blue. 
A  variety  of  colors  were  borne  by  English  sliips  in  the  fourteenth 
century.  Besides  the  national  banner  of  St.  George,  and  the  banner 
of  the  king's  army  (which,  after  the  year  1340,  consisted  of  three  lions 
of  England  quartered  with  the  arms  of  France,  —  azure  semee  of  gold 
fleur-de-lis),  every  ship  had  pennoncels  with  the  arms  of  St.  George 
and  two  streamers  charged  with  the  image  of  the  saint  after  M'hom 
she  was  called,  if  she  had  not  a  Christian  name,  the  streamers  con- 
tained other  charges.  About  1346,  one  hundred  and  sixty  pennoncels 
with  the  arms  of  St.  George  were  made  for  ships.  The  standards  of 
St.  George  had  sometimes  a  leopard,  i.e.  the  lion  of  England,  in  chief. 

In  1337,  the  St.  Botolph  and  the  St.  Nicholas  carried  streamers 
with  the  images  of  those  saints.  These  streamers  were  from  fourteen 
to  thirty-two  ells  long,  and  from  three  to  five  in  breadth.  Before  the 
battle  of  Espagnols  sur  Mer,  in  1350,  two  standards  and  two  streamers 
were  issued  to  all  the  king's  ships,  those  called  after  saints  having 
their  effigies.  Some  of  the  other  streamers  were  peculiar.  That  of 
the  Jerusalem  was  white  and  red,  and  contained  M-hite  dragons,  green 
lozenges,  and  leopards'  heads.  That  of  the  Edward  liad  the  king's 
arms  with  an  E,  and  the  streamer  and  l)anner  of  the  shi})  appointed 
for  the  king's  wardrobe  was  charged  with  his  arms  and  a  black  key. 
Two  gonfanons  are  stated  to  have  once  been  supplied  to  ships,  prob- 
ably to  distinguish  the  vessels  that  bore  them,  carrying  ecclesiastics, 
from  other  vessels ;  also  a  streamer  charged  with  a  dragon. 

Streamers  were*  considered  warlike  ensigns.  One  of  the  requi- 
sitions made  to  the  INIayor  of  Lyons  l»y  the  French  ambassadors 


OF  ANCIENT  AND   MODEKN   NATIONS. 


29 


appointed  to  carry  the  treaty  of  Montreuil  into  effect,  was,  that  the 
masters  of  ships  belonging  to  Lyons,  who  were  going  to  those  ambas- 
sadors in  Hainault,  should  be  forbidden  to  bear  unusual  streamers,  or 
other  signs  of  mortal  war,  until  commanded  to  do  so  by  the  king,  to 
avoid  incurring  the  dangers  mentioned  in  the  eighth  article  of  a  con- 
vention agreed  to  before  Pope  Boniface  the  Eighth,  for  settling  some 
disputes  between  the  French  and  the  inhabitants  of  Lyons,  and  of 
other  maritime  towns  of  England  and  of  Gascony. 

The  banner  of  the  admiral  of  a  fleet  was  hoisted  on  board  his  ship  ; 
and  when  any  eminent  person  was  a  passenger,  his  banner  was  also 
displayed.  In  1337,  Sir  John  Eoos,  admiral  of  the  northern  fleet,  was 
sent  to  convey  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln  and  the  Earls  of  Salisbury  and 
Huntingdon  on  their  return  to  England  from  a  foreign  mission ;  and 
the  Christopher  was  furnished  with  banners  of  the  arms  of  Sir  John 
Eoos,  of  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  and  of  the  Earl  of  Salisbury.  These 
banners  were  one  ell  and  three-quarters  long,  and  two  cloths  wide. 
The  Christopher  also  received  a  banner  of  the  king's  arms,  and  two 
worsted  standards,  which  were  nine  ells  long  and  three  cloths  wide. 

Besides  streamers  bearing  a  representation  of  the  saint  for  whom  a 
ship  was  named,  his  image  was  sent  on  board.  When  Edward  III. 
embarked  in  his  Cog,  the  Thomas,  in  1350,  before  the  battle  with  the 
Spaniards,  an  image  of  St.  Thomas  was  made  for  that  vessel ;  and  an 
image  of  Our  Lady,  captured  in  a  ship  at  sea  by  John  de  Eyngeborne, 
was  carefully  conveyed  from  Westminster  to  Eltham,  and  there  de- 
livered to  the  king,  February,  137G.  Targets  and  pavises  or  large 
shields,  great  numbers  of  which  were  placed  on  every  ship,  w^ere 
sometimes  painted  with  the  arms  of  St.  George,  or  with  an  escutcheon 

of  the  king's  arms  within  the  garter.^ 

On  a  manuscript  relating  the  prin- 
cipal  events    in   the   life  of    Eichard 
Beauchamp,  Earl  of  Warwick,  written 
by   John   Eons,  a  chanting   priest   of 
Guy's  Cliff,  there  is  a  representation 
of  a   ship   having   a  main    and   miz- 
zen  mast  with  the  sail  braced  up  for 
sailing  on  a  wind,  contrary  to  the  ear- 
lier practice  of  sailing  always  before 
Ship  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  1437.         the  wiud.     The  Streamer  does  not  fly 
in  accordance  with  the  angle  of  tlie  sail ;  but  this  anomaly  by  the 
priestly  artist  may  be  supposed  to  have  arisen  from  his  desire  to 

1  Sir  N.  Harris  Xieolas's  Histor}-  of  tlie  Royal  Navy,  vol.  ii. 


30  TlIK    SVMUOLS.    STAM)Ai;i>S.    AND    I'.ANNKKS 

make  the  l.K?st  display  ul'  tlie  anuorial  bearings  ou  the  streamer.  From 
the  foHowiiig  bill,  the  origiual  <»r  wliidi  is  preserved  in  Dugdale's 
'"WarwickshirL','  it  seems  this  streamer  was  made  in  14o7,  viz. :  — 

'•  riif.^^c  hv  tlic  parcells  that  Will  Soburg,  citizen  and  i»fyiitour  of  London, 
luilli  dcliverL'd  in  the  month  uf  Juyn  [duly],  the  xv  yeer  of  the  reign  of  Kiii^' 
Harry  Sext  [1437],  to  John  Itay,  taillour  of  the  same  cit)',  for  the  use  and 
stuir  of  my  Lord  Warwick. 

•■  Ifevi,  for  a  grete  Stremour  for  the  !?hip  of  xl  yerd.s  lenght,  and 
vij.  yerdes  in  brede,  with  a  grete  Bear  and  Gryfon  holding  a  ragged 
staff,  poudrid  full  of  ragged  staves,  and  for  a  grete  crosse  of  8t. 
George,  for  the  lymming  and  portraying  1 .  G.  8. 

"  Ite7n,  for  a  guiton  for  the  shippe,  of  viij.  yerdes  long,  poudrid 
full  of  ragged  staves,  for  the  lymming  and  workmanship  0.  2.  0. 

"  Item,  iij.  Pennons  of  satyn  entreteyned  with  ragged  staves,  for 
the  lymming  full  of  ragged  staves,  price  the  piece,  ijs,  3.  G.  0." 

The  gryfon  mentioned  in  this  account  does  not  appear  on  tlie 
streamer ;  probably  it  was  painted  on  the  side  not  seen ;  with  this 
exception,  the  streamer  of  the  ship  is  identified  with  that  described 
in  the  bill,  and  shows  that  the  ship  was  equipped  July,  1437.  The 
use  of  streamers  was  confined  to  ships,  and  is  continued  in  the  narrow 
or  coach-whip  pennants  of  modern  ships  of  war. 

When  Eustace,  the  monk,  in  1217,  put  to  sea  from  Calais  with  a 
fleet  of  eighty  ships,  besides  galleys  and  smaller  craft,  intending  to 
proceed  up  the  Thames  to  London,  and  Avas  descried  off  the  coast  of 
England,  some  one  exclaimed,  "  Is  there  any  one  among  you  who  is 
this  day  ready  to  die  for  England  ? "  and  was  answered  by  another, 
"  Here  am  I ; "  when  the  first  speaker  observed,  "  Take  with  thee  an 
axe,  and  wdien  thou  seest  us  engaging  the  tyrant's  ship,  climb  \\]>  the 
mast  and  cut  down  the  banner,  that  the  other  vessels  may  be  dispersed 
for  the  want  of  a  leader."  We  may  infer  from  this  that  the  French 
commander  of  a  fleet  carried  a  distinguishing  banner.  Yet  nothing 
has  been  found  showing  that  the  English  admiral  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  IL  bore  any  distinguishing  ensign  l^y  day.  As  the  admiral 
and  his  vice-admiral  certainly  carried  distinguishing  lights  by  night, 
it  is  extremely  probable  that  his  ship  was  indicated  by  his  banner  at 
the  masthead,  which  agrees  with  the  fact  that  vessels  were  supplied 
with  the  banner  of  the  admiral  who  sailed  in  them.  In  134G,  on  an 
expedition  against  Normandy,  Froissart  says,  Edward  III.  took  the  en- 
sign from  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  the  admiral,  and  declared  that  he  him- 
self would  be  admiral  on  the  voyage,  and,  running  ahead,  led  the  fleet. 

On  a  rose  noble  of  Edward  III.,  the  king  is  represented  as  standing 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


31 


on  a  ship  which  carries  at  its  masthead  a  pennon  of  St.  George.^  On 
a  rose  noble  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  her  Majesty  is  seated  in  the  ship, 
which  is  charged  with  a  Tudor  rose,  and  carries  at  the  bow  a  banner 
bearing  an  initial  letter,  —  a  Gothic  E- 

Henry  VII.  ordered  built  a  great  ship,  such  as  had  never  been  seen 
in  England,  which  was  finished  in  1515,  and  called  the  Harry  Grace  de 

Dicu.  A  drawing 
of  her,  preserved  in 
the  Pepsian  collec- 
tion at  Cambridge, 
England,  shows  her 
at  anchor  profuse- 
ly decorated  with 
twenty-five  flags 
and  standards. 
The  ship  has  four 
masts  and  the  high 
poop  and  forecastle 
of  those  times. 
Each  of  the  round 

The  Han-y  Grace  de  D.cu,  1.15.  ^^^^     ^^   ^^^   ^^^^^ 

and  top  masts'  heads,  and  the  bowsprit  end  (nine  in  all),  are  furnished 
with  a  streamer  or  standard  bearing  a  cross  of  St.  George  at  the  luff, 
with  the  ends  divided  longitudinally  by  a  red  and  white  stripe,  the 
red  in  chief.  At  three  of  the  mastheads  are  St.  George  ensigns,  and 
on  the  principal  mast  a  flag  or  standard  blazoned  with  the  royal  arms, 
and  having  a  St.  George  cross  in  the  fly.  The  poop,  waist,  and  fore- 
castle show  a  line  of  flags  or  banners,  two  of  which  are  St.  George  flags 
with  a  blue  fly  bearing  a  fleur-de-lis,  and  one  bearing  a  rose,  also  two 
plain  blue  flags  charged  with  a  fleur-de-lis  and  rose.  Four  are  striped 
horizontally  red  and  white,  and  four  striped  horizontally  yellow  and 
white. 

A  drawing  of  the  same  ship  under  sail,  given  by  Allen,  exhibits 
a  banner  with  the  royal  arms  at  the  main  masthead,  a  blue  banner 
bearing  a  rose  on  the  mast  next  abaft  it,  and  St.  George  flags,  white 
with  a  red  cross,  at  both  the  fore  and  mizzen  mastheads.  A  large 
royal  standard  on  the  ensign  staff  at  the  poop,  and  seven  streamers 

1  For  a  description  of  this  rose  noble,  see  *  The  American  Journal  of  Numismatics ' 
for  January,  1872,  also  Entick's  '  Xaval  History,'  published  1757.  It  was  coined  to 
assert  King  Edward's  title  to  France,  his  dominion  of  the  sea,  antl  to  commemorate  his 
naval  victory  over  the  French  fleet  in  1340, — the  greatest  that  had  ever  been  obtained 
at  sea  by  the  Englisli,  and  the  first  wherein  a  king  of  England  liad  commanded  in  person, 
and  wherein  tlie  Frencli  are  .said  to  have  lost  30,000  men. 


32 


TllK    SV.MlUtLS,    SlANDAliDS.    AND    HAXXEKS 


or  standards  of  various  colors  and  devices  are  scattered  about  the 

111  the  ancient  ]iicture  preserved  at  Windsor  Castle  of  tlie  embar- 
kation of  Henry  VIII.  at  Dover,  May  31,  152U,  the  ship  he  is  in  — 

supposed  to  be  the 
Harry  Grace  de 
Dieu,  or  tlie  Great 
Harry  —  is  repre- 
sented as  sailing 
out  of  the  harbor 
of  Dover  having 
her  sails  set.  She 
has  four  masts, 
with  two  round 
tops  to  each  mast, 
except  the  sliort- 
est  mizzen ;  her 
sails  and  pennants 
are  of  cloth  of  gold 
damasked.  The 
royal  standard  of 
England  is  flying 

Ship  of  War  in  which  Henry  VIII.  embarked  at  Dover  in  1520.  c,oo^^      nf      +I1D 

quarters  of  the  forecastle,  and  the  staff  of  each  standard  is  surrounded 
by  a  fleur-de-lis,  or ;  pennants  are  flying  from  the  mastheads,  and  at 
each  quarter  of  the  deck  is  a  standard  of  St.  George's  cross.  Her 
quarters  and  sides,  as  also  her  tops,  are  fortified  and  decorated  M-ith 
heater-shaped  shields  charged  differently  with  the  cross  of  St.  George 
azure,  a  fleur-de-lis  or,  party  per  pale  (mjcnt,  and  vert  a  union  rose,  and 
party  per  pale  arfjcnt  and  vert  a  portcullis  or,  alternately  and  repeatedly. 
On  the  main  deck  the  king  is  standing,  richly  dressed  in  a  garment 
of  cloth  of  gold  edged  with  ermine,  the  sleeves  crimson,  and  the  jacket 
and  breeches  the  same.  His  round  bonnet  is  covered  with  a  white 
feather  laid  on  the  upper  side  of  the  brim.  On  his  right  hand  stands 
a  person  in  a  dark  ^dolet  coat  slashed  with  black,  with  red  stockings  ; 
and  on  his  right  three  others,  all  evidently  persons  of  distinction; 
behind  them,  the  yeomen  of  the  guard.  Two  trumpeters  are  seated 
on  the  edge  of  the  quarter-deck,  and  the  same  number  on  the  forecastle, 
sounding  their  trumpets.     On  the  front  of  the  forecastle  and  on  the 

1  A  return  of  the  Royal  Sliippcs  at  ^Vol\villge  in  tlie  1st  year  of  Edwd.  YI.  names 
tlie  "Harry  Grace  a  Dieu,  1000  ton.s  ;  Souldiers,  349  ;  Marryners,  301  ;  Gomiers,  50  ; 
Brass  Pieces,  19  ;  Iron  Pieces,  103." 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        33 

stern  are  painted,  within  a  circle  of  the  garter,  the  arms  of  France  and 
England,  supported  by  a  lion  and  a  dragon,  being  the  supporters  then 
used  by  Henry  VIII.  The  same  arms  are  repeated  on  the  stern.  On 
each  side  of  the  rudder  is  a  port-hole,  with  a  brass  cannon ;  and  on 
the  side  of  the  main  deck  are  two  port-holes  with  cannon,  and  the 
same  number  under  the  forecastle.  The  figure  on  the  ship's  head 
seems  meant  to  represent  a  lion,  but  is  extremely  ill  carved.  Under 
the  ship's  stern  is  a  boat,  having  at  her  bow  two  standards  of  St. 
George's  cross,  and  the  same  at  her  stern,  with  yeomen  of  the  guard 
and  other  persons  in  her. 

On  the  right  of  the  Great  Harry  is  a  three-masted  ship,  having  her 
sails  furled,  and  broad  pennants  of  St.  George's  cross  flying.  She  has 
four  royal  standards  on  her  forecastle.  Between  these  two  ships  is 
a  boat  filled  with  a  number  of  persons,  having  two  pennants  with 
armorial  bearings  at  the  bow,  and  two  at  the  stern. 

These  two  ships  are  followed  by  three  others,  each  having  pen- 
nants of  St.  .George's  cross  flying,  their  sides  and  tops  ornamented 
with  shields.  On  the  forecastle  of  the  nearest  of  these  ships  three 
royal  standards  are  visible,  a  fourth  being  hid  by  the  foresail.  All 
these  ships  are  crowded  with  passengers.  Between  these  ships  and 
the  shore  are  two  boats  carrying  passengers  on  board  the  ships. 
In  the  stern  of  one  of  them  is  an  ofiicer  dressed  in  green,  slashed, 
holding  up  an  ensign  or  ancient  of  five  stripes,  —  white,  green,  red, 
white,  and  green,  —  the  same  as  displayed  from  the  nearest  fort.^ 

Francis  I.  had  a  magnificent  carack  constructed  in  Normandy, 
so  richly  decorated,  witli  such  lofty  decks  and  towers,  that  it  was 
called  the  '  Great  Carack.'  It  was  anchored  in  the  roadstead  of  Havre 
de  Grace,  and  was  about  to  set  sail  at  the  head  of  a  powerful  fleet  to 
meet  the  English  monarch,  when  he  was  coming  to  the  Field  of  the  Cloth 
of  Gold.  On  the  eve  of  its  departure,  Francis  I.,  desirous  of  inspecting 
the  ship,  went  on  board,  accompanied  by  a  numerous  and  a  brilliant 
court.  A  collation  had  been  prepared  for  him  and  his  suite,  the  band 
was  playing,  salutes  were  thundering  out  in  his  honor,  and  he  was  in 
the  midst  of  his  inspection  of  the  floating  citadel,  when  an  alarm  was 
given,  —  a  fire  had  broken  out  between  decks,  and  before  help  could 
be  efficiently  rendered  the  wdiole  of  the  rigging  was  in  flames.  In  a 
few  liours  all  that  remained  of  the  Great  Carack  was  an  immense 
hull  half  consumed  aground  on  the  beach,  upon  which  the  sea  was 
casting  up  tlie  corpses  of  those  of  its  crew  who  were  killed  by  the 
discharges  of  its  cannons  during  the  progress  of  the  conflagration.^ 

1  Charnock's  Marine  Architecture.  -  La  Croix's  Jliddle  Ages. 

3 


34 


THE   SYMBOLS,    STANDAKDS.    AND    I'.ANNKKS 


An  engravinjjf  iirelixeel  to  Hey  wood's  description  of  the  Sovereign  of 
the  Seas,  l»uilt  in  1G37  by  order  of  Charles  1.,  and  which  "  was  just  as 
many  tons  burthen  as  the  year  of  our  Lord  in  wliich  slie  was  built," 
sliiiws  that  fi\nious  ship  with  four  masts.  A  white  ensign,  cantoned 
with  a  St.  George's  cross,  flics  from  a  stalf  on  her  bowsprit,  and  a  St. 
Cieorge  Hag  at  the  fore.  A  banner,  blazoned  with  the  royal  arms,  is 
at  the  main,  and  the  miion  jack  of  IGoG  at  the  mast  next  aljaft.^ 

A  jiicture  of  the  same  ship,  painted  by  Vandevelde,  exhibits  her 
with  only  three  masts,  and  under  sail,  with  a  union  jack  at  the  bow- 
sprit. A  banner, 
bearing  the  royal 
arms  and  support- 
ers, is  on  the  en- 
sign staff,  and  flags 
at  the  fore  and 
mizzen  mastheads 
are  blazoned  with 
the  crown  and  roy- 
al cypher  sur- 
rounded by  the 
garter  and  mottoes 
on  rib1)ons. 

Vessels  in  the 
IMiddle  Ages,  as  in 
ancient  times,  frequently  had  golden-colored  and  purple  sails.  The 
sails  of  seigniorial  ships  were  generally  brilliantly  emblazoned  with 
the  coat-of-arms  of  the  seignior;  the  sails  of  merchant  vessels  and  of 
fishing-boats,  with  the  image  of  a  saint,  the  patron  figure  of  the  Virgin, 
a  pious  legend,  a  sacramental  word,  or  a  sacred  sign,  intended  to  exor- 
cise evil  spirits,  who  played  no  inconsiderate  part  in  the  superstitious 
of  those  who  went  down  in  ships  upon  the  great  waters,  —  a  custom 
which  is  still  kept  alive  by  the  maritime  people  of  China  and  Japan. 
Different  kinds  of  sails  were  originally  employed  to  make  signals  at 
sea ;  but  flags  soon  began  to  be  used  for  this  purpose.  A  single  flag, 
having  a  different  meaning,  according  to  its  position,  ordinarily  sufficed 
to  transmit  all  necessary  orders  in  the  daytime.  At  night,  its  place 
was  taken  by  lighted  beacons.  These  flags,  banners,  standards,  and 
pennants,  most  of  them  embroidered  with  the  arms  of  a  town,  a  sov- 

1  "  A  tnie  description  of  His  JIajesty's  royal  ship,  built  this  year,  1637,  at  Woolwicli, 
iu  Kent,  to  the  Glory  of  the  English  Nation,  and  not  to  be  paralleled  in  the  whole 
Christian  world,"  by  Thomas  Hey  wood  ;  to  which  is  prefixed  a  Portrait  of  the  Ship. 


The  Sovereign  of  the  Seas,  1G37,  by  Vandevelde. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         35 

ereigii,  or  an  admiral,  were  made  of  light  stuffs,  taffeta,  or  satin; 
sometimes  square,  sometimes  triangular,  sometimes  forked,  each  had 
its  own  use  and  significance,  either  for  the  embellishment  of  the  ves- 
sel's appearance,  or  to  assist  in  manoeuvring.  The  galleys  were  pro- 
vided with  a  smaller  kind  of  pennant,  which  was  put  up  at  the  prow, 
or  fastened  to  the  handle  of  each  oar.  These  were  purely  for  orna- 
mental purposes,  and  were  often  trimmed  with  golden  or  silk  fringes. 

Amongst  the  most  celebrated  flags  and  standards  of  the  French 
navy  was  the  haucents,  a  name  that  recalls  the  banner  of  the  Knights 
Templar.  These  flags  of  red  taffeta,  sometimes  s^Drinkled  with  gold, 
were  only  employed  in  the  most  merciless  wars ;  for,  says  a  document 
of  1292,  "  they  signified  certain  death  and  mortal  strife  to  all  sailors 
everywhere."  It  is  related  of  Philip  the  Bold,  of  Burgundy,  in  his  • 
•preparation  for  the  invasion  of  England,  1404,  his  ship  was  painted 
outside  in  blue  and  gold,  and  there  were  three  thousand  standards  with 
his  motto,  assumed,  no  doubt,  for  the  occasion,  but  which  he  after- 
Avard  always  retained :  " 3{oult  me  tarde"  It  was  also  embroidered  on 
the  sails  of  his  ships,  encircled  by  a  wreath  of  daisies,  in  compliment 
to  his  wife.  In  1570,  Marco  Antonio  Colonna  hoisted  on  his  flag-gal- 
ley a  pennant  of  crimson  damask,  which  bore  on  both  sides  a  Christ 
on  the  cross,  between  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  with  the  Emperor  Con- 
stantine's  motto,  "  In  hoc  signo  mnces."  The  banner  which  Don  Juan 
of  Austria  received  at  Naples,  on  the  14th  of  April,  1571,  with  the 
staff  of  supreme  command  over  the  Christian  League,  was  made  of 
crimson  damask,  fringed  with  gold,  on  which  were  embroidered,  be- 
sides the  arms  of  the  prince  a  crucifix,  with  the  arms  of  the  Pope, 
those  of  the  Catholic  king,  and  of  the  Eepublic  of  Venice,  united  by  a 
chain,  symbolical  of  the  union  of  the  three  powers  "  against  the  Turk." 

A  ship  on  the  tapestry  of  the  House  of  Lords,  which  has  been  de- 
stroyed by  fire,  exhibited  the  royal  standard  at  the  main,  swallow- 
tailed  banners  at  the  fore  and  mizzen,  and  a  St.  George  ensign. 

In  a  very  old  representation  of  the  fight  with  the  Spanish  Armada, 
on  the  coast  of  England,  all  the  ships  wear  ensigns,  flags,  and  streamers. 

The  Venetian  galleys  of  the  fourteenth  century  carried  blue  banners 
and  ensigns,  blazoned  with  the  winged  lion  and  book  of  St.  Mark,  or. 

A  manuscript  in  the  British  Museum,  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIIL, 
assigning  directions  relative  to  the  size  of  banners,  standards,  &c., 
says  :  "  A  streamer  shall  stand  in  the  toppe  of  a  shippe,  or  in  the  fore 
castle,  and  therein  be  putt  no  armes,  liut  in  mans  conceit  or  device, 
and  may  be  of  the  lengthe  of  twenty,  thirty,  forty,  or  sixty  yardes, 
and  it  is  slitte  as  well  as  a  guyd  homme  or  standarde,  and  that  may 


36  THE   SYMBOLS.    STANDAIIDS.    AND    r.ANNKKS 

a  «'eutler  man  nr  aiiv  ullier  liavc  and  Iteare."  This  answers  to  the 
description  of  the  modern  coach-\vhi]>  ])ennant,  used  to  denote  the  com- 
mander of  a  single  ship  of  ■war. 

When  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  sailed  for  England,  on  the  21st 
of  October,  1G88,  with  live  hundred  sail,  he  carried  the  Hag  of  Eng- 
land and  his  own  arms,  with  this  motto:  "  I  vjill  maintain  fhr  Prot- 
ectant luliijiun  and  the  Liberties  of  JSnf/land." 

SOVEEEIGXTY   OF   THE   SEA.  —  STRIKING   FLAGS. 

As  early  as  the  reigu  of  King  John,  England  claimed  the  sover- 
eignty of  the  narrow  seas  surrounding  her  little  island,  and  in  the 
second  year  of  his  reign,  1200,  it  was  declared  by  the  Ordinance  of 
Hastings,  so  called  from  the  place  where  it  bore  date,  "  That  if  any 
lieutenant  of  the  king's  fleet,  in  any  naval  expedition,  do  meet  witli 
on  the  sea  any  ships  or  vessels,  laden  or  unladen,  that  will  not  %ail 
and  lower  their  sails  at  the  command  of  the  lieutenant  of  the  king, 
or  the  king's  admiral,  or  his  lieutenant,  but  shall  tight  with  them  of 
the  fleet,  such,  if  taken,  shall  be  reputed  as  enemies,  and  their  ships, 
vessels,  and  goods  be  seized,  and  forfeited  as  the  goods  of  enemies,  not- 
withstanding any  thing  that  the  masters  or  owners  thereof  may  after- 
wards come  and  alledge  of  such  ships,  vessels,  and  goods,  lieing  the 
goods  of  those  in  amity  with  our  lord  the  king ;  and  that  the  common 
sailors  on  board  the  same  .shall  be  punished  for  their  rebellion  with 
imprisonment  of  their  bodies  at  discretion."  ^ 

In  the  reign  of  ]\Iary,  1554,  a  Spanish  fleet  of  one  hundred  and 
sixty  sail,  having  Philip,  their  king,  on  board,  to  espouse  Queen  Mary, 
fell  in  with  that  of  England,  of  twenty-eight  sail,  under  the  command 
of  Lord  William  Howard,  lord  high  admiral,  in  the  narrow  seas. 
Philip  had  the  flag  of  Spain  flying  at  the  maintop-masthead,  and 
W'ould  have  passed  the  English  fleet  without  paying  the  customary 
honors,  had  not  the  English  admu'al  fired  a  shot  at  the  Spanish  ad- 
miral, and  forced  the  whole  fleet  to  strike  their  colors  and  loiver  their 
topsails  as  an  homage  to  the  English  flag,  before  he  would  permit  his 
squadron  to  salute  the  Spanish  prince. 

In  the  reign  of  James  I.,  in  1604,  a  dispute  having  arisen  between 
the  English  and  Dutch  with  respect  to  the  compliment  of  the  flag,  a 
fleet  was  sent  to  sea  under  the  command  of  Sir  William  Monson,  who, 
on  his  arrival  in  the  Downs,  discovered  a  squadron  of  Dutch  men-of- 
war,  whose  admiral,  on  Sir  William  ]\Ionson's  passing  their  squadron, 

1  Kent's  Biog.  Xau.,  vol.  i.  ;  Buicliet's  Naval  History  ;  Macaulay. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         37 

struck  his  flag  three  times.  The  English  admiral,  not  satisfied  with 
the  compliment,  persisted  in  his  keeping  it  struck  during  his  cruise  on 
the  English  coast. 

November,  1625,  Sir  Eobert  Mansell  fell  in  with  six  French  men- 
of-war  on  the  coast  of  Spain,  and  obliged  their  admiral  to  strike  his 
flag,  and  pay  him  the  usual  compliments. 

In  1629,  the  various  disputes  constantly  arising  respecting  the 
honor  of  the  flag,  which  the  English  claimed,  induced  Hugo  Grotius  to 
write  a  treatise  called  '  Mare  Liberum,'  on  the  futility  of  the  English 
title  to  the  dominion  of  the  sea,  which  he  considered  was  a  gift  from 
God  common  to  all  nations. 

When  Sir  John  Pennington  carried  the  Duke  of  Hamilton  into 
Germany,  in  1631,  the  Dutch  ships  which  he  met  with  in  the  Baltic 
Sea  made  no  difiiculty  in  striking  their  flags  to  him ;  and  the  same 
respect  was  paid  by  the  Dutch  admirals  in  the  Mediterranean. 

In  1634,  Mr.  Selden  wrote  a  treatise  in  answer  to  Grotius,  called 
'  Mare  Clausum,'  in  wliich  he  asserted  that  Britons  "  have  an  hereditary 
and  uninterrupted  right  to  the  sovereignty  of  their  seas,  conveyed  to 
them  from  their  ancestors,  in  trust  for  their  latest  posterity."  A  copy 
of  this  book  was  ordered  by  the  king  "  to  be  kept  in  the  Court  of 
Admiralty,  there  to  remain  as  a  just  evidence  of  our  dominion  of 
the  sea."  A  proclamation  was  published  the  same  year,  asserting  the 
sovereignty  of  the  sea,  and  to  regulate  the  manner  of  wearing  the  flag. 

In  1635,  at  the  blockade  of  Dunkirk,  the  admiral  of  Holland 
always  struck  his  flag  to  any  English  ship  of  war  which  came  within 
sight.  The  same  year,  the  combined  fleets  of  France  and  Holland 
vauntingly  gave  out  that  they  intended  to  assert  their  independence, 
and  dispute  that  prerogative  which  the  English  claimed  in  the 
narrow  seas ;  but  as  soon  as  they  were  informed  an  English  fleet  of 
forty  ships  was  at  sea,  and  in  search  of  them,  they  quitted  the  Eng- 
lish coast  and  returned  to  their  own. 

On  the  20th  of  August,  1636,  the  Dutch  vice-admiral,  Van  Dorp, 
saluted  the  English  admiral,  the  Earl  of  Northumberland,  by  lowering 
his  topsails,  striking  his  flag,  and  firing  of  guns ;  and  the  same  year, 
on  the  Earl's  return  to  the  Downs,  he  discovered  twenty-six  sail  of 
Spaniards  from  Calais,  bound  to  Dunkirk,  who,  on  their  own  coast, 
upon  his  approach,  paid  him  like  marks  of  respect. 

In  the  same  ship  (The  Happy  Entrance),  Sir  George  Cartaret,  the 
same  year,  carried  the  Earl  of  Arundel  to  Helvoet  Sluice,  where  Van 
Tromp,  the  Dutch  admiral,  was  then  riding  at  anchor,  M'ho  took  in  his 
flag,  although  Sir  George  wore  none,  and  saluted  him  with  seven 


38  THE    SYM15(tLS.    STAXDARDS.    AND    BANNERS 

giiiis  ;  1)111  "  in  ivuTinl  lie  ^va.s  in  a  liarbor  of  the  States  General,  he 
hoisted  it  aijain." 

A  French  ship  of  war  at  Fayal,  the  same  year  (KISG),  struck  her 
flag,  and  kept  it  in  while  a  Ih'itish  ship  of  war  was  in  sight;  and 
another  French  ship  of  war,  coming  out  of  Lisbon,  struck  her  topsails 
to  Sir  rdchard  I'lumUy. 

The  memorable  war  with  Holland,  in  1()."2,  was  occasioned  by 
Commodore  Young's  having  fired  upon  a  J  )utch  man-of-war,  on  the 
14th  of  May,  1G52,  Avhich  had  refused  the  accustomed  honor  of  the  Hag. 
Young  first  sent  a  boat  on  board  the  Dutchman  to  persuade  him  to 
strike.  The  Dutch  captain  very  honestly  replied,  that "  the  States  had 
to  take  off  his  head  if  he  struck."  Upon  this  the  fight  began,  and 
the  enemy  were  soon  compelled  to  submit.  There  were  present  two 
other  ships  of  war  and  about  twelve  merchantmen,  none  of  which  in- 
terfered ;  nor,  after  the  Dutch  ships  had  taken  in  their  flags,  did  Com- 
modore Young  attempt  to  make  any  prizes.^ 

On  the  4th  of  April,  1G54,  a  peace  was  concluded  between  England 
and  Holland,  by  which  the  Dutch  consented  to  acknowledge  the  sov- 
ereignty of  the  sea  to  the  English. 

"  That  the  ships  of  the  Dutch,  as  well  ships  of  war  as  others,  meet- 
ing any  of  the  ships  of  war  of  the  English  Commonwealth  in  the 
British  seas,  shall  strike  their  flags  and  lower  their  topsail,  in  such 
manner  as  hath  ever  been  at  any  time  heretofore  practised  under  any 
forms  of  government." 

This  is  the  first  instance  of  England's  establishing  her  right  by  a 
formal  treaty .^ 

In  1673,  an  order  was  issued  to  the  commanders  of  his  ^Majesty's 
ships  of  war,  that  in  future  they  were  not  to  require  from  the  ships 
of  w^ar  of  France  the  striking  of  the  flag  or  topsail,  or  salute  ;  neither 
were  they  to  give  any  salute  to  those  of  the  Christian  king.^ 

On  the  9tli  of  February,  1704,  another  treaty  was  made  with  Hol- 
land, which  stipulated  that  any  Dutch  ships  of  war  or  others  meeting 
those  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  "  in  any  of  the  seas  from  Cape 
Finisterre  to  the  middle  point  of  the  land  Van  Staten,  in  Norway, 
shall  strike  their  topsail  and  lower  their  flag,  in  the  same  manner  and 
with  the  like  testimony  of  respect  as  has  been  usually  paid  at  any 
time  or  place  heretofore  by  the  Dutch  ships  to  those  of  the  king  or 
his  ancestors." 

1  Burchet's  Naval  History  ;  Naval  Biography.     London,  1800. 
-  Anderson's  Origin  of  Commerce,  vol.  ii. 
*  Memoirs  relating  to  tlie  Navy. 


OF   A^X'IENT   AND   MODERN  NATIONS.  39 

In  1704,  a  dispute  arose  at  Lisbon  respecting  the  ceremony  of  the 
flag,  in  which  the  English  admiral,  Sir  George  Eooke,  the  King  of 
Spain,  and  the  King  of  Portugal,  were  participators.  The  King  of  Por- 
tugal required  that  on  his  coming  on  board  the  admiral's  ship  in  his 
barge  of  state,  and  striking  his  standard,  the  English  flag  might  be 
struck  at  the  same  time ;  and  that  when  his  Catholic  Majesty,  wdth 
himself,  should  go  off  from  the  ship,  his  standard  might  be  hoisted, 
and  the  admiral's  flag  continued  struck  until  they  were  on  shore. 
This  proposition  was  made  from  the  King  of  Portugal  to  the  King  of 
Spain.  The  admiral  replied,  "  That  his  Majesty,  so  long  as  he  should 
be  on  board,  might  command  the  flag  to  be  struck  when  he  pleased ; 
but  that  whenever  he  left  the  ship,  he  was  himself  admiral,  and 
obliged  to  execute  his  commission  by  immediately  hoisting  his  flag." 
"  So  the  flag  of  England  was  no  longer  struck  than  the  standard  of 
Portugal."  ^ 

Only  six  years  before  our  Eevolutionary  war,  viz.  in  1769,  a  French 
frigate  anchored  in  the  Downs,  without  paying  the  customary  sa- 
lute, and  Captain  John  Hollwell,  of  the  Apollo  frigate^  sent  an  oflicer 
on  board  to  demand  it.  The  French  captain  refused  to  comply  ; 
upon  which  Captain  HollM-ell  ordered  the  Hawke  sloop  of  war  to 
fire  two  shots  over  her,  when  the  Frenchman  thought  proper  to  strike 
his  colors  and  salute. 

Falconer's  '  Dictionary,'  published  the  same  year,  contains  the  reg- 
ulations of  the  royal  navy  with  regard  to  salutes,  and  says  :  "  All  foreign 
ships  of  war  are  expected  to  take  in  their  flag  and  strike  their  topsails 
in  acknowledgment  of  his  Majesty's  sovereignty  in  his  Majesty's  seas; 
and,  if  they  refuse,  it .  is  enjoined  to  all  flag-officers  and  commanders 
to  use  their  utmost  endeavors  to  compel  them  thereto,  and  not  suffer 
any  dishonor  to  be  done  his  Majesty."  "  And  it  is  to  be  observed  in 
his  Majesty's  seas  his  Majesty's  ships  are  in  no  wise  to  strike  to  any ; 
and  that  in  other  parts  no  ship  is  to  strike  her  flag  or  topsail  to  any 
foreigner,  unless  such  foreign  ship  shall  have  first  struck,  or  at  the 
same  time  strike,  her  flag  or  topsail  to  his  Majesty's  ship." 

Instances  of  British  arrogance  in  claiming  this  sovereignty  of  the 
narrow  seas  could  be  multiplied. 

The  present  rule  for  ships  of  the  United  States  meeting  the  flag- 
ships of  war  of  other  nations  at  sea,  or  in  foreign  parts,  is  for  the 
United  States  vessel  to  salute  the  foreign  ship  first,  if  she  be  com- 

1  Campbell's  Lives  of  the  Admirals,  vol.  iii. ;  James's  Naval  History  ;  Lediard's 
Naval  History  ;  Entick's  Naval  History  ;  Burchet's  Naval  History  ;  Harris's  Hist.  Eoyal 
Navy  ;  Schomberg's  Naval  Chronology,  &c. 


40  THK    SYMI50LS,    STAM  )A1JI  )S,    AND    r.ANNKKS 

inaiuled  l)y  an  ntlicer  his  superior  in  r;ink,  and  lie  receives  assurance 
that  he  will  receive  gun  for  gun  in  return.  The  national  flag  of  the 
vessel  saluted  is  displayed  at  the  fore  and  the  jib,  hoisted  at  the  fii'st 
gun  and  hauleil  down  at  the  last. 

"  Xo  vessel  of  the  navy  is  to  lower  her  sails  or  dip  her  colors  to 
another  vessel  of  the  navy ;  but  should  a  foreign  vessel,  or  merchant 
vessel  of  the  United  States,  dip  her  colors  or  lower  her  sails  to  any 
vessel  of  the  navy,  the  compliment  shall  be  instantly  returned." 


THE  STANDARDS  OF  SYMBOLIC  MASOXEY.  —  STANDARD  OF 
THE  INDEPEXDEXT  ORDER  OF  ODD  FELLOWS.  —  STAND- 
ARDS OF  THE  KXIGHTS  TEMPLAR  AXD  KXIGHTS  OF  ST. 
JOHX. 

Standards  of  Symbolic  ;^L\.soNRY.  —  The  standard  designated  as 
the  principal  or  general  standard  of  symbolic  masonry  is  described 
as  follows :  — 

The  escutcheon  or  shield  on  the  banner  is  divided  into  four  com- 
partments or  quarters  by  a  green  cross,  over  which  a  narrower  one 
of  the  same  length  of  linil),  and  of  a  yellow  color,  is  placed,  forming 
what  is  called  a  cross  vert,  voided  or ;  each  of  the  compartments 
formed  by  the  limits  of  the  cross  is  occupied  by  a  different  device. 
In  the  first  quarter  is  placed  a  golden  lion  in  a  field  of  blue,  to  repre- 
sent the  standard  of  the  tribe  of  Judah ;  in  the  second,  a  black  ox 
on  a  field  of  gold,  to  represent  Ephraim ;  in  the  third,  a  man  in  a  field 
of  gold,  to  represent  Reuben ;  and  in  the  fourth,  a  golden  eagle  on  a 
blue  ground,  to  represent  Dan.  Over  all  is  placed  on  a  crest  an  ark 
of  the  covenant,  and  the  motto  is,  "  Holiness  to  the  Lord."  Besides 
this,  there  are  six  other  standards  proper  to  be  borne  in  processions, 
the  material  of  which  must  be  white  bordered  with  a  blue  fringe  or 
ribbon,  and  on  each  of  which  is  inscribed  one  of  the  following  words : 
Faith,  Hope,  Charity,  Wisdom,  Strength,  Beauty. 

In  the  royal  arch  degree,  as  recognized  in  the  Ignited  States,  there 
are  five  standards  •  — 

The  royal  arch  standard,  for  commandery  use,  is  of  scarlet  silk, 
usually  twelve  by  eighteen  inches,  with  painted  quarterings ;  viz.,  a 
lion,  a  priest,  a  bull,  and  an  eagle. 

The  royal  arch  captain  carries  a  white  standard,  emblematic  of 
purity  of  heart  and  rectitude  of  conduct. 

The  standard  of  the  master  of  the  third  vail  is  scarlet,  emblematic 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


41 


of  fervency  and  zeal,  and  is  the  appropriate  color  of  the  royal  arch 
degree. 

The  standard  of  the  master  of  the  second  vail  is  purple,  which  is 
emblematic  of  union,  being  a  due  mixture  of  blue  and  scarlet,  the 
appropriate  colors  of  the  symbolic  and  royal  arch  degrees ;  and  this 
teaches  to  cultivate  the  spirit  of  harmony  and  love  between  brethren 
of  the  symbolic  and  companions  of  the  sublime  degrees,  which  should 
ever  distinguish  the  members  of  a  society  founded  upon  the  principle 
of  everlasting  truth  and  universal  philanthropy. 

The  standard  of  the  master  of  the  first  vail  is  blue,  the  peculiar 
color  of  the  ancient  craft  or  symbolic  degTees,  which  is  emblematic  of 
universal  friendship  and  benevolence. 

In  the  royal  arch  degrees,  as  practised  in  the  chapters  of  England, 
twelve  standards  are  used,  illustrating  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel, 
which  are  as  follows  :  ^  — 


1.  Judah,  scarlet,  a  lion  couchant. 

2.  Issachar,  bhie,  an  ass. 

3.  Zebulon,  purple,  a  ship. 

4.  Eeuben,  red,  a  man. 

5.  Simeon,  yellow,  a  sword. 

6.  Gad,  white,  a  troop  of  horsemen. 

7.  Ephraim,  green,  an  ox. 


8.  Manasseh,  flesh  color,  a  vine  by 

the  side  of  a  wall. 

9.  Benjamin,  green,  a  wolf. 

10.  Dan,  green,  an  eagle. 

11.  Asher,  purple,  a  cup. 

12.  Xaphtali,  blue,  a  hind. 


:  The  rabbins  suppose  that  the  standards  of  the  Jewish  tribes  were 
flags  bearing  figures,  derived  from  the  comparisons  used  by  Jacob  in 
his  prophetic  blessing  to  his  sons.     Genesis  xlix.^ 

The  following-described  banners  are  used  in  the  lodo;es  of  the 
United  States,  viz. :  — 

Tlie  Persian  hanner,  twelve  by  eighteen  inches,  with  a  sun  ond  rays 
on  the  upper  half,  and  three  crescents  on  the  lower  half  This  banner 
is  usually  blue. 

1  Macoy's  Cyclopedia  of  Masomy. 

2  In  removing  Cleopatra's  Needle,  at  Alexandria,  Egypt,  from  its  base  for  transpor- 
tation to  the  United  States,  in  the  latter  part  of  1879,  Lieut. -Commander  Gorringe, 
U.  S.  N.,  made  the  interesting  discovery  of  the  following  masonic  emblems  under  its  base  ; 
viz.,  a  block  of  hewn  syenite  granite,  40  inches  in  the  cube,  representing  a  perfect  masonic 
altar.  Under  this  a  white  marble  slab,  representing  the  apron,  102  inches  long  and  51 
inches  broad  and  25^  inches  thick,  the  upper  half  hewn  into  a  perfect  square.  At  the 
same  level,  and  in  the  west  angle  of  the  foundation,  another  block  of  syenite  gi-anite, 
markedly  regular  in  form,  the  surface  of  which  represented  rough  ashlar  steps,  and 
the  foundation  of  which  was  composed  of  white  granite.  Besides  these  four  pieces 
were  other  less  noticeable  but  equally  significant  emblems.  —  Boston  Jouriml,  Jan.  22, 
1880. 


42  THE  svMr.oLs,  staxdai^ds,  and  I'.annehs 

A  white  silk  haancr.  ■  Motto  at  top,  "  IVtc  v:ill  of  God  ;  "  a  ^Maltese 
cross  in  the  centre ;  a  lanil»  and  small  itennant  lieluw.  The  cross  on 
staff  conipi  ).sed  of  four  passit  )n  crosses. 

A  white  silk  banner,  as  above,  with  cock,  shield,  s]»ear,  sword,  and 
trumpet,  also  an  axe. 

A  white  silk  banner,  with  a  nine-i»ointed  star ;  in  the  centre  of  the 
star  a  Maltese  cross,  surrounded  by  the  motto,  "  Ecx  regium,  Dominns 
dominorum."  ^ 

The  rcgidation  grand  standard  of  masonic  knight/iood  (Kuitjfhts 
Templar)  is  of  white  silk,  six  feet  in  height  and  five  feet  in  width, 
made  tripartite  at  the  bottom,  fastened  at  the  top  to  the  crossbar  by 
nine  rings.  In  the  centre  of  the  standard  a  blood-red  passion  cross, 
edged  with  gold,  over  which  is  the  motto,  "  In  hoc  signo  vinecs,"  and 
under,  "  No7i  nobis,  Domine,  non  nobis,  sed  notnini  tuo  da  gloinam  ! " 
The  cross  is  four  feet  long  and  seven  inches  wide.  On  the  top  of  the 
staff  is  a  gilded  ball  or  globe  four  inches  in  diameter,  surmounted  by 
a  patriarchal  cross  twelve  inches  in  height. 

The  grand'  standard  of  the  ancient  and  acccj)tcd  Scottish  rite  is  of 
silk,  three  and  a  half  feet  long  by  two  and  a  half  wide,  edged  w'ith  gold, 
gold  fringe,  and  tassels.  In  the  centre  a  double-headed  eagle,  under 
which,  on  a  blue  scroll,  the  motto,  "  Deus  meumque  jus."  In  the 
upper  part  of  a  triangle  irradiated  over  the  crowned  heads  of  the 
eagle  are  the  ficjures  33  in  the  centre.^ 

The  stctjidard  of  the  Red  Cross  Knights  is  a  green  sillc  banner, 
suspended  by  nine  rings  on  a  stretcher.  In  the  centre  of  the  ban- 
ner is  a  Geneva  cross  within  a  six-pointed  star,  with  this  motto 
around  it,  "  Magna,  est  Veritas  et  2Jrevalebit."  A  trefoil  cross  heads 
the  staff. 

Another  standard  is  a  green  silk  fiatr,  with  triijle  triangles,  and  a 
passion  cross  in  the  centre  of  each  triangle ;  a  trophy  below,  com- 
posed of  a  spear,  two  crossed  swords,  a  trowel,  trumpet,  and  sash 
grouped.  On  the  sash,  "  Venici  Ini}).  Trata."  A  Geneva-shaped  cross 
on  the  top  of  the  staff.^ 

Standakd  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  of  the 
United  States.  —  At  a  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  the  United 
States,  held  in  Baltimore,  September,  1868,  a  committee,  consisting 
of  William  E.  Ford,  of  IMassachusetts,  Joseph  B.  Escavaille,  and  Fred. 
D.  Stuart,  submitted  the  following  design  for  a  flag,  to  be  the  flag  of 

1  Letter  of  Hoistnian  Brotliers  &  Co.,  Philadelphia,  Jan.  8,  1880. 

2  Macoy's  Cyclopedia  of  Masonry. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


43 


the  order  at  the  approaching  celebration  of  the  fiftieth  anniversary 
of  the  introduction  of  Odd  Fellowship  on  this  continent :  — 

^^  Resolved,  That  the  R.  W.  Grand  Lodge  adopt  for  an  Odd  Fellows'  flag 
the  pattern  or  design  presented  by  the  special  committee  appointed  for  that 
purpose ;  to  wit,  '  the  flag  to  be  manufactured  of  white  material,  either 
bunting,  satin,  or  cotton  cloth,  as  may  be  selected  by  those  desiring  one. 
The  proportions  to  be  1 1-19  of  the  length  to  the  width.  The  emblems  to  con- 
sist of  the  three  links,  to  be  placed  in  the  centre  of  the  flag,  Avith  tlie  letters 
I.  0.  0.  F.,  to  be  painted  or  wrought  in  scarlet  color,  and  trimmed  with 
material  of  the  same  color.  Wherever  the  flag  is  to  be  used  by  the  encamp- 
ments there  should  be  added  two  crooks.' 

"  Resolved,  That  the  E.  AV.  Grand  Corresponding  and  Eecording  Secretary 
be  and  he  is  hereby  instructed  to  procure  a  flag  of  suitable  size  and  proportions 
as  above  described  for  this  Grand  Lodge,  to  be  used  for  the  first  time  at  the 
celebration  of  our  fiftieth  anniversary,  on  the  26th  of  April,  and  in  addition 
to  the  emblems  add  the  letters  G.  L.  U.  S." 

Mr.  Havenner,  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  proposed  that  after  the 
letters  I.  0.  0.  F.  in  the  resolution  there  should  be  inserted,  "  and  the 
name  of  the  State,  District,  or  Territory  using  it;"  and  Mr.  Eoss 
of  New  Jersey  moved  further  to  amend,  by  adding  that  the  letters 
"  I.  0.  0.  F.  and  F.  L.  T.  may  be  inserted  in  the  links."  These  amend- 
ments were  agreed  to,  and  tlie  flag  as  thus  amended  adopted,  Friday, 
Sept.  25,  1868. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  Chicago,  September,  1871, 
it  was  voted  that  the  crooks  should  be  "  painted  or  wrought  in  purple." 
It  was  subsequently  proposed  that  this  flag  should  be  only  used 
for  grand  lodges  and  encampments,  and  that 
the  subordinate  lodges  and  encampments 
should  have  a  smaller  flag,  —  of  scarlet,  if 
only  a  lodge,  and  of  pvuple,  if  an  encamp- 
ment ;  but  it  was  considered  by  a  select 
committee  of  five,  reported  against,  and  voted 
unnecessary. 


The  Hospitallers,  or  Knights  of  St. 
John  of  Jerusalem,  PtHODES,  and  of  Malta. 
—  As  early  as  the  middle  of  the  eleventh 
century  some  jnerchants  of  Amalfi  obtained 
IVoni   the    Caliph   of  Egypt   permission  to 


t  of  Malta.i 


4to. 


Fac-simile  of  a  wood-cut  in  Jost  Ammans,  'Cleri  Totius  Komanai  Ecclesite  Habitus.' 
Frankfort,  15S5. 


44  Tin:  svmi'.ols.  si'axdauds,  and  uanxeks 

build  a  lidspital  at  Jerusalem,  ^vllicll  they  dedicated  to  St.  John,  and 
in  which  they  received  and  sheltered  the  poor  pilgrims  who  visited 
the  Holy  Land.  Crodirey  de  Louillon  and  his  successors  encouraged 
this  charitable  institution,  and  Ijcstowed  upon  it  large  donations. 
Pierre  Ca'rard,  a  native  ol'  Provence,  proposed  to  the  brothers  who 
managed  the  hospital  to  renounce  the  world,  to  don  a  regular  dress, 
and  to  form  an  uncloistered  monastic  order,  under  the  name  of  the 
Hospitallers.  PojDe  Pascal  II.  appointed  Gerard  director  of  the'  new 
institution,  which  he  formally  authorized,  took  the  Hospitallers  under 
his  protection,  and  granted  them  many  privileges. 

Driven  out  of  Jerusalem  by  Saladin  in  1191,  they  transferred  their 

hospital  to  Margat,  until  the  capture  of  Acre,  in  \vhich  they  took  part 

in  1192,  when  they  established  themselves  there,  and  took  the  name 

of  '  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Acre.'     Driven  from  their  new  residence  by 

the  Infidels,  by  permission  of  the  King  of  Cyprus  they  established  the 

central  house  of  their  order  in  the  town  of  Limisso.     Heavily  taxed 

by  the  King  of  Cyprus  at  Limisso,  and  having  to  defend  themselves 

from  the  Saracens,  in  130G  the  Hospitallers  laid  siege  to  Rhodes,. 

which,  after  an  investment  of  four  years,  was  taken  by  assault  in  1310, 

and  thence  became  their  home,  and  gave  to  them  the  title  of  '  Knights 

of  Pthodes '  for  more  than  two  centuries,  or  until  1522,  when,  Rhodes 

being  taken  by  Solyman,  they  retired  into  Candia,  thence  into  Sicily, 

and  in  1530  removed  to  the  Island  of  Malta,  which  was  ceded  to 

them  by  Charles  V.,  and  became  the  definitive  residence  of  the  order ; 

thenceforward  they  assumed  the  title  of  'Knights  of  Malta.'     The 

Emperor  Paul  of  Russia  declared  himself  grand 

4)  master  of  the  order,  June,  1799 ;  and  the  Czar 

i  '■      of  Russia  has  continued  to  be  the  grand  master 

nnd   patron   of  the   order  to  the  present   time. 

The  banner  of  the  Hospitallers  of  St.  John  of 

Jerusalem  was  black,  and  charged  with  a  white' 

I  ir  silver  cross  of  eight  points. 

Every  country  in  Europe  furnished  its  quota 
^     to  the  Order  of  Malta,  which  entirely  replaced 
that   of  St.  John,  and   was  divided   into   eight 
tongues  or  nations,  each  under  the  direction  of 
a  grand  prior.      The  regular  dress  of  the  order 

HospitaUer's  Standard.  .  r.         i  i      t  ^  ■  \ 

consisted  m  each  nation  of  a  black  robe,  with 
a  pointed  cape  of  the  same  color ;  on  the  left  sleeve  of  each  robe  was 
a  cross  of  white  linen  of  eight  points,  typical  of  the  eight  beatitudes 
they  were  always  supposed  to  possess,  and  which,  according  to  a  man- 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         45 

uscript  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  arsenal,  were:  1.  Spiritual 
contentment ;  2.  A  life  free  from  malice ;  3.  Eepentance  for  sins ; 
4.  Meekness  nnder  suffering;  5.  A  love  of  justice;  6.  A  merciful  dis- 
position ;  7.  Sincerity  and  frankness  of  heart ;  and,  8.  A  capability  of 
enduring  persecution.  At  a  later  period,  the  regulations  permitted  the 
knight  to  wear  an  octagonal  golden  cross  inlaid  with  white  enamel, 
and  suspended  from  the  breast  with  black  watered  ribbon.  This  badge 
was  decorated  so  as  to  distinguish  the  country  of  the  bearer ;  namely, 
Germany,  by  an  imperial  crown  and  eagle ;  France,  the  crown  and 
fleur-de-lis,  &c. 

All  the  insignia  of  the  order  were  symbols.  The  pointed  black 
mantle  with  its  peaked  cape,  worn  only  on  occasions  of  solemn  cere- 
mony, was  typical  of  the  robe  of  camel's  hair  worn  by  St.  John  the 
Baptist,  the  patron  of  the  order ;  the  cords  which  fastened  the  mantle 
about  the  neck  and  fell  over  the  shouldet"  were  significant  of  the  pas- 
sion our  Saviour  suffered  with  such  calmness  and  resignation ;  the 
girdle  around  his  waist  signified  he  was  bound  for  the  future  by  the 
vows  of  the  order ;  the  golden  spurs  on  his  heels  were  emblems  that 
he  was  bound  to  fl}'"  wherever  honor  called  him.  and  to  trample  under 
his  feet  the  riches  of  this  world.  At  his  initiation,  the  knight  bran- 
dished his  sword  around  his  head  in  token  of  defiance  of  the  unbe- 
lievers, and  returned  it  to  its  scabbard,  first  passing  it  under  his  arm 
as  if  to  wipe  it,  as  a  symbol  that  he  intended  to  preserve  it  free  from 
stain. 

In  time  of  battle,  the  members  wore  a  red  doublet  embroidered 
with  an  eight-pointed  cross,  and  over  it  a  black  mantle  with  a  white 
cross. 

The  Knights  Templak  originated  twenty  years  after  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Hospitallers,  in  the  piety  of  nine  French  knights,  who 
in  1118  followed  Godfrey  de  Bouillon  to  the  Crusades.  They  were 
suppressed  March  22,  1312.  Baldwin  II.  granted  them  a  dwelling 
within  the  teniple  walls,  a  circumstance  which  gave  them  the  name  of 
'  Templars,'  or  '  Knights  of  the  Temple.'  At  first  they  led  a  simple 
and  regular  life,  and,  contenting  themselves  with  the  humble  title  of 
"  Poor  Soldiers  of  Jesus  Christ,"  their  charity  and  devotion  obtained 
for  them  the  sympathy  of  the  kings  of  Jerusalem  and  the  Eastern 
Christians,  who  made  them  frequent  and  considerable  donations.  In 
the  first  nine  years  of  their  existence,  from  1118  to  1127,  the  Templars 
admitted  no  strangers  to  their  ranks ;  but  their  number  having  nev- 
ertheless considerably  increased,  they  soon  preferred  a  request  to  the 


46 


THI-:  SYMHOLS,  STANDARDS.  AND  BANNERS 


Holy  See  to  i-atity  tlioiv  order.     At  the  Council  of  Troyes,  in  1128, 
Hugues  de  Payens,  with  five  of  his  companions,  presented  the  letters 

that  thu  Ijrotherhood 
had  received  from  the 
Pope  and  the  Patriarch 
of  Jerusalem,  to<^fether 
with  the  certificate  of 
the  founding  of  their 
order.  Cardinal  Mat- 
thew, wiiu  jjresided 
over  the  council,  grant- 
ed them  an  authentic 
confirmation  of  their 
order ;  and  a  special 
code  ^vas  drawn  up  for 
them  under  the  guid- 
ance of  St.  Bernard. 

St.  Bernard,  descril> 
ing  the  Kniglits  Tem- 
plar in  their  early 
days,  says:  "They lived 
without  any  thing  they 
could  call  their  own  ; 
not  even  their  fair  will. 
They  are  generally 
simply  dressed,  and 
covered  with  dust, 
their  faces  embrowned 
^^'itll  the  burning  sun, 
and  a  fixed,  severe  ex- 
pression. On  the  eve 
of  battle,  they  arm 
themselves  with  faith  within  and  steel  without :  these  are  their  only 
decoration ;  and  they  use  them  with  valor,  in  the  greatest  perils 
fearing  neither  the  number  nor  the  strength  of  the  barljarians. 
Their  whole  confidence  is  placed  in  the  God  of  armies,  and  fighting 
for  his  cause  they  seek  death.  Oh,  happy  way  of  lil'e,  in  which 
they  can  await  death  without  fear,  desire  it  with  joy,  and  receive 
it  with  assurance ! "  The  oath  they  took  on  their  entrance,  found 
in  the  archives  of  the  Abbey  of  Accobaga,  in  Aragon,  was  as  fol- 
lows :  — 


A  ICui^'lit  Templar. 


OF   A^'CIEXT   AND   MODERN   NATIONS. 


47 


A  Templar  iii  Travelling  Dress.i 


"  I  swear  to  consecrate  my  words,  my  arms,  my  strength,  and  my 
life  to  the  defence  of  the  mysteries  of  the  faith  and  that  of  the  unity 
of  God.  I  also  promise  to  be  submissive  and  obedient  to  the  Grand 
Master  of  the  Order.  Whenever  it  is  needful, 
I  will  cross  seas  to  fight.  I  will  give  help 
against  all  infidel  kings  and  princes  ;  and,  in 
the  presence  of  three  enemies,  I  will  not  fly, 
but  fight,  if  they  are  infidels." 

The  Templars  were  bound  to  go  to  mass 
three  times  a  week,  and  to  communicate  thrice 
a  year.  They  w^ore  a  white  robe,  symbolical 
of  purity,  to  which  Pope  Eugenius  III.  added 
a  red  cross,  to  remind  them  of  their  oaths  to 
be  always  ready  to  .shed  their  blood  in  de- 
fence of  the  Christian  religion.  Their  rules 
were  of  great  austerity.  They  prescribed 
perpetual  exile,  and  war  for  the  holy  places  to  the  death.  The 
Knights  were  to  accept  every  combat,  however  outnumbered  they 
might  be,  to  ask  no  quarter,  and  to  give  no  ransom.  The  unbelievers 
dreaded  no  enemy  so  much  as  these  poor  soldiers  of  Christ,  of  whom 
it  was  said  that  they  possessed  the  gentleness  of 
the  lamb  and  the  patience  of  the  hermit,  united 
to  the  courage  of  the  hero  and  the  strength  of  the 
lion. 

The  Knights  Templar  carried   at  their  head 

their  celebrated  standard,  called  the  '  beauceant,' 

or   'scant,'  which  bore  the  motto,  " JSfon  nohis, 

Domine,  non  nobis,  sed  nomini  tuo  da  gloriani;"'^ 

and  after  this  they  marched  to  battle  reciting 

prayers,  having  first  received  the  holy  sacrament. 

It  was  in  1237  that  the  knight  who  carried  the 

beauceant   in  an  action  when  the  Mussulmans 

had  the  advantage,  held  it  raised  above  his  head 

until  his  conquerors,  with  redoubled  blows,  had 

pierced  his  whole  body  and  cut  off  both  his  hands. 

The  beauceant  was  of  woollen  or  silk  stuff,  six  feet  in  height  and 

five  feet  in  width,  and  tripartite  at  the  bottom,  fastened  at  the  top  to 

the  crossbar  by  nine  rings.     The  upper  half  of  the  standard  \vas 


A  Kuiglits  Templar 
Standard. 


^  Fac-simile  from  Jost  Ammaiis,  '  Cleri  Toitus  Romanse  Ecclesiffi  Habitus.'     Frauk- 
fort,  158.5. 

2  "  Not  to  lis,  Lord,  not  to  us,  but  to  thy  name  ascribe  the  glory." 


48 


'riii:  sYMr.dLs.  s'1'am».\i;i>s.  and  t-annkks 


black, 


aud  tlie  lower  hall'  whiLe.  The  illustration  of  this  standard  is 
as  it  is  represented  in  the  Tenqih'  Church,  at  Lon- 
diiu.  They  also  displayed  aljove  their  ibrniidable 
lance  a  second  banner  of  their  own  colors,  white, 
tharm'd  uitli  a  retl  cross  of  the  order,  of  eight 
])oiuts. 

In  130'J,  the  Kni;_;hts  Templar  Mere  suppressed, 
and  by  a  papal  bull,  dated  A])ril  3,  1312,  their  order 
was  al.iolished.  Numbers  of  the  order  were  tried, 
condemned,  and  burnt  alive  or  hanged,  1308-10  ; 
and  it  suffered  great  persecutions  throughout  Eu- 
rope;  eiglity-eigbt  were  burnt  at  Paris,  1310.  The 
grand  master,  De  Alolay,  was  burnt  alive  at  Paris, 
March,  1314. 


The  Beauceaut. 


ANCIENT  MILITAEY   STAND AEDS. —THE  EGYPTIAN,  GEE- 
CIAN,   HEBREW,   ASSYPJAN,    PERSIAN,    STANDARDS. 

Of  Standards. 

Ancient  Military  Standards  consisted  of  a  symbol  carried  on  a 
Xiole.  In  more  modern  times,  they  were  the  largest  and  most  important 
flags  borne.  Fixed  on  the  tops  of  towers  or  elevated  places,  or  on  plat- 
forms, and  always  the  rallying-point  in  battle,  they  obtained  the  name 
of  'standards,'  from  being  stationary.  Ducauge  derives  the  name  from 
standaruvi  or  stantarum,  standardum,  standafc,  used  in  corrupt  Latin 
to  signify  the  principal  flag  in  an  army.  Menage  derives  it  from  the 
German  slander,  or  English  stand.  The  standard  might  or  might  not 
have  a  banner  attached  to  it.  Although  n(jw  the  two  words  are  used 
by  custom  without  distinction,  it  is  nevertheless  true  there  might  be 
a  thousand  banners  in  the  field,  but  there  could  be  but  one  standard 
of  the  kincr. 


Isis. 


Egyptian  Standards.  —  The  Egyptians  consid- 
ered Osiris,  the  eldest  son  of  the  Nile,  as  their 
first  king,  and  believed  that  his  soul  ascended 
into  the  sun,  and  adored  him  in  that  planet.  His 
sister  and  wife,  Isis,  remained  queen  after  -his  death, 
and  estaljlished  female  y^ower  in  Egypt.  At  her 
death  she  was  reputed  to  have  made  her  resurrec- 
tion into  the  moon  with  her  son  Orus,  the  god  of 


OF   ANCIENT  AND   MODERN   NATIONS. 


49 


futurity,  and  thus  was  established  the  Egyptian  trinity  of  Osiris,.  Isis, 
and  Orus,  whose  mysterious  motto  was,  "  I  am  all  that  vxis,  that  is,  and 
that  shall  be,"  represented  in  a  solar  triangle.  The  annual  feast  of  Isis, 
or  Daughter  of  the  Nile,  was  on  the  vernal  equinox  (March  21),  which 

was  the  annunci- 
ation of  the  open- 
ing of  its  naA'i- 
gation  after  a 
stormy  winter. 
On  that  day  her 
image  —  a  statue 
of  solid  gold 
standing  on  a 
crescent  and 
clouds  of  silver 
—  was  carried  in 
solemn  proces- 
sion. She  had  a 
glory  of  twelve 
golden  stars 
around  her  head, 
symbolic  of  the 
twelve  lunar 
months ;  and  her 
own  shining  face 
represented  the 
thirteenth,  which 
was  the  sacred 
moon,  or  the  equi- 
noctial month  of 
spring. 

In  subsequent 
ages,  Avhen  Egypt 
was      conquered 

by  the  Eomans,  the  conquerors  adopted  the  worship  of  Isis,  and  con- 
secrated her  equinoctial  feast  as  "  Nostrce  Domince  Dies "  (Our  Lady 
Day),  and  qualified  her  the  "  Heaven's  open  gate ; "  Star  of  the  Sea ; 
Queen  of  the  Heavenly  Sjjheres  ;  and  introduced  the  feast  and  labaruni 
or  banner  of  Isis  and  her  legendary  worship  into  all  the  conquered 
provinces  of  the  Eoman  Empire.  Her  attributes  remind  one  of  the 
"  Queen  of  Heaven  "  of  the  Chinese  mythology  of  to-day,  and  ]\Iuril- 
lo's  paintings  of  the  Virgin  ]\Iary. 


Egj'ptian  Standards. 


no 


THE   SYM150LS.    STANDARDS.    AND    I'.ANNKIJS 


The  invention  of  stiuidards  is  attributed,  with  f,'reat  itrobal»ility,  to 
the  Kgyptians,  as  they  had  the  earliest  organized  military  forces  of 
which  we  have  any  knowledge,  and  it  is  equally  probable  that  the 
Hebrews  obtained  the  idea,  or  at  least  the  use,  of  ensigns  from  the 
Egyptians.  Tlie  wandering  tribes  of  shepherds  who  concpiered  Egy])t 
set  one  of  their  pastoral  chiefs  as  king  on  the  throne  of  Osiris.  This 
warlike  shepherd  introduced  into  Egypt  the  annual  oblation  of  an 
unblemished  lamb  or  kid,  sacred  to  their  conductor,  the  Angel  Gabriel, 
and  bore  a  lamb  as  his  standard. 

When  the  Egyptians  recovered  their  in- 
dependence, under  chieftains  styled  Phnro, 
or  revenger,  the  lamb  on  their  standards, 
arms,  and  coins  was  superseded  by  the 
face  of  Pharo,  but  the  oblation  of  the  lamb 
was  continued.  The  illustration  represents 
a  group  of  Egyptian  standards  as  they 
were  used  in  the  army  in  the  time  of  Pha- 
raoh. 

According  to  Diodorus,  the  Egyptians 
standards  of  Pharaoh.  carried  an  animal  at  the  end  of  a  spear 

as  their  standard.     Sir  G.  Wilkinson,  in  his  work  on  the  'Ancient 


Dl.  IQ 


Egyptian  Standards,  from  Wilkinson. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         51 

Egyptians,'  speaking  of  their  armies,  says:  "Each  battalion,  and 
indeed  each  company,  had  its  particular  standard,  which  represented 
a  sacred  subject,  a  king's  name,  a  sacred  boat,  an  animal,  or  some 
emblematical  device."  Among  the  Egyptian  standards  there  also 
appear  standards  which  resemble  at  the  top  a  round-headed  table- 
knife  or  an  expanded  semicircular  fan.  Another  of  their  ancient 
standards  was  an  eagle  stripped  of  its  feathers,  —  the  emblem  of  the 
Nile. 

Greek  Standards.  —  The  Greeks  set  up  a  piece  of  armor  at 
the  end  of  a  spear  as  a  rallying  signal,  and  Homer  makes  Aga- 
memnon use  a  purple  vail  with  which  to  rally  his  men. 

A  white  horse  was  the  standard  of  Cecropia, 
founded  by  Cecrops,  the  chieftain  of  an  Egyptian 
colony.  This  badge  recalled  that  the  finest  white 
horse  had  been  brought  by  sea  from  Egypt  into 
Greece.  The  tradition  of  the  white  horse  arriving 
by  sea  was  arranged  into  a  sacred  pedigree ;  viz., 
,  ,   ^        iSTeptune    created    a   white   war-horse    to    endow 

The  Horse  and  the  Grass-  '■ 

hopper.  Athens.     This  swift  animal  was  given  to  Mars,  the 

god  of  war,  for  the  defence  of  the  country  and  the  standard  of  Attica. 
The  aborigines  of  Attica  styled  themselves  the  children  of  the  earth, 
and  boasted  to  be  sprung  from  the  soil ;  therefore  they  distinguished 
themselves  from  aliens  by  wearing  in  their  hair  a  grassliopper  of  gold 
or  silver,  to  signify  that,  like  that  insect,  they  were  produced  from  the 
ground.  Tlie  golden  grasshopper  was  granted  to  any  Athenian  Avho 
had  rendered  the  country  eminent  service,  and  was  later  assumed  by 
the  nobles  of  Athens,  and  it  became  a  badge  of  Greek  nobility.  The 
Athenians  also  bore  an  owl,  the  emblem  of  Minerva,  and  the  olive,  on 
their  standards.  Other  nations  of  Greece  carried  effigies  of  their 
tutelary  gods  and  their  particularly  chosen  symbols  on  the  end  of  a 
spear.  The  Thessalonians  adored  the  immortal  sorrel  horse  Xanthus, 
who  spoke  to  his  jnaster  Achilles.  The  Corinthians  bore  a  winged 
horse,  or  Pegasus,  on  their  standard ;  the  Messenians,  the  letter  M;  the 
Lacedemonians,  the  letter  L,  in  Greek,  A.  Alexander  the  Great,  when 
he  began  to  claim  for  himself  a  divine  origin,  caused  a  standard  to  be 
prepared,  inscribed  with  the  title  of  Son  of  Ammon,  and  planted  it 
near  the  image  of  Hercules,  which,  as  that  of  his  tutelary  deity,  was 
the  ensign  of  the  Grecian  host. 

The  standards  and  shields  of  the  Thracians  exhibited  a  death's- 
head,  as  a  signal  to  revenge  the  death  of  Thrax,  the  son  of  the  nom- 


52  Tin:  symi'.ols.  staxhak'ds.  and  I'.axnkks 

inal  father  of  tlu'  Thraciaiis,  a  wandi'iin^  iieuple  lu-ar  the  Black 
Sea.  This  pL'u])lo  settled  iiurth  of  llyzantium,  the 
lunduiii  llomania,  aiul  named  their  new  country 
Thrace.  They  soon  took  the  city  of  ]Jyzantiiun, 
Mliieh  \vas  dedicated  to  Diana,  and  united  her 
syndjul,  'the  crescent,'  to  'the  death's-head'  of 
Thrax,  to   whom   they  paid    divine  resi)ect.     The 


Dfiilli's-lioail  and 


leath's-head   and  crescent  were  afterward  adopted 
cits^eiit.  by  the   Piomans,  Turks,  and  other  nations  which 

iu^'aded  Thracia  and  Byzanlium. 

The  Chaldeans  adored  the  sun,  and  represented  it  on  their  stand- 
ard. Heber,  a  Chaldean,  gave  his  name  to  his  descendants,  who  were 
called  the  children  of  Heber,  or  the  Hebrews.  The  greater  numl)er  of 
the  Hebrews  were  born  in  Ur,  a  city  of  Chaldea,  in  which  a  perpetual 
fire  and  lamp  were  sacred  to  Baal,  or  the  sun  of  Chaldea.  The  money 
of  Hebron  bore  the  type  of  Heber  adoring  the  sun.^ 

Hebrew  Standards.  —  In  the  time  of  Moses,  the  Hebrews  had 
their  emblems.  We  find  in  the  book  of  Xumljers,  1401  B.C.,  1st 
chapter,  5  2d  verse,  the  children  of  Israel  directed  to  "  pitch  their  tents 
every  man  by  his  own  camp,  and  every  man  by  his  own  standard, 
throughout  their  hosts  ; "  and  2d  chapter,  2d  verse,  "  Every  man  of  the 
children  of  Israel  shall  pitch  [camp]  by  his  own  standard,  with  the 
ensicrn  of  their  father's  house  :  far  off  about  the  tabernacle  of  the  con- 

O 

gregation." 

In  the  wilderness,  says  Adam  Clarke,  they  were  marshalled  accord- 
ing to  their  tribes,  each  tribe  being  subdivided  into  families.  Every 
head  of  a  subdivision  or  thousand  was  furnished  with  an  ensign  or 
standard,  under  which  his  followers  arranged  themselves  according  to 
a  preconcerted  plan,  both  when  in  camp  and  when  on  the  march ;  and 
thus  all  confusion  was  prevented,  how  hastily  soever  the  order  might 
be  given  to  proceed,  or  halt  and  pitch  their  tents.  The  four  leading 
divisions  —  viz.,  Eeuben,  Ephraim,  Judah,  and  Dan  —  were  designated 
by  the  component  parts  of  the  cherubim  and  seraphim,  — a  man,  an 
ox,  a  lion,  and  an  eagle. 

Solomon,  of  the  tribe  of  Judah,  hoisted  the  standard  of  the  lion  in 
Jerusalem.  According  to  the  Talmudists,  the  standard  of  Judah  had 
on  it  a  lion  painted,  with  this  inscription,  "  Eise,  Lord,  let  thine  ene- 
mies be  dispersed,  and  let  those  that  hate  thee  flee  before  thee."  They 
gave  to  Issachar  an  ass  ;  to  Zebulun,  a  ship ;  to  Eeuben,  a  river,  and 

^  Bninet's  Eegal  Armorie. 


OF   A^X'IENT   AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


53 


sometimes  the  figure  of  a  man ;  to  Simeon,  a  sword  ;  to  Gad,  a  lion ;  to 
Manasseh,  an  ox ;  to  Benjamin,  a  wolf;  to  Dan,  a  serpent  or  an  eagle. 


standards  and  Devices  of  the  Hebrews. 

The  ensign  of  Asher  was  a  handful  of  corn,  and  that  of  Naphtali  a  stag. 
The  cities  of  Samaria  and  Shechem,  being  in  the  land  of  the  tribe  of 
Joseph,  the  standard  of  Samaria  bore  the  bough  or  palm  of  Joseph. 

Allusions  to  standards,  banners,  and  ensigns  are  frequent  in  the 
Holy  Scriptures.  The  post  of  standard-bearer  was  at  all  times  of 
the  greatest  importance,  and  none  but  officers  of  aj)proved  valor 
were  ever  chosen  for  such  service  ;  hence  Jehovah,  describing  the 
ruin  and  discomfiture  which  he  was  about  to  bring  on  the  haughty 
king  of  Assyria,  says,  "  And  they  shall  be  as  when  a  standard-bearer 
fainteth." 


Assyrian  Standards.  —  Nineveh,  the  capital  of  Assyria,  had  for 
its  device  an  arrow,  which  represented  the  swiftness  of  the  Tigris, 
whose  waters  washed  its  walls,  —  the  Chaldean  name,  Tigris,  express- 
ing the  swiftness  of  an  arrow.  Semiramis,  the  widow  of  Ninus  the 
son  of  Belus,  its  founder,  liaving  united  Xineveh  to  Babylon,  founded 


54 


THE   SYMBOLS,   STANI>.\i;i)-.    .\XI>    I'.AXNKK.S 


tlu'  first  gi'eat  ciniiiro  of  tlie  ^v(lrl(l.  Her  subjects  symbolized  her  by 
a  turtle-dove,  aud  that  liird  was  stamped  on  the  coins,  witli  an  arrow 

on  the  reverse.  MossduI,  built  on 
tlic  ruins  of  Nineveh,  impressed 
on  its  goods  the  sign  of  an  arrow 
and  dove  ;  and  tliat  badge,  ])rinted 
on  a  light  stuff  called  muslin,  has 
been  exported  to  all  modern  na- 
tions.^ 

Among  the  sculptures  of  Nine- 
veh which  Layard  brought  to  light 
are  representations  of  the  stand- 
ards of  the  Assyrians  carried  by 
Assyrian  standavds.  cliariotecrs.        These     sculptures 

have  only  two  devices :  one  of  a  figure  standing  on  a  bull  and  draw- 
ing a  bow ;  the  other,  two  bulls  running  in  opposite  directions,  sup- 
posed to  be  the  symbols  of  peace  and  war.  These  figures  are  enclosed 
in  a  circle,  and  fixed  to  a  long  staff  ornamented  with  streamers  and 
tassels.  These  standards  seem  to  have  been  partly  supported  by  a  rest 
in  front  of  the  chariot.  A  long  rope  connected  them  with  the  ex- 
tremity of  the  pole.  In  the  bass-relief  at  Khorsabad  this  rod  is 
attached  to  the  bottom  of  the  standard. 


Perslvn  Standards.  —  The  standard  of  ancient  Persia,  adopted  by 
Cyrus,  according  to  Herodotus,  and  Xenophon,  and  perpetuated,  was  a 
golden  eagle  with  outstretched  wdngs  painted  on  a  white  flag. 

The  standard  of  Koah,  the  sacred  standard  of  the  Persians,  was 
originally  the  leather  apron  of  the  blacksmith  Kairah,  or  Koah,  which 
he  reared  as  a  banner  B.C.  800,  when  he  aroused  the  people  and  de- 
livered Persia  from  the  tyranny  of  Sohek,  or  Bivar,  surnamed  Deh-ak 
(ten  vices).  It  was  embroidered  with  gold,  and  enlarged  from  time 
to  time  with  costly  silk,  until  it  was  twenty-two  feet  long  and  fifteen 
broad ;  and  it  w^as  decorated  with  gems  of  inestimable  value.  With 
this  standard  the  fate  of  the  kingdom  was  believed  by  superstitious 
Persians  to  be  connected. 

This  standard  w^as  victorious  over  the  Moslems  at  the  battle  of 
El  liser,  or  the  battle  of  the  bridge,  a.d.  634,  and  was  captured  by 
them  two  years  later  at  the  battle  of  Kadesir,  which  the  Persians  call, 
of  Armath,  and  the  jNIoslems,  "  the  day  of  succor  from  the  timely  arrival 
of  reinforcements."     To  the  soldier  who  captured  it  thirty  thousand 

1  Brunet's  Regal  Arniorie. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         55 

pieces  of  gold  was  paid  by  command  of  Saad,  and  the  jewels  with 
which  it  was  studded  were  put  with  the  other  booty.  In  this  battle, 
which  is  as  famous  among  the  Arabs  as  Arbela  among  the  Greeks, 
thirty  thousand  Persians  are  said  to  have  fallen,  and  seven  thousand 
Moslems.^  Thus,  after  1,434  years'  service,  this  standard  was  de- 
stroyed. 

The  Persians  also  employed  a  figure  of  the  sun,  especially  on  great 
occasions,  when  the  king  was  present  with  his  forces.  Quintus  Curtius 
mentions  the  figure  of  the  sun  enclosed  in  crystal,  which  made  a  most 
splendid  appearance  above  the  royal  tent.  To  the  present  day  the 
sun  continues  to  divide  with  the  lion  the  honor  of  appearing  upon 
the  royal  standard  of  Persia. 

Among  the  ancient  sculptures  at  Persepolis  are  found  other  speci- 
mens of  ancient  Persian  standards.  One  of  these  consists  of  a  staff 
terminating  in  a  divided  ring,  and  having  below  a  transverse  bar, 
from  which  two  enormous  tassels  are  suspended.  The  other  consists 
of  five  globular  forms  on  a  crossbar.  They  were  doubtless  of  metal, 
and  probably  had  some  reference  to  the  heavenly  bodies,  Avhich  were 
the  ancient  objects  of  worship  in  -Persia.  At  the  present  day,  the 
flag-staff  of  the  Persians  terminates  in  a  silver  hand. 

THE   EOMAN   STAND AEDS. 

Eomulus,  in  founding  Eome,  adopted  the  image  of  the  she-wolf, 
his  reputed  foster-mother,  as  well  as  of  his  brother  Eemus.  The 
Senate  of  Eomulus  assumed  the  eagle  of  Jupiter,  which  became  the 
Eoman  standard,  with  the  wolf  In  the  following  ages,  the  Eomans 
increased  their  standards  to  as  many  as  ten  differ- 
ent badges.  1.  The  peacock  of  Juno.  2.  The 
boat  of  Isis.  3.  The  cock  of  Mars.  4.  The  im- 
perial elephant.  5.  The  dragon  of  Trajan.  6.  The 
minotaurus  of  Crete.  7.  The  horse  of  Greece. 
8.   The  pecus  or  sheep  of  Italy.     9  and  10.    The 

The  Device  of  Romulus.       ghc-Wolf  and  Cagle  of  EomuluS.^ 

Each  legion  of  the  Eoman  army  was  divided  into  ten  cohorts,  each 
cohort  into  three  maniples,  each  maniple  into  two  centurions,  which 
would  give  sixty  centurions  to  a  legion,  the  regular  strength  of  which 
was  therefore  six  thousand  ;  sometimes  the  number  of  men  in  a  legion 
varied.  In  the  time  of  Polybius,  a  legion  had  but  four  thousand  two 
hundred. 

1  Irving's  Successors  of  Mahomet.  2  Bruuet's  EcEral  Anuorie. 


56 


THK   SYMllOLS,    STANDAIJDS,    AN1>    I'.ANNKKS 


"NVlien  the  army  came  near  a  jilace  of  encampment,  tribunes  and 
centurions,  with  proper  perst)ns  appointed  for  that  service,  were  sent 
to  mark  out  the  ground,  and  assigneil  to  eacli  his  jiroper  quailers, 
■which  tliey  did  by  erecting  flags  (t-iwilla)  of  different  colors.  TJie 
place  for  the  general's  tent  was  marked  with  a  white  Hag. 

Each  century,  or  at  least  each  maniple,  had  its  proper  standard 
and  standard-bearer.  The  standard  of  a  manipulus  in  the  time  of 
Ifomulus  was  a  bundle  of  hay  tied  to  a  i)ole.  ^Vfterwards,  a  spear 
with  a  cross-piece  of  wood  on  the  top,  sometimes  the  figure  of  a  hand 
above,  probably  in  allusion  to  the  word  manqmlus  ;  and  below,  a  small 


W^^/^ 


Kuuiaii  Staiulards. 


round  or  oval  shield,  ou  which  w^ere  represented  the  images  of  %var- 
like  deities,  as  Mars  or  Minerva,  and  in  later  times  of  the  emperors 
or  of  their  favorites.  Hence  the  standards  w^ere  called  nuniina  legi- 
onum,  and  worshipped  with  religious  adoration.  There  were  also 
standards  of  the  cohorts.  The  standards  of  the  different  divisions  of 
the  army  had  certain  letters  inscribed  on  them,  to  distinguish  the 
one  from  the  other.  The  standard  of  the  cavalry  was  called  Tcxillv.m 
(a  flag  or  banner),  from  being  a  square  piece  of  cloth  fixed  on  the  end 
of  a  spear ;  and  Caesar  mentions  it  as  used  by  the  foot,  particularly  by 
the  veterans  who  had  served  out  their  time,  but  under  the  emperors 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         57 

were  still  retained  in  the  army,  and  fought  in  bodies  distinct  from 
the  legion,  and  under  a  particular  standard  of  their  own.  Hence  these 
veterans  were  called  vcxiUarii. 

In  the  year  20  l.c,  Phraates,  the  Parthian  king,  apprehensive 
that  an  attack  was  meditated  upon  his  dominions,  endeavored  to  avert 
it  by  sending  to  Augustus  the  Eoman  standards  and  captives  that 
had  been  taken  from  Crassus  and  Anthony.  This  present  was  re- 
ceived with  the  greatest  joy,  and  was  extolled  as  one  of  the  most 
glorious  events  of  the  emperor's  reign.  It  was  commemorated  by 
sacrifices  and  by  the  erection  of  a  temple  in  the  capitol  to  Mars,  "the 
avenger,"  in  which  the  standards  were  dej^osited.^ 

To  lose  the  standard  was  always  disgraceful,  j^articularly  to  the 
standard-bearer,  and  was  at  times  a  capital  crime.  To  animate  the 
soldiers,  their  standards  were  sometimes  thrown 
among  the  enemy.  After  a  time,  a  horse,  a 
bear,  and  other  animals  were  substituted  for 
the  bundle  of  hay,  open  hand,  &c.  In  the  sec- 
ond year  of  the  consulate  of  Marius,  87  B.C.,  a 
silver  eagle  with  expanded  wings,  on  the  top 
of  a  spear,  with  the  thunderbolt  in  its  claws,  the 
emblem  of  Jove,  signifying  might  and  power, 
with  the  figure  of  a  small  chapel  above  it,  was 
assumed  as  the  common  standard  of  the  legion; 
Roman  Standard.  i^g^ce  ciquila  is  oftcu  put  for  legiou.     The  place 

Bronzehorsehalf  the  sizeof  the   ^j.i'j.ii  .i  t  i  /. 

original,  which  is  preserved  at  ^^^  ^^^^^^  Standard  was  near  the  ordinary  place  of 
Goodrich  Court.  the  general,  in  the  centre  of  the  army.     When 

a  general,  after  having  consulted  the  auspices,  determined  to  lead 
forth  his  troops  against  the  enemy,  a  red  flag  was  displayed  on  a 
spear  from  the  top  of  the  praetorium,  as  a  signal  to  prepare  for  battle.^ 
The  standard  of  Augustus  was  a  globe,  to  indicate  his  conquest  of 
the  globe.  Eoman  standards  were  also  ornamented  with  dragons  and 
silver  bells,  as  a  trophy,  after  Trajan's  conquest  of  the  Dacians,  a.d. 
106,  as  shown  on  Trajan's  column.  The  Etruscans  were  the  first 
who  adopted  the  eagle  as  the  symbol  of  royal  power,  and  bore  its 
image  as  a  standard  at  the  head  of  their  armies.  Prom  the  time  of 
Marius  it  was  the  principal  emblem  of  the  Eoman  Eepublic,  and  the 
only  standard  of  the  legions.     It  was  represented  with  outspread 

^  Lynam's  History  of  the  Eoman  Emperors,  vol.  i.  p.  28.     London,  1828. 

2  Flag-Officer  Farragut,  when  he  ordered  to  pass  the  forts  below  New  Orleans,  April 
23, 1861,  directed  a  red  lantern  should  be  hoisted  as  the  signal  for  getting  under  way  ;  thus 
repeating  the  old  Roman  signal  for  battle,  perhaps  without  ever  having  heard  of  it. 


58 


Tin-:   SVM150LS,    STANDAKDS,    AND    I'.ANNKKS 


wiu-'s,  and  was  usually  of  silver,  till  the  time  uf  Ihiiliiaii,  wliu  matle 
it  of  '^okl  The  (louhle-headcd  eagle  was  iu  use  among  the  Byzantine 
emperors,  to  indicate  their  claim  to  the  empire  both  of  the  east  and 
west.  From  the  Itnnian  standard  is  derived  the  numercjus  brood  of 
white,  black,  and  red  eagles,  with  single  or  douljle  heads,  which  are 


Roman  Imperial  Standards. 

borne  on  so  many  of  the  standards  of  modern  Europe.  The  countries 
they  represent  claim  to  be  fragments  or  descendants  of  the  great 
Roman  Empire.  The  changes  of  the  Eoman  standard  marked  the 
epoch  of  their  conquests,  first  of  the  Greeks,  then  of  the  barbarians. 
The  double-headed  eagle  of  Eussia  marks  the  marriage  of  Ivan  I. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         59 

with  a  Grecian  heiress,  the  princess  of  the  Eastern  empire  ;  and  that 
of  Austria,  the  investiture  of  the  emperors  of  Germany  with  the  title 
of  '  Eoman  Emperor.'  The  arms  of  Prussia  are  distinguished  by  the 
black  eagle,  and  those  of  Poland  bear  the  white. 

The  Labaeum,  or  imperial  .standard  of  Constantine  the  Great,  which 
he  caused  to  be  made  in  commemoration  of  his  vision  of  a  shining 
^  cross  in  the  heavens  two  miles  long,  has  been  described 

,^-^l^>^  as  a  long  pike,  surmounted  by  a  golden  crown  set  with 
jewels,  and  intersected  by  a  transverse  beam  forming  a 
cross,  from  which  depended  a  square  purple  banderole 
wrought  with  the  mysterious  monogram,  at  once  expres- 
sive of  the  figure  of  the  cross,  and  the  two  initial  letters 
I  (X  and  P)  of  the  name  of  Christ.     The  purple  silken 

The  Labarum  of  banner,  which  hung  down  from  the  beam,  was  adorned 
coustantine.  ^^^]^  precious  stoucs,  and  at  first  was  embroidered  with 
the  images  of  Constantine,  or  of  the  reigning  monarch  and  his  children. 
Afterwards,  the  figure  or  emblem  of  Christ  woven  in  gold  was  substi- 
tuted, and  it  bore  the  motto,  "  In  hoc  signo  vinces,"  — "  In  this  sign 
thou  shalt  conquer."  The  labarum  is  engraved  on  some  of  the  medals 
of  Constantine  with  the  famous  inscription,  ENTOTTflNIKA.  This 
banderole,  which  was  about  a  foot  square,  judging  from  the  height  of 
the  men  carrying  the  standard  on  ancient  monuments,  says  Mont- 
faucon,  "  was  adorned  with  fringes  and  with  precious  stones,  and  had 
upon  it  the  figure  or  emblem  of  Christ."  Prudentius  describes  its 
glories  with  poetical  fervor,  and  says,  "  Christ  woven  in  jewelled  gold 
marked  the  puq^le  labarum;"  also,  "that  the  monogram  of  Christ  was 
inscribed  on  the  shields  of  the  soldiers,  and  that  the  cross  burned  on 
the  crests  of  helmets."  The  illustration  given  of  the  labarum  is  from 
a  medal  of  Valentinan  i  (a.d.  364-375).  It  will  be  noticed  there  is 
no  crown  on  the  staff. 

A  medal  of  the  Emperor  Constantine,  which  represents  the  banner 
of  the  cross  piercing  the  body  of  the  serpent,  and  surmounted  with  the 
monogram  of  Christ,  with  the  motto,  "  Sjjes  Fuhlica,"  expresses  the 
hope  of  the  Christian  world  from  the  conversion  of  the  emperor. 
Upon  the  banner  which  hangs  from  the  cross  three  circles  are  dis- 
tinctly marked.  As  all  the  other  objects  upon  this  medallion  have 
a  symbolical  meaning,  it  may  be  assumed  that  these  three  circles 
have  one. 

The  labarum  is  believed  to  have  been  the  first  military  standard 

1  Appleton's  Journal,  Dec.  28,  1872. 


60 


THE    SVMI'.nl.s,    STANDAKDS.    AM)    15ANNEKS 


emblazoned  with  tho  cross.  It  was  preserved  for  a  coiisideraljle  time, 
and  lironyjlit  lorwavd  at  the  head  of  the  armies  of  the  emperor  on 
im]iortant  occasions,  as  the  palladium  of  the  empire.  With  it  Con- 
stantine  adv.niccd  to  l^ome,  where  he  vancpiishcd  ^hi.xentius,  Oct.  27, 
A.D.  312. 

The  safety  of  the  labarum  was  intrusted  to  lifty  guards  of  al»pro^•ed 
valor  and  fidelity.  Their  station  was  marked  by  honors  and  emolu- 
ments ;  and  some  fortunate  accidents  soon  introduced  an  opinion  that 
the  guards  of  the  labarum  were  secure  and  invulnerable  among  the 
darts  of  the  enemy.  In  the  second  civil  war,  Licinius  felt  and  dreaded 
the  power  of  this  consecrated  banner,  the  siglit  of  which  in  battle 
animated  the  soldiers  of  Constantine  with  an  invincible  enthusiasm, 
while  it  scattered  terror  and  dismay  through  the  adverse  legions. 
Eusebius  introduces  the  lal)arum  before  the  Italian  expedition  of 
Constantine ;  but  his  narrative  seems  to  indicate  it  was  never  shown 
at  the  head  of  an  army  till  Constantine,  ten  years  afterward,  declared 
himself  the  enemy  of  Licinius  and  the  deliverer  of  the  Church.  The 
Christian  emperors  who  respected  the  example  of  Constantine  dis- 
played in  all  their  military  expeditions  the  standard  of  the  cross ; 
but  when  the  degenerate  successors  of  Theodosius  ceased  to  appear 
at  the  head  of  their  armies,  the  labarum  was  deposited  as  a  venerable 
but  useless  relic  in  the  palace  of  Constantinople. 

The  etymology  of  its  name  has  given  rise  to  many  conflicting 
opinions.  Some  derive  it  from  lahar ;  others  from  the  Greek  for 
reverence ;  others  from  the  same,  to  take  ;  and  others  from  the 
Greek  for  sijoils.  A  waiter  in  the  '  Classical  Journal '  con- 
siders the  labarum  like  S.  P.  Q.  E.,  a  combination  of  initials 
to  represent  an  e([ual  number  of  terms,  and  thus  L.  A.  B. 
A.  R.  V.  M.  will  stand  for  Lcfjionum  aquila  Bymniiiun 
ontAfjXiA  Romci,  urhe  niutavit.  The  form  of  the  labarum 
and  its  monogram  is  preserved  as  the  medal  of  the  Flavian 
family. 

The  band  on  the  top  of  the  Eoman  standard  was  an 
ancient  symbol  of  Oriental  or  Phenician  origin.  It  is  found 
as  a  symbol  in  India  and  in  ancient  INIexico.  A  closed 
hand  grasping  the  Koran  surmounts  the  sacred  standard  of 
Mahomet.  The  present  flag-staff  of  the  Persians  terminates 
in  a  silver  hand. 

Ccesar  has  recorded  that  when  he  attempted  to  land  his 
Pioman  forces  on  the  shores  of  Great  Britain,  meeting  a 
warmer  reception  than  was  anticipated,  considerable  hesitation  arose 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         61 

among  his  troops ;  but  the  standard-bearer  of  the  Tenth  Legion,  with 
the  Eoman  eagle  in  his  hand,  invoking  the  gods,  plunged  into  the 
waves,  called  on  his  comrades  to  follow  him,  and  do  their  duty  to  their 
general  and  to  the  republic ;  and  so  the  whole  army  made  good  their 
landing. 

The  bronze  or  silver  eagle  of  the  Eoman  standards  must  have 
been  of  small  size,  not  larger  than  the  eagles  on  the  color-poles  of 
modern  colors,  since  a  standard-bearer  under  Julius  Caesar,  in  cir- 
cumstances of  danger,  wrenched  the  eagle  from  its  staff,  and  concealed 
it  in  the  folds  of  his  girdle ;  and  the  bronze  horse  preserved  in  the 
collection  at  Goodrich  Court  is  equally  small,  as  will  be  seen  by  the 
engraving  on  a  previous  page,  which  represents  it  as  half  the  dimen- 
sions of  the  original.  Another  figure,  used  as  a  standard  by  the 
Eomans,  was  a  ball  or  globe,  emblematic  of  their  dominion  over  the 
world. 

STANDAEDS   OF   THE   TUEKS  AND   MOSLEMS. 

TuEKiSH  AND  MOSLEM  STANDARDS.  —  The  basarac  or  sandschaki 
sheriff,  or  cheriff,  is  a  green  standard,  which  was  borne  by  Mahomet^ 
and,  being  believed  by  his  devout  followers  to  have  been  brought 
down  from  heaven  by  the  Angel  Gabriel,  is  preserved  with  the  great- 
est veneration.  It  is  enveloped  in  four  coverings  of  green  taffeta  en- 
closed in  a  case  of  green  cloth.  It  is  only  on  occasions  of  extreme 
danger  that  this  sacred  symbol  is  brought  from  its  place  of  deposit.  It 
was  formerly  kept  in  the  imperial  treasury  at  Constantinople,  but,  lat- 
terly, deposited  in  the  mosque  of  Ayyub,  where  the  sultans  at  their 
investiture  are  guarded  with  the  sword  of  the  caliphate.  In  the 
event  of  rebellion  or  war,  it  is  obligatory  upon  the  Sultan  to  order 
the  mullahs  to  display  the  banner  before  the  people  and  to  pro- 
claim the  lihad,  or  holy  war,  exhorting  them  to  be  faithful  to 
their  religion,  and  to  defend  the  empire  with  their  lives.  The  usual 
address  is  as  follows :  "  This  is  the  prophet's  banner ;  this  is  the 
standard  of  the  caliphate.  It  is  planted  before  you  and  unfurled 
over  your  heads,  0  true  believers,  to  announce  to'  you  that  your  re- 
ligion is  threatened,  your  caliphate  in  peril,  and  your  lives,  your 
women  and  children  and  property,  in  danger  of  becoming  a  prey  to 
cruel  enemies  !  Any  Moslem,  therefore,  who  refuses  to  take  up  arms 
and  follow  this  holy  Bairok  is  an  infidel  amenable  to  death."  Accord- 
ing to  another  account,  it  is  carefully  preserved  in  the  seraglio,  in 
a  case  built  into  the  wall  on  tlie  right-hand  side  as  you  enter  the 


62 


TllK   SYMBOLS,    STANDAKDS.    AN'1>    IlANNKKS 


chamber  in  which  i-s  the  grand  seignior's  suniniur-l>ed.     The  standard 
is  twelve  feet  high,  and  the  golden  ornament,  a  closed  hand,  which 

surmounts  it,  holds 
aco]»y  olthe  Koran 
written  by  the  Ca- 
liph Osnian  III. 
In  times  ol"  peace 
this  banner  is 
guarded  in  tlie  hall 
of  the  Noble  A'esti- 
ment,  as  tlie  dress 
wliirh  was  worn  by 
the  prophet  is 
styled.  In  tlie 
same  liall  are  pre- 
served the  sacred 
teeth,  the  holy 
beard,  the  sacred 
stirrup,  the  sabre, 
and  the  bow  of 
j\Iahomet.i  Every 
time  this  standard 
is  displayed,  by  a 
custom  which  has 
become  law,  all  who 
have  attained  the 
age  of  seventeen 
who  profess  the 
]\Iahometan  faith 
are  obhged  to  take 
up  arms,  those  wdio 
refuse  being  re- 
infidels 


The  Doseh.2 


garde d   as 


1  An  English  author,  ]\Ir.  Tliornton,  lias  published,  in  his  work  on  Turkey,  copious 
details  relating  to  this  standard,  which  the  Turks,  who  hold  it  in  the  highest  veneration, 
believe  to  be  the  original  Mahomet's  standard  from  the  temple  of  Mecca,  —  a  delusion 
carefully  nursed  by  their  modern  rulers,  though  history  describes  many  standards  of 
various  colors  which  have  served  in  its  place,  the  original  of  which  was  white,  then  black, 
and  lastly  of  gi-een  silk. 

2  Suspecting  the  above  cut  was  an  exaggeration  of  tliis  Turkish  ceremony,  I  wrote  the 
the  Eev.  Cyrus  Hamlin,  D.D.,  President  of  tlie  Bangor  Theological  Seminary,  and  long  a 
resident  of  Constantinople,  who,  under  date  Feb.  24,  1879,  replied,  "The  engraving  is  an 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         63 

unworthy  the  title  of  Mussulmans,  or  True  Believers.  The  unfurling 
of  this  standard  is  supposed  to  insure  success  to  the  Ottoman  arms ; 
and  despite  the  many  tarnishes  its  honor  has  suffered,  the  Turks  con- 
tinue to  rally  around  it  with  implicit  belief  in  its  sanctity.  So  jeal- 
ously is  it  watched  over,  that  none  but  emirs  may  touch  it,  emirs  are 
its  guard,  the  chief  of  the  emirs  is  alone  privileged  to  carry  it,  and 
Mussulmans  are  alone  permitted  to  see  this  holy  trophy,  which, 
touched  by  other  hands,  would  be  defiled,  and  if  seen  in  other  hands, 
profaned.  The  ceremony  of  presenting  the  banner  is  called  alay, 
a  Turkish  word  signifying  triumph.  The  ceremonies  consist  of  an 
open-air  masquerade.  All  the  trades,  professions,  and  occupations 
of  the  inhabitants,  seated  in  gaudy  carriages,  are  represented  and 
paraded  in  front  of  the  assembled  army,  each  trade  performing  in 
dumb  show  the  manual  operations  of  its  art :  the  carpenter  pretends 
to  saw,  the  ploughman  to  drive  his  oxen,  and  the  smith  to  wield  his 
hammer.  After  these  have  passed,  the  sandschaki  cheriff  is  brought 
out  with  great  veneration  from  the  seraglio,  and  solemnly  carried 
along  and  j)resented  to  the  army.^  The  blessed  banner,  having  thus 
been  presented  to  the  adoring  eyes  of  the  true  believers,  is  carried  back 
to  its  depository ;  and  the  troops,  inspired  with  confidence  and  victory, 
set  forth  on  their  march  to  death  and  glory.  The  observance  of  this 
ceremony  in  the  war  between  Turkey  and  Russia  in  1768  was  the 
occasion  of  frightful  outrages  upon  the  Christians.  So  long  a  period 
had  elapsed  since  its  last  presentation,  that  much  of  the  sanctity 
of  the  occasion  had  been  forgotten,  and  the  Christians,  expressing  a 
wish  to  observe  the  ceremony,  found  the  Turks  ready  and  eager  to 
let  windows  and  house-tops  at  high  prices  to  the  unbelievers,  who 
accordingly  mustered  strong  on  the  line  of  the  procession  to  gratify 
their  curiosity.  A  few  minutes,  however,  before  the  starting  of  the 
banner,  an  emir  appeared  in  the  streets,  crying :  "  Let  no  infidel  dare 
to  profane  with  his  presence  the  holy  standard  of  the  prophet ;  and 

exaggerated  representation  of  the  Doseh  ceremony.  When  the  sacred  standard  is  brouglit 
out,  a  scene  is  witnessed  which  no  doubt  resembles  that  represented  in  the  wood-cut.  The 
believers  crcnvd  all  the  narrow  streets  where  it  passes.  They  fall  down  before  it,  but  not 
in  tliis  extended,  stretched-out  manner.  It  is  the  regular  worship  prostration  ;  their 
heads  do  not  often  come  very  near  the  horse's  feet.  Some  of  the  excessively  devout  may 
throw  themselves  before  the  horse,  but  the  ti-ained,  intelligent  Arabian  would  no  more  tread 
upon  them  than  a  mother  would  tread  upon  her  child.  But  of  such  a  scene  of  universal 
worship  and  prostration,  it  is  a  very  moderate  stretch  of  the  Greek  fancy  and  fidelity  to 
represent  the  horse  and  his  attendants  as  travelling  upon  a  compact  pavement  of  living 
believers.  Were  there  no  greater  exaggerations  than  this  about  Oriental  affairs,  one-half 
of  our  supposed  knowledge  of  the  East  would  be  disposed  of." 
^  Dictionary  of  Useful  Knowledge. 


64      THE  SYMBOLS,  STANDARDS,  AND  BANNERS 

let  every  Mussulinau,  if  he  i^ees  un  unbeliever,  instantly  make  it 
known,  on  pain  of  punishment."  At  this  a  sudden  madness  seized 
upon  the  people,  and  those  who  had  let  their  premises  to  the  greatest 
advantage  became  the  most  furious  in  tlieir  bigoted  zeal,  rushing 
among  the  amazed  Christians,  and  with  blows  and  furious  violence 
tearing  them  from  their  houses,  and  casting  them  into  the  streets 
among  the  infuriated  soldiery.  No  respect  was  paid  to  age,  sex,  or 
condition.  Women  in  the  last  stages  of  maternity  were  dragged  about 
by  the  hair,  and  treated  with  atrocious  outrage.  Every  description 
of  insult,  barbarity,  and  torture  was  inflicted  upon  the  unollending 
Christians,  the  usual  gravity  of  the  Turk  having  on  the  instant  given 
way  to  a  fanaticism  more  in  accordance  with  fiends  than  men.  The 
whole  city,  as  one  man,  was  seized  with  the  same  furor;  and  if  a  victim 
managed  to  escape  from  one  band  of  miscreants,  he  was  certain  to  fall 
into  the  hands  of  others  equally  savage  and  remorseless.^ 

According  to  another  account,  this  sacred  standard  of  IMaliomet 
is  not  green,  but  black;  and  was  instituted  in  contradistinction  to 
the  great  white  banner  of  the  Koraishites,  as  well  as  from  the  appella- 
tion okah  (black  eagle),  which  the  prophet  bestowed  upon  it.  j\Iaho- 
met's  earliest  standard  was  the  white  cloth  forming  the  turban  which 
lie  captured  from  Boreide.  He  subsequently  adopted  for  his  distin- 
suishins  banner  the  sable  curtain  which  hung  before  the  chamber 
of  his  wife  Ayesha,  and  it  is  this  standard  which  is  said  to  be  so 
sacredly  preserved  and  so  jealously  guarded  from  infidel  sight.  It 
descended  first  to  the  folloAvers  of  Omar,  at  Damascus,  thence  to 
the  Abassides,  at  Bagdad  and  Cairo,  from  whom  it  fell  to  the  share 
of  the  bloodhound  Selim  I.,  and  subsequently  found  its  way  into 
Europe  under  Amurath  III.  The  device  upon  it  is  "Nasrum  ruin 
Allah,  —  "  The  help  of  God." 

Besides  their  sacred  standard,  the  Turks  have  the  sanjak,  which  is  a 
red  banner;  the  r/Zcm,  a  broad  standard  ;  and  the  ^?'<77t,  consisting  of 
one,  two,  or  more  horse-tails,  the  number  varying  with  the  rank  of  the 
person  who  bears  it. 

The  title  of  '  pacha '  is  merely  a  personal  one,  denoting  the  official 
aristocracy,  civil  and  military,  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  and  is  de- 
rived from  two  Persian  words,  signifying  "  the  foot  of  the  king."  In 
former  times,  when  the  chief  territorial  divisions  were  called  '  sanjaks,' 
ruled  over  by  beys,  the  larger  sanjaks,  or  two  or  more  smaller  ones, 
were  put  under  a  pacha,  and  called  '  pachaliks.'  The  military  governors 
of  provinces,  who  were  only  subordinate  to  the  grand  vizier,  were 

1  Baron  Tolt's  Memoirs  of  the  Turks  and  Tartars.     Two  vols.     1785. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         65 

styled  ' beylerbeys,'  or  'bey  of  beys.'  European  Turkey  was  divided 
iuto  two  beylerbeyliks,  —  Eoumelia  and  Bosnia ;  the  latter  included 
Servia,  Croatia,  and  Herzegovina.  Constantinople  and  Wallachia  and 
Moldavia  were  not  included  in  any  of  these  jurisdictions.  The  archi- 
pelago was  under  the  capitan  pacha.  The  pachas  consisted  of  three 
classes,  and  were  distinguished  by  the  number  of  horse-tails  borne 
before  them  as  standards,  —  a  custom  brought  from  Tartary,  said  to 
have  originated  with  some  chief,  who,  having  lost  his  standard,  cut 
off  his  horse's  tail  and  displayed  it  as-  a  substitute.  The  governors 
of  the  larger  districts  were  viziers,  by  virtue  of  office.  Their  insignia 
were  the  alem,  a  broad  standard,  the  pole  of  which  was  surmounted 
by  a  crescent ;  the  tugh,  of  three  horse-tails,  artificially  plaited ;  one 
sanjak,  or  green  standard,  similar  to  that  of  the  prophet ;  and  two 
large  ensigns,  called  hairah.  Other  pachas  had  but  two  tails,  with  the 
other  insignia.  A  bey  had  only  one,  together  with  one  standard. 
The  sultan's  standard  counts  seven  horse-tails,  and  the  famous  Ali 
Pacha,  of  Janina,  arrogated  to  himself  no  less  than  thirteen.  At  the 
present  day  all  this  is  much  modified. 

In  the  time  of  Omar,  the  General  Mesiera  Ibu  Mesroud  was  given 
a  black  flag,  inscribed  "  There  is  no  God  hut  God.  Maliomet  is  the  Mes- 
senger of  God."  1 

At  the  battle  of  Yermouk,  Abu  Obeidah,  a  Moslem  general,  erected 
for  his  standard  a  yellow  flag  given  him  by  Abu  Beker,  Mahomet's 
immediate  successor,  being  the  same  which  Mahomet  had  displayed 
in  the  battle  of  Khaibab.  One  of  Mahomet's  standards  was  a  black 
eagle.2  When  Monwyah  rebelled  against  Ali,  the  bloody  garment 
of  Othman  was  raised  in  the  mosque  at  Damascus  as  the  standard  of 
rebellion. 

The  crescent  standard,  which  has  been  set  against  the  cross  in  so 
many  battle-fields,  representing  the  opposing  force  of  Mahometan- 
ism,  had  its  origin  in  the  simple  circumstance  that  the  ancient  city  of 
Byzantium  was  saved  from  falling  into  the  hands  of  Philip  of  Mace- 
don,  from  the  approach  of  his  army  being  betrayed  to  the  inhabitants 
by  the  light  of  the  moon.  In  consequence,  they  adopted  the  crescent, 
which  the  Turks,  when  the  place  came  into  their  possession,  found 
everywhere  as  an  emblem,  and  retained,  believing  it  to  be  of  good 
omen ;  probably  in  its  meaning  they  saw  a  promise  of  increasing 
power.3  The  origin  of  the  crescent  as  a  religious  emblem  is  as  old, 
certainly,  as  Diana ;  in  fact,  the  very  beginning  of  history. 

1  Burkliardt's  Notes  on  the  Bedouins.  2  h-ving's  Successors  of  Mahomet. 

^  Api^leton's  Journal. 


GG  THE  SYMBOLS,  STANDARDS,  AND  BANNERS 

The  staiulanl  witli  tlie  star  and  crescent  u])uu  it  was  first  hoisted 
l>y  Mahomet  II.,  after  the  capture  of  Constantinople,  a.d.  1453.  Prior 
to  tliat  event  the  sign  was  very  common  on  the  arms  of  English 
knights  and  esquires,  but  fell  into  disuse  when  it  liecame  the  device 
of  the  Mahometans.  The  history  of  the  device  belongs  to  the  Grecian, 
if  not  the  more  extensive,  sphere  of  the  Aryan  mythulogy.^ 

At  the  commencement  of  the  recent  Iiusso-Turkisli  war,  the  sultan, 
in  his  dire  need  of  lielp,  resolved  to  call  for  volunteers,  and  arouse  the 
loyal  of  Stamboul  to  arms,  and  that  the  aid  of  the  Cliristian  inhabit- 
ants should  be  asked.  Thus  for  the  first  time  in  Moslem  history  a 
crimson  banner,  emblazoned  with  the  cross  and  crescent,  the  symbols 
of  two  antagonistic  religions,  was  paraded  through  the  streets  of  Con- 
stantinople.    It  was  heralded  by  weird  playing  upon  pipes  and  the 

monotonous  note  of  a  drum.  There  came 
first,  pressing  through  the  throng,  a  youth, 
whose  quietest  movements  were  those  of 
a  maniac.  In  his  hands  gleamed  two 
long  scimitars,  on  his  head  was  the  green 
turban  which  denoted  his  descent  from 
the  prophet ;  and  as  the  noise  of  the  mu- 
sicians rose,  he  kept  time  and  rliythm 
with  head,  hands,  and  feet ;  now  turning 
round,  and  now  jumping ;  now  writhing 
The  Cross  and  Crescent  united,  1876.  ^g  though  in  direful  agouy ;  and  then, 
with  a  glance  toward  heaven,  as  though  delivering  an  earnest  peti- 
tion, bending  his  head  to  the  dust,  and  prostrating  himself  on  the 
oTound.  Behind  him  were  the  reeds  and  the  drum;  in  the  rear 
marched  a  standard-bearer,  and  in  his  hands  was  borne  aloft  the  flag 
which  bore  the  emblems  of  the  crescent  and  the  cross.  At  sight  of 
the  lad  the  bystanders  turned  pale  with  excitement,  and  every  minute 
some  one,  enchanted  by  the  rough  melody  and  the  dancer,  fell  silently 
into  the  procession  w^hich  followed  the  banner.  A  strange  cortege, 
truly :  Softas,  Armenians,  Old  and  New  Turks,  Greeks,  and  Eoman 
Catholics,  some  with  fez  and  others  in  turban,  some  with  straw  hats  and 
others  with  bare  heads,  —  all  following  the  lead  of  the  frantic  youth. 
And  when  the  air  grew  livelier,  or  his  gyrations  more  rapid,  when  he 
raised  his  own  voice  and  gave  a  loud  cry  of  anguish,  knives,  pistols, 
sticks,  swords,  were  lifted  high  in  the  air  or  flourished  round  by  those 
more  moved  than  the  rest.  When  was  such  a  spectacle  ever  beheld 
before  in  the  city  of  the  sultan,  under  the  very  shadow  of  the  great 

1  Notes  and  Queries,  4tli  series,  vol.  viii.,  1870,  p.  405. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         67 

mosque  of  St  Sophia  ?  The  device  was  successful,  and  band  after 
band  was  forwarded  to  the  seat  of  war.^ 

The  great  standard  won  by  the  Eling  of  Poland  from  the  infidels 
in  1683,  at  Kalemberg,  was  about  eight  feet  in  breadth,  rounded  at 
the  fly,  and  of  a  green  and  crimson  stuff,  of  silk  and  gold  tissue 
mixed,  bearing  a  device  in  arabesque  characters  signifying,  "  There  is 
no  God  but  God,  and  Mahomet  is  his  Prophet."  The  ball  on  the  top 
of  the  staff,  about  the  size  of  a  man's  joined  fists,  was  of  brass  gilt. 
This  standard  was  presented  by  the  King  of  Poland  to  the  Pope,  who 
caused  it  to  be  suspended  from  the  roof  of  St.  Peter's,  by  the  side  of 
another  standard  taken  from  the  infidels  at  the  battle  of  Ohotzen. 
Irving,  in  his  '  Life  of  Mahomet,'  says  that  the  general  always  carried 
the  standard  into  battle. 

The  pirates  of  Algiers  and  of  the  coast  of  Barbary  are  the  only 
people  who  ever  bore  an  hexagonal  flag  or  standard.  Theirs  was  a 
red  flag  with  a  Moorish  head  coifed  with  its  turban,  &c.,  designed  as 
the  portrait  of  Hali,  the  son-in-law  of  Mahomet,  who  ordered  his 
effigy  expressed  on  the  standards  of  his  followers,  believing  that  the 
bare  sight  of  his  image  would  carry  undoubted  victory  over  the  Chris- 
tians. This  device  was  remarkable,  as  the  Koran  forbids  the  making 
of  any  image  or  representation  of  any  man;  for  they  who  make  it  will 
be  obliged  at  the  day  of  judgment  to  find  soids  for  them,  or  be  them- 
selves damned.  This  superstition  has  been  so  modified,  that  Muley 
Abbas,  the  brother  of  the  Emperor  of  Morocco,  in  1863,  sat  for  his 
photograph ;  and  the  sultan  has  allowed  his  portrait  to  be  painted,  at 
the  request  of  the  foreign  ambassadors  to  his  court. 

The  fashion  of  pointed  or  triangular  flags  came  from  the  Mahom- 
etan Arabs  or  Saracens,  upon  their  seizure  of  Spain,  a.d.  712,  before 
which  time  all  the  ensigns  of  war  were  square,  and  extended  on 
cross-pieces  of  wood  or  yards  like  church  banners,  on  which  account 
they  were  called  vexilla. 

SLAVONIC   STANDARDS  AND   ENSIGNS.  —  DPtAGON 
STAND  AEDS. 

The  Banners  and  National  Colors  of  Poland,  &c.  —  In  our 
research  concerning  religious  and  militaiy  ensigns,  standards,  and  flags, 
one  family,  the  Slavonic,  mighty  in  renowm,  has  disappointed  our  ex- 
ertions. Greek  writers  knew  them  by  no  name  that  can  be  brought 
home,  and  the  Piomans  felt  them  more  than  they  have  described  them. 

1  Cor.  London  Telegraph,  July  18,  1876. 


G8  I'lii:  sv.Mr.oi.s,  stam)Ai:i>s.  and  haxxeks 

It  is  a  question  whether  tlicy  wvw  in  lull  or  at  all  iiuludLMl  in  the 
denomination  of  '  Scythians.'  The  military  achievements  of  the  Ja- 
zyges,  Dacians,  Sarmatians,  and  other  of  the  Slavonic  race  of  later 
date,  we  find  on  liomau  bass-reliefs  of  Roman  triumphs  over  these  bar- 
barians. The  civilized  and  sedentary  nations  have  always  shown  the 
most  anxiety  to  commemorate  victories  over  enemies  they  could  not 
subdue.  The  victories  of  Thosmes  II.  and  III.,  and  of  Sesostris,  over 
nations  probably  of  Slavonic  stock,  painted  on  the  walls  of  Thebes, 
are  of  this  description.  The  columns  of  Trajan  and  Antonine  .show 
the  Slavonic  cavahy,  and  representations  of  the  ensigns  which  those 
riding  and  migratory  nations  adopted  for  carrying  on  horseback,  before 
the  stirrup  was  invented.  In  China,  Japan,  and  Tartary,  west  of 
Germany,  dragon-shaped  symbols,  resolvable  into  some  sort  of  flag, 
were  adopted  as  military  ensigns  from  the  earliest  age.  In  ancient 
times,  the  Southern  and  Western  nations  had  effigy  standards  of 
statues  or  sculptured  objects  without  cloth  beneath  them,  or,  at  most, 
a  knotted  shawl  or  cloth.  These  dragon  standards  consisted  of  a 
metal  or  wooden  head,  representing  the  figure  of  a  dragon,  with  the 
mouth  open,  and  were  perforated  at  the  neck,  to  which  a  long  bag, 
in  the  shape  of  a  serpent,  was  fastened ;  the  lower  jaw  was  bored 
through,  for  the  purpose  of  receiving  the  point  of  a  spindle,  whereon 
it  turned  according  to  the  wind,  which,  blowing  in  at  the  ojien  mouth, 
dilated  the  pendulous  bag,  giving  it  the  appearance  of  a  twisting  snake. 
There  were  instances  when  tow  and  burning  materials  were  placed  in 
the  mouth,  to  give  the  dragon  an  appearance  of  breathing  fire.  Indi- 
cations of  this  practice  occur  in  early  Chinese  works,  and  in  the 
Tartar  armies  that  invaded  Europe.  In  the  Teutonic  armies,  a  dragon 
standard  belonged  to  about  every  thousand  men.  In  a  letter,  the 
Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius  states  his  camp  is  iiwested  by  a  German 
force  of  seventy-four  dragons,  forming  an  army  of  seventy-nine  thou- 
sand men.  When  this  form  of  ensign,  adopted  over  so  vast  a  terri- 
tory, was  so  long  in  use,  and  so  multiplied,  it  is  evident,  in  order  that 
friend  and  foe  might  discriminate  each  from  other,  that  differences  of 
form,  color,  and  ornament  must  have  been  resorted  to.  Black,  golden, 
and  silver  dragons  were  common  in  the  far  East.  White,  red,  and 
green  "\yere  more  general  colors  among  the  Celtaj ;  and  the  Ifist  was 
held  in  high  respect  by  the  Scandinavians.  Slavonic  nations  caused 
their  dragons  to  appear  in  that  color,  or  introduced  it  in  stripes,  bands, 
or  additional  ribbons.  All  these  modifications  can  be  traced  on  the 
dragon  ensigns  of  the  Sarmatians  and  Daci  of  the  Trajan  column  at 
Rome. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        69 

As  the  Slavonic  nations  numbered  many  pagan  tribes  among  them, 
to  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century,  the  solar  worship  typified  by 
Thor,  or  the  Bull  God,  originated  effigies  of  the  bull,  his  head,  skull, 
or  horns,  as  national  ensigns  ;  others  adopted  the  skull  or  figure  of  the 
horse.  The  Moxian's  national  ensign  was  a  horse-skin.  The  skull  of 
a  horse,  with  the  tail  hung  behind  it,  was  borne  in  the  religious  pro- 
cessions of  the  Eugii,  and  was  known  in  Sweden  as  an  attribute  of 
Odin.  There  was  a  tribe  of  Bielsk  which  had  for  a  standard  a  white 
bear-skin ;  another  carried  a  pair  of  urus'  horns ;  the  Ostii,  the  head 
of  a  wild  boar.  The  Jazyges  carried  horse-tails.  All  these  ensigns 
preceded  Christianity  in  Poland.  When  Ringold,  12.37,  assembled 
the  Poles,  Lithuanians,  and  Samogitians  to  oppose  the  Tahtan  Bati, 
each  tribe  received  an  ensign,  made  for  the  occasion,  of  red  or  black 
cloth,  secured  like  a  vexiUum.  In  Poland,  a  black  flag  was  the  par- 
ticular distinction  of  the  court,  the  palace,  and  the  royal  person :  it 
may  be  that  this  color  was  connected  with  the  assertion  of  Andre 
Barden,  that  several  Sarmatian  tribes  "  iwrtaient  dans  leurs  bannieres 
Vimage  de  la  mort."  The  Cossacks,  when  they  shook  off  the  religious 
oppression  which  King  A^ladislaus  A^II.  wanted  to  fix  upon  them,  had  on 
their  ensigns  no  emblazonment,  but  only  invocations  and  imprecations. 

When  serfship  was  introduced,  about  the  tenth  or  eleventh  century, 
all  tribal  symljols  disappeared,  or  were  appropriated  by  the  nobles, 
who  then  began  to  imitate  the  feudal  inventions  of  Western  Europe. 

Stephen  the  Saint,  King  of  the  Magyars,  received  a  white  patri- 
archal cross  from  the  Pope,  which  was  carried  on  the  top  of  a  pole  as 
a  standard,  and  had  a  guard  instituted  to  surround  it.  From  that  time, 
eaoies'  or  herons'  wings,  the  ancient  ensigns  of  the  Huns  or  of  the 
Onoguro,  were  left  to  adorn  the  lances  of  private  warriors.  Attila  is 
said  to  have  carried  a  hawk  for  his  standard. 

In  Constantinople  there  was  a  monkish  order  ^  which  wore  a  green 
habit  and  a  scarlet  mantle,  with  a  patriarchal  yellow  or  blue  cross 
on  the  breast.  This  order  spread  westward,  and  constituted  the 
guard  of  St.  Stephen's  cross  in  Hungary.  When  Hedwega  united 
Lithuania  with  Poland  by  her  marriage  with  the  Duke  Jagillon  in 
the  fourteenth  century,  his  national  standard,  a  mounted  warrior,  in 
token  of  his  conversion  to  Christianity,  received  in  addition  this  cross 
on  the  shield  of  the  horseman.  It  remained,  however,  a  distinct  ban- 
ner in  the  Polish  armies,  —  a  double  white  cross  bordered  with  gold, 
borne  in  a  blue  field.  There  is  a  legend  that  this  cross  was  placed 
on  the  shield  to  commemorate  a  victory  over  the  Teutonic  knights. 

1  Tlie  Fratres  Constantiuopolitaiii. 


70  THE   SYMliOLS,    STANDARDS,    AND    I'.ANXEKS 

A  white  eagle  on  a  red  ground  was  the  cognizance  of  the  kingdom 
of  Pohmd  in  tlie  eleventh  century,  and  is  coeval  with  the  numerous 
eagles  of  the  German  Empire,  originally  all  single-headed.  Li[)sius 
has  a  cut  of  one  having  two  heads  with  wings  displayed,  as  in  modern 
heraldry,  which  he  copied  from  the  Theodosian  column. 

The  Tolish  silver  eagle  on  a  red  ground  is  of  the  same  age  as  tlie 
golden  eagle  on  a  red  field,  the  imperial  ensign  of  the  house  of  Saxony, 
and  long  impaled  with  the  gold  and  sable  bars  traversed  with  a  bend 
of  green  rue.  Silesia,  Moravia,  and  Prussia  assumed  eagles  differenced 
in  their  structures  or  by  particular  marks  on  their  breast.  "We  liave 
no  knowledge  when  the  two-headed  eagle  was  assumed  by  Kussia, 
but  the  mounted  horseman  of  the  Muscovites  may  be  the  original 
type  of  the  Lithuanian  ensign.  In  Western  Europe  at  the  time  of 
the  first  crusade,  and  among  the  Moslems  at  the  same  date,  standards 
and  ensigns  were  generally  without  charge  or  symbolic  figures,  unless 
it  were  the  cross,  which,  whenever  it  occurs,  was  always  an  imitation 
of  the  cross  mark,  standing  for  the  sign-manual  of  the  person  whose 
ensign  it  was.  Thus,  in  England,  the  crosses  on  rough  Saxon  coins, 
commonly  called  'sciatta,'  are  the  mark  of  the  sign-manual  of  the  sov- 
ereign wdio  caused  them  to  be  struck,  and  also  the  cross  which  he 
placed  upon  his  banner ;  for  in  several  it  is  represented  in  a  flag  upon 
the  coins  themselves.^ 

The  black  ensign  of  Poland,  derived  or  imitated  from  the  Tahtar 
standards,  was  older  than  the  white  eagle,  or  white  cross  on  a  blue 
field  of  the  Gonesa,  as  the  latter  banner  was  called.  It  may  have  been 
plain,  or  marked  with  a  skeleton  Vimage  dc  la  mort,  and  later  with 
the  cross  or  sign-manual  of  the  reigning  prince,  until,  diminishing  in 
consideration,  the  St.  Stephen's  patriarchal  cross  became  the  religious 
ensign.  The  arrow,  consecrated  by  the  blood  of  the  martyr  St.  Sebas- 
tian, which  formed  part  of  the  royal  sceptre  of  Poland,  may  have  had 
its  symbolical  figures  on  a  banner.  The  name  of  Gonesa,  given  to  the 
banner  which  imited  the  devices  of  Lithuania  and  Poland,  we  find 
nowhere  explained. 

When  the  white  eagle  and  horseman  became  national,  other  sym- 
bols were  appropriated  by  the  provinces.  A  list  of  the  ensigns  of 
the  western  Slavonic  nations  in  the  British  Museum  shows  that  the 
armorial  ensigns  of  the  provinces  was  borne  on  the  breast  of  the  white 
eagle,  recognizing  the  allegiance  of  the  provinces  to  the  national 
standard.^ 

In  a  curious  plan  of  the  battle  of  Praga,  near  Warsaw,  a.d.  1656, 

1  United  Service  Magazine,  October,  1844. 


OF   A^'CIEXT   AND   MODERN   NATIONS.  71 

there  is  in  the  foreground  a  representation  by  a  Swedish  artist  of  the 
PoHsh  standards  surrendered  to  Charles  X.,  of  S^'eden,  nearly  all  of 
which  bear  the  symbols  and  distinctions  of  the  great  nobles.^ 

A  custom  among  the  Poles  of  bearing  military  signs  attached 
to  the  backs  of  warriors  deserves  attention,  because  it  is  of  Mon- 
golic  origin,  and  can  be  traced  even  to  Mexico.^  The  western  Sla- 
vonians appear  to  have  copied  the  custom  from  the  Tahtars,  who 
often  bore  a  slight  staff  with  a  flag  or  bundle  of  feathers  secured  by 
straps  in  a  scabbard  between  the  shoulders.  There  exist  copperplate 
etchings  of  these  horsemen.  In  Poland,  as  late  as  the  reign  of  John 
Sobieski,  outspread  wings  of  swans  and  eagles  appear  to  have  been 
secured  to  the  backs  of  knights.  A  body  of  warriors  thus  equipped 
figured  in  a  magnificent  charge,  when  that  hero  relieved  Vienna,  and 
a  similar  device  was  attached  to  each  side  of  the  back  of  the  saddles 
of  the  nobles  at  the  surrender  of  Praga.  This  was  in  part  of  metal, 
and  produced  in  galloping  a  crashing  noise,  designed  to  increase  the 
terror  of  horses  opposed  to  them,  who  encountered  at  the  same  mo- 
ment the  bewildering  flutter  of  the  small  flags  on  the  lances,  which 
are  still  retained  by  modern  uhlans,  hussars,  lancers,  &c.  In  the  mag- 
nificent Hall  of  Armor  in  Vienna  is  preserved  the  famous  horse-tail 
standard  of  John  Sobieski,  who  rolled  back  the  tide  of  Moslem  in- 


vasion 


A  fac-simile  of  the  standard  of  ancient  Poland,  under  which  Sobieski 
defeated  the  Turks  in  1673,  was  made  in  Philadelphia  for  the  PoHsh 
association  in  1863,  and  in  1876  was  deposited  in  the  National  Museum 
at  Independence  Hall,  Philadelphia.^ 

CHINESE,    JAPANESE,    JAVANESE,   AND    EAST    INDIAN 
STAND  AEDS. 

Chinese  Symbols  and  Standards.  —  At  the  departure  of  the  chil- 
dren of  Israel  from  Egypt,  China  was  seven  hundred  years  old,  and 
when  Isaiah  prophesied  of  her,  she  had  existed  fifteen  centuries.  She 
has  seen  the  rise  and  decline  of  Assyria,  Babylon,  Persia,  Greece,  and 
Ptome,  but  remains  a  solitary  and  wonderful  monument  of  patriarchal 
time,  with  a  population  which,  roughly  estimated,  establishes  the  fact 
that  every  third  person  who  lives  upon  this  earth,  or  is  buried  in  it,  is 
a  Chinese. 

1  United  Service  Journal,  October,  1844. 

2  See  Prescott's  Conquest  of  Slexico,  and  Jilexicau  Standards  in  this  volume. 

3  American  newspaper. 


72  THE   SYMl'.dLS.    STANDAKDS,    AM)    I'.A.NXEKS 

According  to  Chinese  cosmogony,  Poankon,  at  the  formation  ol"  thi; 
world,  was  th*e  first  man  born  from  Chinese  soil  or  clay.  In  his  age 
the  earth  was  inhaliited  by  luige  animals  of  greater  size  than  the  wliale. 
Among  these  bulky  monsters  was  a  dragon,  sovereign  of  tlie  air  l)y 
its  wings,  and,  as  a  serpent,  monarch  of  the  earth  by  its  swiftness.  It 
preyed  upon  human  flesh,  M'as  worshipped  as  a  malevolent  spirit,  and 
human  victims  were  immolated  to  appease  its  voracity. 

Tien  Hoang,  a  prince  and  legislator  of  China,  abolished  human  sac- 
rifices, together  with  the  adoration  of  the  dragon ;  but  its  idol  was 
preserved  in  the  temples,  and  exhibited  on  the 
standard  of  the  Chinese  princes.  In  the  following 
age,  Tien  Hoang  was  reported  to  have  destroyed 
the  dragon,  and  was  depicted  as  killing  the  mon- 
ster/ just  as  St.  George  has  been  painted  in  modern 
times. 

Tieu^S^ithe  The  type  of  the  dragon  is  probably  the  sea- 

i^ragon.  serpent  or  boa-constrictor,  though  the  researches 

of  geology  have  brought  to  light  sucli  a  counterpart  of '  the  lunrj '  of 

the  Chinese  in  the  iguanodon  as  to  make  it  probable  it  may  have  been 

its  prototype. 

According  to  the  Chinese,  there  are  three  dragons  ;  viz.,  the  honr/  in 
the  sky,  the  li  in  the  sea,  and  Oian  in  the  marshes.  But  the  first 
is  the  only  authentic  one,  and  has  the  head  of  a  camel,  the  horns 
of  the  deer,  eyes  of  a  rabbit,  ears  of  a  cow,  neck  of  a  snake,  belly  of 
a  frog,  scales  of  a  carp,  claws  of  a  hawk,  and  the  palms  of  a  tiger. 
On  each  side  of  the  mouth  are  whiskers,  and  its  head  contains  a  bright 
pearl,  its  breath  is  sometimes  changed  into  water  and  sometimes  into 
fire,  and  its  voice  is  like  the  jingling  of  copper  pans.^ 

The  dragon  is  allowed  to  be  Avorn  by  Chinese  noblemen  or  man- 
darins and  vassals  of  the  empire  in  various  colors  and  postures,  to 
distinguish  families,  accompanied  by  emblematical  flowers,  silk  knots, 
and  peacock's  feathers ;  but  it  is  forbidden,  under  penalty  of  death, 
to  have  more  than/otw  claws  to  each  foot,  in  order  to  distinguish  the 
imperial  dragon,  which  has  Jive  claws.^ 

The  word  'dragon,'  in  Greek,  signifies  a  looker-on,  or  a  watcher  who 
guards  an  entrance.  Most  of  the  Oriental  cities  of  old  bore  on  their 
fortified  gates  the  effigy  of  a  dragon. 

The  exalted  conception  the  Chinese  entertain  of  the  dragon  has 
caused  the  name  to  symbolize  the  dignity  and  supremacy  of  the  Chi- 
nese emperor.  ■  He  is  spoken  of  as  seated  on  the  dragon  throne ;  to  see 

1  "Williams's  Middle  Kingdom.  -  Brunet's  Regal  Arm  one. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         73 

him  is  to  see  the  dragons  face ;  his  standard  is  the  dragon ;  and  the 
coat  of  arms  embroidered  on  the  breasts  and  back  of  his  followers  is 
a  dragon.  This  monster  is  not  regarded  by  the  Chinese  as  a  fabulous 
animal,  but  as  a  real  existence,  or  rather  as  a  power  of  nature  pervad- 
ing the  air  and  ocean  and  earth,  seen,  perhaps,  in  water-spouts  and 
clouds  and  bursting  fountains.^ 

Imperial  Standard  of  Chixa.  —  The  standard  of  the  Envperor  of 
China  is  of  yellow  satin  with  a  red  border,  on  which  is  worked  a  gold 
embroidered  dragon.  The  fly  is  four  feet  in  length  by  fourteen  inches 
in  breadth,  and  its  edges  are  serrated  or  fringed.  The  Chinese  char- 
acters on  it  simply  signify  '  emperor.'  The  standard  pole  is  about 
eight  feet  in  length. 

The  standard  of  the  empress  is  of  the  same  size,  shape,  device,  and 
material  as  that  of  the  emperor,  but  it  is  all  yellow,  having  no  colored 
border.     The  inscription  on  this  flag  signifies  '  empress.' 

The  standard  of  the  empress-dowager  is  the  same  as  the  pre- 
ceding, but  made  of  white  satin  on  which  is  worked  a  golden 
dragon. 

The  national  flag,  announced  as  such  in  1872  to  all  foreign  min- 
isters, superintendents  of  trade,  and  foreign  officials,  is  triangular  in 
shape,  and  of  deep  yellow  bunting,  with  a  blue  dragon  with  a  green 
head  snapping  at  a  red  pearl  or  ball  in  its  centre.  It  is  worn  by 
Chinese  war  vessels  and  custom-house  cruisers.  Another  Chinese 
flag  is  square,  and  red,  blazoned  with  two  blue  fishes,  for  which  of 
late  a  white  ball  has  been  substituted. 

Whenever  the  governor-general  starts  on  a  warlike  expedition,  he 
must  worship  his  flag.  Whenever  he  sends  any  high  military  officer 
to  fight  the  enemy,  and  whenever  any  high  military  officer  is  about 
to  proceed  to  battle,  the  flag  of  his  division  or  brigade  must  be 
worshipped.  The  worship  is  often  performed  on  the  public  parade- 
ground  in  the  suburbs,  near  the  south  gate  of  the  city.  The  viceroy, 
or  governor-general,  sometimes  chooses  to  sacrifice  to  the  flag  on  his 
own  parade-ground  connected  with  his  gamuns.  The  time  usually 
selected  is  daylight,  or  a  little  later.  However,  the  day,  hour,  and 
minute  are  fixed  by  a  fortune-teller.  Oftentimes  high  officials, 
civil  and  military,  connected  with  the  government,  are  present.     It 

1  Letter,  S.  Wells  Williams,  LL.D.,  Dec.  3, 1879.  For  further  account  of  the  dragon, 
see  Chinese  Repository,  vol.  vii.  In  Chinese  books  the  ancient  Chinese  flags  are  often 
figured.  'Memoires  eoncemant  les  Chinois,'  printed  last  century  in  Paris,  has  a  plate  of 
three  or  four  styles  of  military  flags. 


74  Tin:    SYMIJOIA    STANDARDS,    AND    15ANNERS 

is  necessary  tlial  all  the  olTicers  uIk)  aie  to  accompany  the  expe- 
dition should  witness  the  ceremony  and  take  i)art  in  it.  The  same 
is  true  of  the  soldiers  "who  are  to  be  sent  away,  or  are  to  enj,'age 
in  the  fight.  In  the  centre  of  the  arena  is  placed  a  table  having 
upon  it  two  candles,  one  censer,  and  several  cu]).s  of  wine.  The 
candles  are  lighted.  An  oflicer,  kneeling,  holds  the  large  Hag  by 
its  stair  near  the  table.  The  otticer  who  is  to  command  the  expedi- 
tion, standing  before  the  table  and  the  flag,  receives  three  sticks  of 
lighted  incense  from  the  master  of  the  ceremony,  which  he  rever- 
ently places  in  the  censer  arranged  between  the  candles.  He  then 
kneels  on  the  ground,  and  bows  his  head  three  times.  Some  wine 
taken  from  the  table  is  handed  him  while  on  his  knees,  which  he 
pours  on  the  ground.  Then  a  cup  of  Avine  is  dashed  upon  the  flag, 
and  the  profesSor  cries  out,  "  Unfurl  the  flag,  victory  is  obtained ;  the 
cavalry  advancing,  soon  it  is  perfected."  Tlie  whole  company  of 
officers  and  soldiers  who  had  knelt  and  bowed  their  heads  now  rise 
up  M'ith  a  shout,  and  commence  their  march  for  the  scene  of  action 
or  appointed  rendezvous.^ 

In  1854,  the  writer,  while  in  command  of  the  United  States  chartered 
steamer  Queen,  a  little  vessel  of  137  tons,  mounting  four  iron  4-pouud- 
ers  and  a  12-pounder  brass  boat-howitzer,  the  latter  loaned  from  the 
United  States  ship  INIacedonian,  participated  in  an  expedition  —  Eng- 
lish, American,  and  Portuguese  (guided  by  a  Chinese  admiral's  junk)  — 
against  the  piratical  strongholds  at  Tyho  and  Kulau,  which  resulted 
in  the  complete  destruction  of  the  piratical  fleet  and  batteries.  As 
one  of  the  fruits  of  this  expedition,  he  forwarded  to  the  Xavy  Depart- 
ment at  Washington  twelve  flags  taken  by  his  force  from  the  pirate's 
junks  and  batteries.  These  are  believed  to  be  the  first  flags  ever 
captured  from  the  Chinese  by  our  arms.  One  of  these  trophies,  a 
large  white  cotton  flag,  was  inscribed  in  bold  Chinese  characters, 
"  The  fla(j  of  Lue-niing-suy-ming  of  the  Hong-shing-toiuj  company, 
chief  of  the  sea  squadron"  and  " that  he  takes  from  the  rich  and  not 
from  the  'poor,  and  that  his  flag  can  fly  anyichere."  •  The  inscriptions 
on  another  large  triangular  flag  were  written  with  blood,  and,  trans- 
lated, read,  viz. :  Ko.  1.  "  The  land  of  Triads!'  Xo.  2.  "  May  the  Man- 
choos  he  overthrovm  and  the  Mings  restored."  Xo.  3.  " Shou"  the 
name  of  one  of  the  five  originators  of  the  Triad  society.  No.  4.  "  Let 
the  seas  he  like  oil  si'je2}t  of  our  foes,"  or,  "  We  the  J'riads  spring  up  in 
every  cquarter."  No.  5.  On  the  fly,  or  extreme  end  of  the  flag,  is  a 
character  which  signifies  "  Victory."     From  these  inscriptions  it  would 

1  Doolittlc's  Social  Life  of  the  Chinese. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         75 

seem  that  this  pirate  was  a  rebel  from  the  Mandarin  or  Manchoo 
authority,  and  a  Triad.^ 

Eear-Admiral  John  Eodgers,  in  1871,  forwarded  to  the  Xavy  De- 
partment at  Washington  twenty-one  standards  and  pennants,  together 
with  four  staffs  from  which  the  colors  have  been  torn,  —  all  of  which 
were  captured  by  the  Xaval  Expedition  to  the  Corea.  The  Secretary 
of  the  Navy  forwarded  them  to  the  Xaval  Academy  at  Annapolis,  to 
be  deposited  there  with  other  trophies. 

These  banners  present  every  variety  of  color  and  design,  but  still 
indicate  some  method  and  arrangement.  The  flag  of  the  commanding 
general  and  those  of  the  principal  officers  are  of  flowered  silk,  and 
those  of  the  subordinate  officers  of  cotton,  the  latter  closely  woven. 
The  staffs  are  alike,  from  six  to  eight  feet  long,  and  shod  at  the 
foot  with  iron,  that  they  may  be  driven  into  the  ground.  The  head 
of  each  staff  is  ornamented  with  carved  wood,  painted  in  brilliant 
colors,  and  capped  by  a  rim  of  brass.  The  middle  of  each  staff  is 
painted  with  a  series  of  white  and  black  rings,  which,  according  to 
their  number,  seem  to  indicate  some  rank  or  station.  The  staves  of 
the  flags  representing  superior  officers  are  surmounted  by  a  bunch  of 
pheasant's  feathers,  those  of  a  lesser  rank  l^y  a  flat  piece  of  iron  fanci- 
fully cut,  and  others  have  no  mounting.  The  flags  generally  are  a 
square  of  one  color,  surrounded  by  a  border  of  another  color.  A  few 
smaller,  and  which  appear  to  be  inferior,  flags  have  two  equal  stripes 
of  different  colors.  The  interior  squares  of  the  superior  flags  bear 
representations  of  flying  dragons,  flying  serpents,  turtles,  &c.,  printed 
in  brilliant  colors,  and  well  drawn.  The  flag  of  the  Corean  com- 
manding general  is  of  fine  yellow  silk,  with  a  figure  representing  a 
tiger  rampant,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  border  of  green  silk.  Flag 
Xo.  2  is  of  plain  blae  silk  bound  with  black,  with  a  representation 
of  a  flying  turtle.  It  is  badly  torn  by  shell  and  bullets.  No.  3  is 
of  yellow  silk  trimmed  with  brown ;  to  its  centre  are  sewed  two  card- 
boards with  hieroglyphics  covered  with  silk.  ISTo.  4  is  similar  to 
No.  3,  but  of  plain  light  blue  silk.  Xo.  5  is  of  yellow  silk,  bound 
with  pale  red  silk,  and  bears  the  representation  of  a  flying  serpent. 
This  flag  is  much  torn  by  bullets.  The  remaining  flags  are  of  cotton 
dyed  in  various  colors.  One  has  a  Corean  inscription,  signifying  it  is 
"  The  flag  of  the  squad  captain  of  the  rear  battalion  of  the  regiment." 
Another  has  a  representation  of  an  officer  on  horseback ;  another,  of 
a  flying  serpent ;  another  has  a  turtle ;  several  are  blood-stained. 
Accompanying  the  flags  are  four  pennants  of  silk  and  cotton  of  vari- 

1  These  inscriptions  were  interpreted  by  S.  "Wells  Williams. 


76  THE    SVMr.oLS.    sTANDAUDS,    and    r.AXNEKS 

ous  colors,  inink'd  witli  curious  devices.  Specimens  ol"  C'orean  spears, 
witli  little  Hags  attached,  resembling  guydons,  were  also  received  at 
the  Xavy  I)e])artnient. 

At  the  United  States  Legati(jn  at  I't-kin  there  is  a  lianner  obtained 
at  Fort  ^IcKee,  an  oljloug  cotton  Hag,  blazoned  with  a  ■winged  tiger 
in  red,  having  flames  around  it.  "Winged  animals  or  men  are  almost 
unknown  in  China  and  Japan,  and  l>r.  S.  Wells  Williams  informs  mc 
he  could  learn  nothing  about  the  meaning  of  this  flag.  On  the  11  th 
of  September,  1878,  a  red-dragon  flag  was  hoisted  for  the  first  time 
at  the  Chinese  consulate  at  Nagasaki,  Japan,  and  the  day  was  one  of 
festivity  and  rejoicing  among  the  Chinese. 

The  Chinese  had  no  national  flag  until  their  intercourse  with 
foreign  nations,  since  the  treaties  of  1858  and  the  residence  of  foreign 
ministers  at  Pekin,  showed  the  government  the  necessity  of  adopt- 
ing an  ensign  for  their  ships  of  war  and  merchantmen  whicli  would 
be  recognized  by  other  nations  on  the  high  seas,  and  serve  to  distin- 
guish honest  traders  along  the  coast  from  piratical  craft.  It  was 
made  known  to  foreign  ministers  in  a  despatch  of  Oct.  22,  18G2, 
and  has  gradually  come  to  be  used  by  all  Chinese  vessels  and  junks, 
if  their  owners  or  masters  care  to  go  to  the  expense,  but  is  mostly 
hoisted  on  the  foreign  rigged  and  owned  vessels.  The  government 
vessels  in  China  have  also  had  their  flags  to  distinguish  them.  But 
a  new  regulation  has  been  made,  requiring  a  dragon  flag  triangular 
in  shape,  ten  feet  broad  at  its  base  for  largest,  and  seven  or  eight  feet 
for  smaller  vessels ;  length  according  to  taste ;  the  field  yellow,  with 
a  dragon  painted  on  it  with  head  erect.  Previous  to  its  date,  the 
imperial  flag  with  a  dragon  was  confined,  under  certain  circumstances, 
to  the  land  forces  and  to  the  guard  of  the  emperor.  The  war  junks 
usually  hoisted  yellow  flags  containing  the  full  titles  of  the  oflicer  in 
command,  and  the  junks  bore  distinctive  banners,  to  mark  their  place 
or  rank  in  the  squadron.  Every  commander  along  the  coast,  from 
Ninchwang  to  Hainan,  had  a  different  flag,  and  none  had  blazonry  of 
any  kind.  The  ground  was  not  always  yellow,  certain  ranks  having 
a  white  ground ;  the  scalloped  border,  if  used,  was  also  of  different 
colors. 

The  present  army  of  China  is  divided  into  bannermen,  which 
have  eight  corps,  recognized  by  different  flags,  and  the  green-banner 
army,  which  constitutes  the  largest  part  of  the  paid  forces.  The  flags 
of  the  bannermen  are  triangular,  —  plain  yellow,  white,  red,  or  blue 
for  the  left  wing,  and  the  same  Mdth  a  colored  border  for  the  right 
wing.     The  uniform  of  the  soldier  shows  by  its  color  and  facings  the 


OF  ANCIENT   AND   xMODERN   NATIONS.  77 

banner  which  each  man  belongs  to.  The  banners  of  both  the  army 
and  navy  have  the  official  titles  of  the  general  or  commander  painted 
on  them. 

In  the  provinces,  the  Governor-general  (Tsung-tuh)  has  command 
of  all  the  green-banner  (Luh-ying)  army  in  his  jurisdiction,  and  their 
disposal  is  in  his  hands.  The  Mantchoo  force  belonging  to  the  eight 
banners  is  under  the  orders  of  an  especial  commandant,  responsible 
directly  to  Pekin.  A  triangular  plain  green  flag  indicates  the  general 
army;  the  facings  of  the  uniforms  generally  indicate  the  corps.  It 
is  probable  that  the  use  of  the  national  flag,  adopted  in  1862,  will 
gradually  extend  to  the  army  raised  in  the  provinces.  The  usage  of 
restricting  the  disposition  of  regiments  and  divisions  to  the  province 
in  which  they  have  been  raised  has  tended  to  neutralize  national 
pride  among  the  soldiers. 

In  ancient  times,  the  form,  blazonry,  and  material  of  flags  used  by 
the  sovereign,  feudal  princes,  generals,  and  officials  of  every  grade, 
was  directed  by  special  regulations,  and  continues  to  influence  their 
use. 

The  "  dragon  flag  "  is  usually  regarded  by  the  Chinese  as  indicating 
the  person,  the  envoy,  the  property,  or  the  special  cognizance  of  the 
monarch,  distinguished  from  the  ordinary  department  or  officers  of  his 
government ;  the  latter  are  known  more  by  the  yeUow  color  of  the 
flag  than  the  dragon.^ 

Private  trading-junks  adopt  any  flag  they  please,  always  except- 
ing the  prohibited  ones,  and  consequently  often  adorn  the  masts  with 
many  and  variously  shaped  pennons,  signals,  and  flags,  including  some 
more  religious  than  commercial,  intended  to  secure  the  protection  of 
the  gods  on  the  voyage.  The  difficulty  of  recognizing  honest  from 
piratical  vessels  along  the  coast  has  ofttimes  led  to  the  destruction  of 
the  former  by  foreign  vessels  of  war ;  for,  as  they  usually  go  armed, 
and  their  officers  and  men  could  speak  no  English  or  other  foreign 
language  and  ascertain  the  truth  of  matters,  they  were  led  to  return 
the  fire  of  their  assailants.  In  the  despatch  announcing  the  adoption 
of  the  present  flag.  Prince  Kung  extends  its  use  to  foreign-built  as 
well  as  to  all  native-built  vessels.^ 

The  members  of  the  imperial  family  are  allowed  to  use  the  dragon 
embroidered  on  their  robes,  and  to  carry  flags  or  pennons  on  their  car- 
riages, tents,  or  elsewhere.  The  empress  distinguishes  hers  by  a  plain 
yellow  flag,  and  the  empress- dowager  by  a  white  flag,  indicating  her 

1  Chinese  Repository,  Yol.  vii.  p.  25-3. 

2  See  American  Diplomatic  Correspondence  for  186.3,  part  iii.  pp.  848-863. 


78 


Tin:   SYMBOLS,   STANDARDS,   AND   BxVNNIiRS 


widowhood.  The  emperor's  is  u  yL'lluw  tla.^'  witli  a  tVingcd  rod  lj(jr- 
der,  and  is  similar  to  the  yellow  liauuer  of  the  Mautchoos.  All  these 
arc  L'liildazoiied  witli  the  draiiou.^ 


Old  liiiiPiiial  SUiiiJard  and 
Arms  of  Japan. 


Jap.vnese  Standards.  —  Tlie  old  imperial  standard  of  the  Japanese, 
in  their  opinion,  was  something  suljlime  and  sacred,  and  only  M'lien 
assured  that  it  would  be  treated  with  respect  would  they  allow  a 
drawing  to  be  made  of  it. 

Its  threefold  device  symbolized  several  things.  The  triple  lobes 
represent  Sin-to-ism,  the  religion  of  the  Kamis,  Luddhism,  and  Cun- 
fucism.  They  also  symbolized  the  three  annual 
and  three  monthly  festivals  :  1st,  The  great  New 
Year,  which  lasts  a  month;  2d,  the  feast  of 
spring,  held  the  third  day  of  the  third  month, 
or  that  of  the  flowers  and  young  maidens ;  and, 
3d,  the  feast  of  neighbors,  in  the  "won't  go 
home  until  morning  "  style.  The  three  monthly 
Japanese  festivals  are:  1st,  The  day  of  the  new 
moon;  2d,  the  day  of  the  full  moon;  3d,  the 
eve  of  the  new  moon.  The  colors  of  this  standard  were  white  and 
purple. 

Eecently,  the  Emperor,  or  Tenio,  has  adopted  the  chrysantliemum 
for  his  emblem,  having  for  supporters  a  dragon  and  phenix,  typify- 
ing power  and  the  reign  of  virtue,  dis- 
played on  a  round  shield.  The  chrys- 
anthemum, with  sixteen  petals,  is  used 
for  outside  imperial  government  busi- 
ness. 

Another  imperial  device,  the  per- 
sonal crest  of  the  mikado,  is  the  Idri 
{Paulovmia  im2)erialis),  used  for  pal- 
ace matters  personal  to  the  emperor. 

It  is  remarkable  that  in  Japan  a 

serpent   is   considered    the   vilest  of 

Imperial  Ai-ms  of  Japan,  isso.  auimals,  but  a  dragou  is  thought  to  be 

of  high  birth  and  of  great  importance,  the  symbol  of  power  and  the 

badge  of  royalty. 

The  phenix  is  an  omen  of  prosperity  and  felicity,  and  is  thought  to 
have  appeared  at  different  times  to  signalize  the  coming  of  virtuous 
rulers,  and  reascending  to  heaven  after  the  performance  of  wonderful 

1  Communicated  by  S.  "Wells  "Williams,  LL.D. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         79 

works.  A  representation  of  this  bird  was  formerly  carried  before  the 
mikado  whenever  he  made  a  journey. 

All  the  nobles  of  Japan  have  a  device  or  coat  of  arms,  which 
is  blazoned  on  their  banners  and  on  their  tents,  and  worn  on  their 
shoulders  and  on  the  backs  of  their  dresses.  The  naval  flag  recently 
adopted  by  the  Japanese  bears  on  the  centre  of  a  white  field  a  red 
ball  or  globe,  supposed  to  represent  the  sun. 

The  imperial  standard  has  a  golden  sun  in  the  centre  of  a  crim- 
son field,  with  a  network  of  golden  diamonds  woven  over  it.  The  a.d- 
miraVs  flag  is  the  same  as  the  naval  flag,  with  a  red,  blue,  or  yellow 
border,  in  the  order  of.  their  rank. 

The  Japanese  bark,  '  Tu-Ju-Mara,'  of  six  hundred  tons,  commanded 
by  Captain  Samuel  A.  Lord,  formerly  of  Salem,  Mass.,  and  manned  ex- 
clusively by  Japanese  sailors,  arrived  at  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  Aug.  23, 
1872,  and  for  the  first  time  in  history  displayed  the  Japanese  flag  at 
the  masthead  of  a  merchantman  in  American  waters. 

JaVxVNESE  Standards.  —  Though  the  natives  of  Java  have  followed 
the  customs  of  Europeans  in  the  use  of  standards,  yet  their  prince's 
rallying-sign  continues  to  be  the  jpayong,  or  par-a-sol,  which  is  a  pe- 
culiar object  of  respect  and  veneration  among  the  Javanese  bands.  The 
tombak  pussaha,  or  lances  hallowed  by  age,  which  they  have  inherited 
from  their  ancient  sovereigns,  serve  for  the  same  purpose  as  the 
payongs,  and  are  distinguished  by  the  horse-tails  which  dangle  from 
them.^ 

East  Indian  Standards  and  ^  Ensigns. — The  great  banner  of 
Mewar  (whose  prince  was  the  legitimate  heir  of  the  throne  of  Rama), 
first  of  the  thirty-six  royal  tribes,  is  blazoned  with  a  golden  sun  on  a 
crimson  field ;  those  of  the  chiefs  bear  a  dagger.  Amber  displays  the 
hanchangra,  a  five-colored  flag.  The  lion  rampant  on  an  argent  field 
is  extinct  with  the  States  of  Chanderi.^  The  use  of  armorial  bear- 
ings among  the  Eajpoot  tribes  has  been  traced  anterior  to  the  war  of 
Troy.  In  the  Mahabharet,  or  great  war,  B.C.  1200,  the  hero  Bheesama 
exults  over  his  trophy,  the  banner  of  Arjoona,  its  field  adorned  with  the 
figure  of  the  Indian  Hanuman  (monkey  deity).  The  peacock  was  the 
favorite  emblem  of  the  Rajpoot  warriors  ;  the  bird  is  sacred  to  their 
Mars  (Kamara),  as  it  was  to  Juno,  his  mother,  in  the  "West.  The  em- 
blem of  Vishnu  is  the  eagle.  Chrisna  was  the  founder  of  the  thirty- 
six  tril)es  who  obtained  the  universal  sovereignty  of  India,  and  lived 

1  Colonel  Pfifter's  Sketches  of  Java.         2  Colonel  Tod's  Annals  of  Rajahstan. 


80  'riiL  .SVM15ULS.  >i\\i».\i;i>-.  a\i>  r,.\.\\i;i:s 

B.C.  l-Oll.     These  thirty-.six  Lnbcs  had  their  ru.spei.li\c  uiuIjIl'Ui.s,  as 

the  .serpent,  tlie  hor.se,  hare,  «S:c.     One  of  these  tribes,  tlie  .Saceseui, 

supposed  to  be  the  ancestors  of  the  Saxon  race,  settled  themselves  on 

the  Amxes,  in  Armenia,  ;ulj(»inin{,f  Albania.     Those  migrating  tribes 

of  cour.-^e  carried  with  them  their  respective  emblem.s,  and  hence  the 

identity  of  European  and  Asiatic  devices.     The  blue  eagle  belongs  to 

the  ensign  of  Vishnu,  the  red  Ijull  to  that  of  Siva,  and  the  falcon  to 

that  of  Ifama.     The  ensign  of  Brahma  bore  a  white  lion.     The  sun 

rising  behind  a  rccumljent  liun  blaze<i  on  the  ancient  ensigns  of  the 

Tartars,  and  the  eagle  of  the  sun  on  tliat  of  the  Persians.    The  humza, 

or  famous  goose,  one  of  the  incarnaticjus  of  lUiddlia,  is  yet  the  chief 

emblem  of  the  Burman  banners. 

The  ensigns  of  the  Bijala,  reigning  at  Kalyan,  were  the  lion,  the 

bull,  and  tlie  goose.     The  Tadu  and  the   Silahara  adopted  a  golden 

'  garuda'  or  eagle  on  their  ensigns.     The  liattas  tribe  had  the  golden 

hawk  and  crocodQe.     A  hymn  to  Camdeva,  the  god  of  love,  has  this 

line  :  — 

"  Hail,  warrior,  with  a  fis^li  on  tliy  banner." 

Sir  William  Jones  says  Camdeo,  the  Hindoo  god,  is  represented 
attended  by  <lancing  girls  or  nymphs,  the  foremost  of  whom  bears  his 
colors,  which  are  a  fish  on  a  red  ground.^ 

The  standards  of  the  Indian  princes,  displayed  over  their  chau-s 
w^hen  Victoria  was  proclaimed  Empress  of  India,  at  Delhi,  were  of 
satin,  and  represented  their  ancestral  arms ;  viz.,  Odeyporis,  a  golden 
sun  on  a  red  disk ;  the  Guicowar's,  a  blue  elephant ;  the  Nizam's,  a 
full  moon  on  a  green  standard ;  and  the  historic  fish  of  the  Begum  of 
Bhopal.2 

FLAGS  AXD    STAXDAEDS    OF    THE    A:\IEPJCAN    EEPUBLICS 
AXD   PACIFIC   ISLAXDS. 

Mexico,  San  Salvador,  Sandwich  Islands,  Society  Islands,  New 

Ze.^land,  Peru. 

Mexican  Standards.  —  The  ancient  standard  of  Mexico,  or  rather 
of  the  Aztecs,  which  has  been  compared  to  the  Ptoman  standard,  was 
an  eagle  pouncing  on  an  ocelot,  emblazoned  on  a  rich  mantle  of 
feather- work ;  that  of  the  Tlascalans,  a  white  heron,  the  cognizance 
of  the  house  of  Xicontencatl.  All  the  great  chiefs  of  Mexico,  in 
the  time  of  Cortez,  had  their  devices  and  banners.     The  standards 

1  Journal  Royal  Asiatic  Society.  ^  Newsijaper  report. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         81 

of  the  Aztecs  were  carried  in  the  centre  of  the  army.  A  golden  net 
on  a  short  staff,  attached  to  the  back  between  the  shoulders,  so 
that  it  was  impossible  to  be  torn  away, '  was  the  usual  symbol 
of  authority  for  an  Aztec  commander.^  The  standards  of  the  Tlas- 
calans  were  carried  in  the  rear.  The  Eio  de  Vanderas  (river  of 
banners)  was  so  named  by  Alvarado  from  the  numerous  ensigns 
displayed  by  the  natives  on  its  borders.  Prescott  says,  "The  Tlas- 
calans,  allies  of  Cortez,  led  by  Xicontencatl,  fifty  thousand  strong, 
marched  proudly  under  their  great  national  banner,  emblazoned  with 
a  spread  eagle,  the  arms  of  the  republic."  According  to  Clavigero, 
it  was  a  golden  eagle ;  but  as  Bernal  Diaz  speaks  of  it  as  white,  it 
may  have  been  a  white  heron  which  belonged  to  the  house  of  the 
youthful  leader.  Elsewhere,  Prescott  speaks  of  the  great  stand- 
ard of  the  Eepublic  of  Tlascala  as  a  golden  eagle  with  outspread 
wings,  in  the  fashion  of  a  Eoman  signum,  richly  ornamented  with 
emeralds  and  silver  work.  Ellis,  in  his  '  Antiquities  of  Heraldry,' 
says  the  natural  emblem  of  the  Mexicans  was  a  swan.  The  Spanish 
historian  Sagahan  relates  that,  about  two  centuries  before  their  conquest 
by  the  Spaniards,  the  Aztecs  were  compelled  to  surrender  their  emble- 
matical bird,  the  swan,  to  a  neighboring  kingdom  that  oppressed  them. 

In  the  Mexican  Tribute  Tables  {Talegas),  small  pouches  or  bags  of 
tasteful  form,  and  ornamented  with  fringe  and  tassels,  frequently 
occur,  having  a  cross  of  a  Maltese  or  Latin  form  woven  or  painted  on 
each.  It  is  a  surprising  circumstance  that  they  were  thus  ornamented 
before  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards,  when  the  religion  of  Christ  and 
significance  of  the  cross  were  unknown  to  them.^ 

The  Mexicans  counted  by  units,  twenties,  four  hundred,  and  eight 
thousand;  and  these  were  sufficient  to  express  any  number;  their 
hieroglyphics  are  in  accordance  with  this  numeration.  The  unit  was 
represented  by  a  small  circle ;  twenty,  by  a  standard,  shaped  as  a  par- 
allelogram ;  four  hundred,  by  a  feather ;  eight  thousand,  by  a  purse 
supposed  to  contain  as  many  grains  of  cocoa;  one  to  nineteen  was 
represented  by  a  number  of  small  circles.  The  hieroglyphic  of 
twenty  was  four  squares,  which,  as  they  were  colored,  represented 
either  five,  ten,  or  fifteen.  This  mode  of  counting  had  a  practical 
influence.  Bernal  Diaz,  when  speaking  of  the  Indian  armies,  counts 
them  as  so  many  rj:iquipilli.s^  or  bodies  of  eight  thousand  men.  It  is 
not  improbable  they  were  divided  into  battalions  of  four  hundred 

1  Prescott's  Conquest  of  Mexico. 

2  Don  T.  A.  Lorenzard's  History  of  oSTew  Spain,  Mexico,  1770  ;  also,  Historical 
Magazine,  1867. 

6 


82 


THE   SYMIWiLS.    STANDAKDS,    AND    J5ANNEK8 


men  each  ;  tliese  ni,'aiii  sululividod  into  scjuads  of  twenty  men;  and 
thai  the  hieroglyphic  lor  twenty  originally  represented  the  lianner  or 
standard  of  each  of  such  siiuad.s.' 

Our  Xnrth  American  Indians  were  fnund  by  the  early  vnyagers 
and  discoverers  to  carry  for  their  standard  a  pole  full-Hedged  with  the 
wing-feathers  of  the  eagle. 

The  ia-incii)al  standard  of  Cortez,  at  his  conquest  ol'  ^Mexico,  accord- 
in-'  to  Lernal  Diaz,  says  Trescott,  was  of  black  velvet,  embroidered 
with  <j;old  and  emblazoned  with  a  red  cross  amidst  flames  of  blue  and 
white,  with  this  motto  in  Latin  beneath :  "  Friends,  let  ?(s  follovj  the 
cross,  and  under  this  sifjn,  if  wc  have  faith,  ive  shall  conquer,"  —  a 
legend  which  was  doubtless  suggested  by  that  on  the  labarum  of 
Constantiue. 

Another  standard  of  Cortez,  described  by  his  follower,  Dernal 
Diaz,  as  borne  in  the  procession  when  Cortez  returned  thanks  to 

God,  at  Cuyoacan,  for  the  cap- 
\^..^Jk^,^^  ■_^'^^^^i'  _        ture   of  the  city  of  Mexico, 

1519,  is  now  preserved  in  the 
National  Museum  of  that  cap- 
ital. The  authenticity  of  this, 
probably  the  oldest  flag  in  ex- 
istence, is  sustained  by  a  se- 
ries of  accounts,  beginning 
with  that  of  Bernal  Diaz.  I 
am  indebted  to  the  Hon.  John 
W.  Foster,  our  minister  to 
Mexico,  for  the  illustration  of 
this  banner,  engraved  from 
his  pencil  sketch,  as  framed, 
and  for  the  following  descrip- 
tion of  it :  "  This  standard  is 
now  dejDOsited  in  the  National 
Museum  in  this  capital.  The 
evidences  of  its  authenticity  are  accredited  by  documents  in  the  mu- 
seimi,  and  it  is  vouched  for  by  Don  Lorenzo  Boturini,  a  learned 
Spanish  gentleman  contemporaneous  with  its  recovery  from  the 
Tlascalan  allies  to  whom  Cortez  gave  it  (see  '  Idea  de  una  nueva  his- 
toria  general  de  la  America  Septentrio7ial '),  and  by  Don  Lucas  Alaman, 
the  distinguished  Mexican  historian  and  statesman  {' Disertaeiones 
sohre  la  historia  de  Mexico^  vol.  i.,  Appendice,  p.  19). 

1  Gallatin,  cited  by  Sir  Jolm  Bowring  in  his  Decimal  System. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         83 

"The  standard  has  been  placed  in  a  frame  and  under  glass  for 
preservation,  being  much  worn  and  faded.  It  is  about  one  yard 
square,  and  is  thus  described  by  the  authors  cited :  '  The  standard  is 
of  red  damask.  On  the  front  side  is  painted  a  most  beautiful  figure 
of  the  Most  Holy  Mary,  with  a  crown  of  gold,  and  surrounded  with 
twelve  stars  of  gold,  her  hands  joined  as  if  in  praying  to  her  Most 
Holy  Son  to  protect  and  strengthen  the  Spaniards  in  conquering  the 
idolatrous  empire  to  the  Catholic  faith.  The  image  has  a  blue  mantle 
and  a  flesh-colored  tunic ;  the  embroidery  forming  the  border  is  green. 
On  the  reverse  side  are  painted  the  royal  arms  of  Castile  and  Leon. 
A  more  modern  damask  has  been  sewed  on  this  side,  in  framing  for 
preservation,  so  that  the  arms  cannot  be  seen.'  "  ^ 

During  the  colonial  government,  on  the  anniversary  of  the  surren- 
der of  Guatemozin,  the  13th  of  August,  1521,  a  solemn  procession  was 
annually  made  around  the  walls  of  the  city,  headed  by  the  viceroy, 
and  displaying  the  venerable  standard  of  the  conqueror.^ 

San  Salvador.  —  By  a  decree  issued  in  1865,  the  national  flag 
and  arms  of  the  Eepublic  of  San  Salvador  are  as  follows :  — 

Article  1.  The  national  flao-  will  consist  of  five  blue  and  four  white 
stripes,  running  horizontally;  each  stripe  shall  be  nine  inches  in  width 
and  from  three  to  four  yards  long.  At  the  superior  angle,  adjoining 
the  staff,  there  shall  be  a  square  on  a  red  ground  of  one  yard  each  way, 
in  which  shall  be  placed  nine  white  five-pointed  stars,  to  represent 
the  nine  departments  of  the  republic. 

Article  2.  The  above-described  shall  be  the  merchant  flag.  The 
battle-flag  shall  be  of  the  same  design  and  size,  with  the  difference 
that  the  square  shall  contain  the  coat  of  arms  of  the  republic  on  the 
converse  [obverse],  and  the  nine  stars  on  the  reverse. 

Article  3.  The  national  coat  of  arms  will  be  the. same  as  that  of  the 
old  confederation,  with  the  following  modifications,  viz. :  1.  In  place  of 
five  volcanoes  there  shall  be  but  one  in  eruption.  2.  In  the  space  above 
the  volcano  there  shall  appear  nine  stars,  forming  a  semicircle.  3.  At 
the  base,  the  new  flag  of  the  republic  shall-  be  represented,  running 
entirely  across  the  shield.  4.  The  cap  of  liberty  will  be  placed  where 
the  cornucopias  meet.  5.  The  inscription,  "  15th  September,  1821," 
shall  appear  in  the  centre  of  the  shield,  and  running  across  the  cap  of 
liberty.  6.  Within  the  circle  above  the  centre  of  the  arms  shall  be 
placed  the  words,  "Eepublic  of  Salvador,  in  Central  America." 

1  Letters,  Hon.  John  W,  Foster,  Aug.  31,  1878,  and  Jan.  23,  1879  ;  also  Letter, 
A.  Nunez  Ortega,  Jan.  17,  1879. 
-  Prescott's  Conquest  of  ]\Iexico. 


84  Tin:    SYMBOLS.    Sl'A.NDAKDS,    AND    JJAXNEUS 

Sandwich  Isi.anus.  —  Tiio  llai^  of  tin.'  Snndwicli  Island:,  has  an 
Euglish  jack  for  a  union;  and  I'ov  a  Hold,  nine-  liorizonlal  stri])es, — 
white,  red,  and  l^hie  alternately.  Thi.s  tla^;  A\as  given  the  islanders 
by  the  liriti.sh  Government,  with  an  assurance  that  it  would  be  re- 
spected wherever  the  Jiritish  Hag  was  acknowledged.  The  present 
flag  has  only  eight  stripes,  the  lowest  blue  stripe  being  omitted. 

The  rojjal  standard  has  no  union,  but  in  the  centre  of  the  Hag  a 
white  field,  blazoned  with  the  royal  arms. 

Formerly,  the  Sandwich  Islanders  hoisted  a  white  flagon  the  end  of 
a  spear,  at  each  end  of  the  enclosure  of  their  '  puhonas,'  or  cities  of 
refuge.  Whoever  entered  one  of  these  enclosures,  —  the  gates  of  which 
were  alw^ays  open,  —  whatever  may  have  been  his  offence,  it  afforded 
him  inviolable  sanctuary. 

A  wag  has  suggested  as  an  appropriate  standard  for  the  Sandwich 
Islands  one  having  bread-and-butter  strij^es,  with  ham  stars,  on  a 
groundwork  of  mustard,  as  a  design  that  would  readily  suggest  its 
nationality. 

The  Society  Islands.  —  The  flags  of  the  gods,  or  the  emblems 
of  the  Society  Islanders,  w^ere  carried  in  battle  to  inspire  the  combat- 
ants with  confidence,  and  their  martial  banners  were  hoisted  on  board 
the  different  fleets,  or  carried  by  the  bravest  warriors  in  the  centre 
of  their  armies.  These  flags  were  red,  white,  and  black.  They  also 
used  a  flag  of  truce.  A  sacred  flag  w-as  used  in  their  processions,  and 
regarded  as  an  emblem  of  their  duties. 

March  17,  1829,  Commander  J.  Laws,  E.K,  commanding  H.B.M. 
ship  Satellite,  proposed  for  the  Georgian  and  Society  Islands  a  flag 
"red  above,  white  in  the  middle,  and  red  below,"  which  was  adopted 
as  a  national  flag  by  the  chiefs.^ 

The  present  flag  of  the  islands  has  the  French  tricolor  grafted  on 
this  flag  as  a  jack  or  union,  emblematic  of  the  French  protectorate 
established  in  1844. 

Xew  Zealand.  —  The  flag  of  these  islanders  was  granted  them 
by  British  authorities  as  an  emblem  of  sovereignty  and  independence. 
It  is  a  white  flag,  charged  with  a  red  St.  George's  cross.  In  the  upper 
left-hand  canton  formed  by  this  cross  there  is  a  blue  union,  divided 
by  a  similar  red  cross  bordered  wdth  white,  and  each  of  its  blue  quarters 
has  a  five-pointed  white  star  in  its  centre. 

When  this  flag  was  given  to  the  chiefs  at  the  Bay  of  Islands,  they 

1  Ellis's  Polynesian  Researches. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODEEN  NATIONS.         85 

were  assembled,  and  told  that  as  long  as  it  was  allowed  to  fly  they 
were  free  and  independent,  but  as  soon  as  the  flag  of  any  other  power 
was  flown  in  its  stead,  they  would  be  no  longer  free,  but  slaves.  In 
1844,  fearing  the  French  might  take  possession  of  the  islands,  the 
English  hoisted  their  own  ensign  at  the  Bay  of  Islands,  and  the  act 
led  to  a  war  between  them  and  the  natives,  which  lasted  several  years. 

Peru.  —  Prescott,  referring  to  Gomara,  Sarmiento,  and  Velasco,  as 
his  authority  for  the  statement,  says  that  in  the  Inca  army  each  com- 
pany had  its  particular  banner,  and  that  the  imperial  standard,  high 
above  aU,  displayed  the  glittering  device  of  the  rainbow,  the  armorial 
ensign  of  the  Incas,  intimating  their  claims  as  children  of  the  skies.^ 

The  modern  Peruvian  flag  and  standard  is  composed  of  two  red 
and  one  perpendicular  white  stripe,  —  the  centre  of  the  white  stripe 
bearing  the  arms  of  the  republic.  The  colors,  red  and  white  alternate, 
are  said  to  have  been  suggested  by  the  red  and  white  feathers  which 
were  conspicuous  ornaments  of  the  head-dress  or  coronets  of  the 
ancient  Incas. 


THE   STANDAEDS   AND   FLAGS   OF   EUROPEAN"   STATES. 

Italy,  Denmark,   Spain,  Austria,   Germany,   Eussia,   Belgium, 
Greece,   Holland,   Portugal,   Sweden  and  Norway. 

Italian  Standards.  —  About  a.d.  1040,  the  Italians,  who  bor- 
rowed the  idea  from  the  Persians,  who  borrowed  it  from  the  Egyp- 
tians, invented,  at  Milan,  the  carriocium,  or  car  standard,  which  was 
introduced  into  France  about  a.d.  1100.  This  pompous  and  cumbrous 
standard  of  the  Italians  consisted  of  a  'banner  royal'  fastened  to 
the  top  of  a  mast  or  small  tree,  which  was  planted  on  a  scaffold  and 
borne  by  a  chariot  drawn  by  oxen  covered  with  velvet  housings, 
decorated  with  the  devices  or  cipher  of  the  prince.  At  the  foot  of 
the  mast  stood  a  priest,  who  said  mass  early  every  morning.  Ten 
knights  kept  guard  on  the  scaffold  day  and  night,  and  as  many 
trumpeters  at  its  foot  never  ceased  flourishing,  to  animate  the  troops. 
This  cumbrous  machine  continued  in  use  one  hundred  and  thirty 
years.  Its  iDOSt  was  the  centre  of  the  army ;  and  the  greatest  feats 
of  daring  were  in  attacks  upon  it,  and  in  its  defence.  No  victory 
was  considered  complete,  and  no  army  reputed  vani^uished,  until  it 
had  lost  its  standard. 

^  Prescott's  Conquust  of  Peru. 


S(3  Till-:   SYMl'.oLS,    Sl'ANDAKDS,    AND    I'.ANNERS 

Alviano,  the  L,n'c;it  cliaiiipioii  of  the  Orsini  family,  when  he  look 
the  city  of  Vitebro,  caused  to  be  embroidered  on  liis  sitaMdard  a 
unicorn  at  a  fountain  surrounded  by  snakes,  toads,  and  other  rep- 
tiles, and  stirring  the  water  with  his  horn  before  he  drinks :  motto, 
"Venana  pdlo"  —  "I  expel  poisons,"  —  alluding  to  the  property  of 
detecting  poison  assigned  to  the  horn  of  the  unicorn.  This  standard 
was  lost  on  the  fatal  day  of  Vicenza.  ]\Iarc  Antonio  ]\Ionte,  who  car- 
ried it,  being  mortally  wounded,  kept  the  tattered  remnant  clasped  in 
his  arms,  and  never  loosed  his  grasp  until  he  fell  dead  on  the  field. 

The  ]Marquis  of  Pescara's  standard  at  the  battle  of  Eavenna  had 
for  device  a  Spartan  shield,  with  the  injunction  of  the  Spartan  mother 
to  her  son  before  the  battle  of  ]\Iantinea  for  a  motto,  "  AvJ  cvm  hoc, 
aut  in  hoc,''  —  "Either  with  this,  or  on  it."  Pescara  is  buried  in  the 
church  of  Domenico  Maggiore  at  Naples.  Above  his  tomlj  hangs 
his  torn  banner,  and  a  plain  short  sword,  surrendered  to  him  by 
Francis  I.,  at  Pavia. 

The  ensign  of  the  Eoman  family  of  Colouua  is  a  silver  column, 
with  base  and  capital  of  gold,  surmounted  by  a  golden  crown,  the 
grant  of  the  Emperor  Louis  of  Bavaria,  in  acknowledgment  of  ser- 
vices rendered  by  Stefano  Colonna,  who,  when  chief  senator  of  Piome, 
crowned  Louis  in  the  Capitol  contrary  to  the  wishes  of  the  Pope.^ 

The  royal  stcmclarcl  of  the  present  kingdom  of  Italy  is  a  square 
wdiite  flag  bordered  with  blue,  and  has  blazoned  on  the  centre  of  its 
field  the  arms  of  Savoy,  a  cross  arrjcnt  on  a  reel  {(julcs)  shield,  sur- 
mounted by  a  regal  crown,  supported  hj  an  ermine  mantle  and  l^y 
trophies  of  national  flags. 

The  mcin-of-vxir  flajj  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Italy  is  composed 
of  equal  green,  red,  and  white  vertical  stripes,  the  green  next  the 
staff,  the  centre  or  white  stripe  being  charged  wdth  the  royal  arms 
and  crown.  The  merclutnt  flaej  is  the  same,  except  that  on  it  the 
crown  is  omitted. 

The  origin  of  the  Savoy  arms  is  this :  In  1309,  Filles  de  Villaret, 
grand  master  of  the  Knights  Hospitallers  of  St.  John,  defended  the 
Island  of  Pihodes  against  the  Soldan,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Duke 
of  Savoy,  to  w^hom,  in  gratitude  for  his  timely  help,  they  granted  the 
badge  of  their  order,  a  white  cross  on  a  red  shield.^ 

The  Magic  Standard  of  Denmaek.  —  The  banner  of  Denmark, 
taken  from  the  Danes  by  Alfred  the  Great,  was  a  famous  magical 

^  Bury's  Historic  AVar  Crie.s  and  Devices. 
2  Hospinan  de  Orig.  ilonach,  lib.  v.  p.  333. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         87 

standard.  According  to  Sir  John  Spelman,  it  had  for  a  device  the 
image  of  a  raven  magically  wrought  by  three  sisters,  Hungar  and 
Hubba,  on  purpose  for  the  expedition,  in  revenge  of  their  father  Lode- 
brock's  murder.  It  was  made,  said  the  sisters,  in  an  instant,  being 
begun  and  finished  in  a  noontide.  The  raven  has  been  regarded  from 
very  early  ages  as  an  emblem  of  God's  providence, —  probably  from  the 
record  in  Holy  Writ  of  its  being  employed  to  feed  Elijah  in  his  seclu- 
sion by  the  brook  of  Cherith.  The  Danes  believed  it  carried  great 
fatality  with  it,  and  therefore  it  was  highly  esteemed  Ijy  them.  They 
believed  that  when  carried  in  battle  towards  good  success,  the  raven 
would  clap  his  wings,  or  make  as  if  it  would.  That  the  raven  was 
their  standard  is  confirmed  by  the  figure  of  that  bird  on  the  coins  of 
Aulef,  the  Danish  King  of  Northumberland. 

The  embroidery  of  flags  afforded  occupation  and  amusement  to  the 
ladies  of  the  Middle  Ages ;  thence  their  value  became  enhanced,  and 
it  was  highly  shameful  for  a  knight  not  to  defend  to  the  death  what 
his  mistress's  hands  had  wrought. 

When  Waldemar  II.,  of  Denmark,  w^as  engaged  in  a  great  bat- 
tle with  the  Livonians  in  the  year  a.d.  1219,  it  is  said  that  a 
sacred  banner  fell  from  heaven  into  the  midst  of  the  army,  and 
so  revived  the  courage  of  his  troops  that  they  gained  a  complete 
victory  over  the  Livonians.  In  memory  of  the  event,  Waldemar 
instituted  an  order  of  knighthood,  called  'St.  Dannebrog,'  or  'the 
strength  of  the  Danes,'  which  is  the  principal  order  of  knighthood 
in  Denmark.  The  truth  appears  to  be,  that  King  Waldemar,  observ- 
ing his  men  giving  ground  to  the  enemy,  who  had  beaten  down  his 
standard,  which  bore  an  eagle,  raised  up  a  consecrated  banner  or 
silver  cross,  which  had  been  sent  him  by  the  Pope,  and  under  it 
rallied  his  troops,  and  ultimately  gained  the  victory.  This  achieve- 
ment caused  the  people  to  believe  that  the  banner  had  been  sent  from 
heaven.^ 

The  present  royal  standard  of  Denmark  and  riian-of-ivar  ensign 
and  admiraV s  flag  are  red  swallows-tailed  flags,  with  a  white  cross,  the 
colors  of  Savoy.  On  the  standard,  the  cross  is  quadrate  and  charged 
with  the  royal  achievements,  the  shield  being  encircled  with  the  col- 
lars of  the  orders  of  the  Elephant  and  Dannebrog.  The  quadrate  of 
the  cross  in  the  admiral's  flag  is  blazoned  with  an  oval  shield,  azure, 
bearing  three  golden  crowns,  surrounded  by  a  border  of  gold,  the 
wdiole  encircled  with  a  wreath  of  laurel.  The  flag  for  merchant  ships 
is  a  square  red  flag  with  a  white  cross. 

1  Xewton's  Display  of  Heraldry.     London,  1846. 


,-..? 

^ 

4 

i 

r 

A  Spanish  Standard. 

From 
ica 

the 

map  of  North  Amer- 
Diego  Uonem,  1558. 

88  llli:   SY.MHOLS,    STANDAliDS,    AM)    IJANNKKS 

Spanish  Standakd.s  and  Flags.  —  The  staiulard  of  Fenian  Oon- 
sales,  Count  df  Ca.slile,  in  the  eleventh  century,  was  a  massive  .silver 
cross,  two  ells  in  length,  with  Our  Saviour 
sculptured  upon  it,  and  above  his  head,  in 
Gothic  letters,  "I.  N.  R.  I. ;  "  below  was  Adam 
awaking  from  the  grave,  with  the  words  of  St. 
Paul,  "Awake,  thou  who  sleepest,  and  arise 
from  the  dead,  and  Christ  shall  give  thee  life." 
This  standard  is  said  to  l>e  still  preserved  in 
a  Spanish  convent. 

The  standard  of  the  Cid  was  green,  — 

"  There  were  knights  five  hiuidred  went  armed  before, 
Aud  Bermudez  *  the  Cid's '  green  standard  bore." 

During  the  famous  engagement  between  the  forces  of  Aragon  and 
Castile,  called,  from  the  field  where  it  took  place,  dc  la  Espina,  the  brave 
Count  of  Candespina  (Gomez  Gonzalez)  stood  his  ground  to  the  last,  and 
died  on  the  field  of  battle.  His  standard-bearer,  a  gentleman  of  the 
house  of  Olea,  after  having  his  horse  killed  under  him,  and  both  hands 
cut  off  by  sabre  strokes,  fell  beside  his  master,  still  clasping  the  stand- 
ard in  his  arms,  and  repeating  his  war-cry  of  '  Olea.'  ^  This  incident 
has  been  rendered  in  stirring  verse  by  an  American  poet,  —  George  H. 
Boker. 

"  Down  on  the  ranks  of  Aragon 
The  bold  Gonzalez  drove, 
And  Olea  raised  his  battle-cry, 
And  waved  the  flag  above. 

"  Backward  fought  Gomez,  step  by  step, 
Till  the  cry  was  close  at  hand, 
Till  his  dauntless  standard  shadowed  him, 
And  there  he  made  his  stand. 

"  As,  pierced  with  countless  wounds,  he  fell. 
The  standard  caught  his  eye. 
And  he  smiled,  like  an  infant  hushed  to  sleep, 
To  hear  the  battle-cry.      • 

"  '  Yield  up  thy  banner,  gallant  knight ! 
Thy  lord  Ues  on  the  plain ; 
Thy  duty  has  been  nobly  done ; 
I  would  not  see  thee  slain.' 

1  Mr.  George,  Annals  of  the  Queen  of  Spain. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        89 

"  '  Spare  pity,  King  of  Aragon, 
I  would  not  hear  thee  lie ; 
My  lord  is  looking  do\^Ti  from  heaven,  « 

To  see  his  standard  fly.' 

"  '  Yield,  madman,  yield  !     Thy  horse  is  down ; 
Thou  hast  nor  lance  nor  shield. 
Fly !    I  will  gi-ant  thee  time.'  —  '  This  flag 
Can  neither  fly  nor  yield  ! ' 

"  They  girt  the  standard  round  about 
A  wall  of  flashing  steel ; 
But  still  they  heard  the  battle-cry,  — 
<  Olea  for  CastUe  ! ' 

"And  there,  against  all  Aragon, 

Full  armed  with  lance  and  brand, 
Olea  fought,  until  the  sword 
Snapped  in  his  sturdy  hand. 

''  Among  the  foe,  with  that  high  scorn 
Which  laughs  at  earthly  fears. 
He  hurled  the  broken  hilt,  and  drew 
His  dagger  on  the  spears. 

"  They  hewed  the  hauberk  from  his  breast, 
The  helmet  from  his  head. 
They  hewed  the  hands  from  off  his  limbs,  — 
From  every  vein  he  bled. 

"  Clasping  the  standard  to  his  heart, 
He  raised  one  dying  peal, 
That  rang  as  if  a  trumpet  blew,  — 
'Oka for  Castile."" 

When  Vasco  Xunez  de  Balboa,  Sept.  7,  1513,  first  touched  the 
shore  of  the  Pacific,  at  a  bay  which  he  named  St.  jVIichael,  after  the 
saint  on  whose  day  it  was  discovered,  the  tide  was  out,  and  so  gradual 
was  the  incline  of  the  strand  that  the  water  was  full  half  a  league 
distant.  Nunez  Balboa  seated  himself  under  a  tree  until  it  should 
come  in.  At  last  it  came  dashing  on  to  his  very  feet  with  great  im- 
petuosity. He  then  started  up,  seized  a  banner  on  which  was  painted 
a  virgin  and  child  and  under  them  the  arms  of  Castile  and  Leon, 
and,  drawing  his  sword,  advanced  into  the  sea  until  the  water  was 
up  to  his  knees,  —  then  waving  the  standard,  he  exclaimed  with  a 
loud  voice  :  "  Long  live  the  high  and  mighty  monarchs  Don  Fernand 


90 


Tin:    SVMliOLS,    STANDARDS,    AM)    llANXKliS 


and  Ponna  Juannn,  sovereigns  of  Castile  and  Leon,  and  of  Aragon, 
in    wliiisf    nanif    T    take    ical    and    eorjtoral    and    actual    possession 

of  these  seas,  islands,  coasts, 
&c.,  in  all  time,  so  long  as 
the  world  endures,  and  until  the 
final  day  of  judgment  to  all 
mankind  !  "  His  followers  hav- 
ing tasted  the  water,  and  found 
it  indeed  salt,  returned  thanks 
to  God.  When  tlie  ceremonies 
were  concluded,  Vasco  Nunez 
drew  his  dagger  and  cut  three 
crosses  on  trees  in  the  neigh- 
borhood, in  lionor  of  the  three 
persons  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  and 
his  example  was  followed  l^y 
many  of  his  soldiers. 

Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  in 
their  jMoorish  wars,  used  a  mas- 
sive cross  of  silver,  presented 
them  by  Pope  Sixtus  IV.,  as  a 
standard,  which  Ferdinand  al- 
ways carried  in  his  tent  during 
his  campaigns. 

The  ceremonials  observed  on 
the  occupation  of  a  new  Spanish  conquest,  says  ]\iarineo,  were  for  the 
royal '  alferez '  or  ensign  to  raise  the  standard  of  the  cross,  the  sign  of 
our  salvation,  on  the  summit  of  the  principal  fortress,  when  all  who 
beheld  it  prostrated  themselves  on  their  knees  in  silent  worship  of  the 
Almighty,  while  the  priests  chanted  the  Tc  Dcum  Laudamns.  Tlie 
ensign  or  pennon  of  St.  James,  the  patron  of  Spain,  was  then  un- 
folded, and  all  invoked  his  blessed  name.  Lastly,  the  standard  of  the 
sovereigns  emblazoned  with  the  royal  arms  was  displayed,  at  which 
the  army  shouted  as  if  with  one  voice,  "  Castile  !  Castile  ! "  After 
these  solemnities,  a  bishop  led  the  way  to  the  principal  mosque,  which, 
after  rites  of  purification,  he  consecrated  to  the  service  of  the  true 
faith. 

It  was  stated  in  'All  the  Year  Ifound,'  in  18G6,  that  the  flag  of 
Pizarro  was  then  preserved  in  the  Municipal  Hall  at  Caracas,  S.  A., 
enshrined  in  a  glass  case,  it  having  been  sent  from  Peru  in  1837. 
"  All  the  silk  and  velvet  are  eaten  off,  but  the  gold  wire  with  the 


Banner  of  Balboa. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         91 

device  of  a  lion  and  the  word  Carlos  remained.  Tlie  flag  is  about  five 
feet  long  and  three  broad,  and  being  folded  double  in  the  frame,  but 
one-half  is  seen.  They  will  not  allow  it  to  be  taken  out."  Per  con- 
tra, General  San  Martin,  when  he  voluntarily  resigned  the  reins  of 
power  at  Lima,  in  his  speech  on  that  memorable  occasion,  said,  "  I  keep 
as  a  record  the  standard  which  Pizarro  bore  when  he  enslaved  the 
empire  of  the  Incas."  In  answer  to  inquiries  which  I  instituted  in 
1879,  concerning  this  flag,  through  the  Hon.  Eichard  Gibbs,  U.  S.  Min- 
ister to  Peru,  Seiior  Camacho,  a  nephew  of  Bolivar,  wrote  Col.  Manuel  de 
Odnozola,  under  date, "  Lima,  April  22, 1879  : "  "  When  I  was  Secretary 
of  the  Municipal  Council  of  Caracas,  in  1848,  I  saw  in  a  glass  case, 
kept  in  the  Hall  of  Sessions,  a  banner,  richly  embroidered,  said 
to  be  Pizarro's.  I  can  see  it  now,  embroidered  in  gold, — the  lion, 
the  red  ground,  the  creases  in  the  flag,  and  all  the  details  of  the 
standard,  —  which  I  understood  was  brought  from  Peru  by  the  regi- 
ments'Janin'  and 'Caracas'  on  their  return,  this  valuable  present 
having  been  made  to  the  Liberator  Bolivar,  by  the  government  of  that 
republic ;  but  Doct.  Lama,  chief  clerk  in  the  Foreign  Office,  and  my 
immediate  chief,  has  assured  me  that  it  could  not  be  Pizarro's  flag,  as 
it  never  left  Peru.  Please  clear  up  this  point,  as  you  have  a  great 
memory,  and  such  abundant  archives  to  draw  from." 

To  this  note,  Colonel  Odnozola,  librarian  and  keeper  of  the  ar- 
chives, who  was  over  eighty  years  of  age,  replied,  "  April  23d  :  "  "I 
immediately  answer  your  note  of  yesterday,  stating  that  I  and  my 
contemporaries  never  saw  any  other  standard  than  that  which  was 
brought  out  on  the  1st  and  6th  of  January,  '  Dia  de  los  Rcyesl  ^  in 
the  grand  procession  of  the  alcaldes."  This  standard  was  said  to  be, 
and  all  believed  it  to  be,  the  one  that  Pizarro  brought  to  the  conquest 
of  Peru.  It  was  preserved  in  the  municipal  chamber,  and  was  pre- 
sented by  that  body  to  General  San  Martin,  who,  when  he  left  the 
country,  carried  it  with  him,  as  he  so  stated  in  his  valedictory  address 
when  he  delivered  the  presidential  scarf  to  the  Constitutional  Con- 
gress in  1822.  By  a  clause  in  his  will,  he  desired  that  the  valu- 
able relic  should  be  returned  to  Peru;  and  the  executor  of  the  will  in 
France  delivered  it  to  Colonel  Bolonese  to  bring  it  to  Peru,  who 
complied  with  the  order,  depositing  it  in  the  palace  M'hen  General 
Pezet  had  supreme  command  of  the  republic.  On  the  6th  of  No- 
vember, 1865,  when  the  palace  was  sacked,  it  was  carried  off,  and  up 

1  Lima  was  founded  Jan.  6,  1535-36,  King's  Day,  by  Pizarro  (Dia  de  los  Eeyes), 
and  afterwards,  on  that  anniversary,  the  flag  was  always  carried  in  the  procession  up  to 
the  time  of  the  Independence  of  Peru,  1822. 


92  THE   SYMBOLS,    .STANlJAKDS.    AND    JJANXKK.S 

to  the  present  time  (1879)  the  thief  remains  unknown,  or  where  it 
went  to." 

"  In  the  wdvk  imblished  in  Buenos  Ayres  on  the  inauguration  of  tlie 
statue  of  General  San  ]\Iartiu,  tliere  was  printed  or  engraved  a  copy  oi' 
the  standard,  drawn  by  Senor  Balcacer,  the  son-in-law  of  General  San 
^Martin,  previous  to  his  delivering  the  original  to  Col.  Bolonese." 

Senor  Eicardo  Palma  also  writes  Seiior  Camacho  :  "  Pizarro's  stand- 
ard M-as  presented  by  the  Corporation  of  Lima,  in  LS22,  to  General 
San  Martin,  who,  when  he  died,  willed  that  it  sliould  be  returned 
to  Peru.  Balcacer,  son-in-law  of  San  ]\Iartin,  carried  out  the  in- 
structions of  the  will,  and  the  flag  M-as  deposited  in  the  palace. 
According  to  some,  Pezet  presented  this  precious  relic  to  the  rear- 
admiral  or  some  chief  of  tlie  reinstating  or  '  revin  cadera '  of  the 
Chincha  Islands  ;  by  others,  that  it  was  stolen  by  the  mob  who  sacked 
the  palace,  Xov.  G,  1865,  when  Pezet  fell.  The  presentation  of  the 
standard  to  San  Martin  is  recorded  in  the  official  gazette  of  the  year  of 
its  presentation,  and  it  is  mentioned  by  later  historians.  I  have  often 
tried  to  follow  up  the  track  of  the  flag,  with  no  better  result  than  I  have 
mentioned.  In  the  processions  of  the  alcaldes,  January  6,  it  was  car- 
ried by  the  '  alfarez  real,'  or  royal  ensign,  to  whose  custody  it  was  con- 
fided. The  rich  flag  you  saw  in  Caracas  could  not  have  been  that  of  the 
'  conquestador.'  When  he  commenced  his  daring  enterprise  he  was  not 
in  a  position  to  sport  a  valuable  banner.  Old  men  who  saw  the  standard 
in  1822  have  told  me  that  it  was  of  poor  material,  and  badly  used." 

The  standard  of  Cortez,  described  and  illustrated  heretofore,  is 
preserved  in  the  city  of  Mexico.  ^ 

The  present  roijcd  standard  of  Spain  bears  the  arms  of  Catherine 
of  Aragon,  with  those  of  Aujou  in  pretence  displayed  over  its  whole 
area.  The  man-of-ioar  fiag  is  yellow,  interposed  between  two  hori- 
zontal bars  (each  half  its  own  depth)  of  red,  and  is  charged  towards 
its  dexter  with  the  arms  of  Castile  and  Leon  impaled  within  a  red 
circular  bordure,  and  ensigned  wdth  the  Spanish  crown.  The  mer- 
chant fiag  is  without  the  royal  arms,  and  has  a  narrow  yellow  stripe 
at  the  top  and  bottom  of  the  flag  outside  the  two  red  bars. 

Spain  becoming  a  great  kingdom  on  the  union  of  Castile  and 
Aragon,  united  as  a  national  flag  the  arms  of  the  two  kingdoms.  But 
long  before  that,  Barcelona  ships  had  worn  the  red  and  yellow  stripes 
known  as  the  '  bars  of  Aragon.'  The  tradition  is,  that  in  the  year  873 
Charles  the  Bald  honored  Geoffrey,  Count  of  Barcelona,  who  had  been 
mortally  wounded  in  the  battle  against  the  Normans,  by  dij)ping  his 

1  Pages  82,  83. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         93 

four  fingers  in  the  blood  flowing  from  the  Count's  wounds,  and  draw- 
ing them  down  the  Count's  golden  shield.  The  story  is,  however,  a 
pure  fable,  as  the  stripes  on  the  Spanish  flags  are  not  so  old  by  two 
hundred  years.  They  are  simply  a  pun  on  the  name  of  Barcelona,  — 
'  barras  longas.'  Afterwards,  as  Barcelona  merged  into  the  kingdom 
of  Aragon,  its  arms  were  adopted  for  those  of  the  kingdom.  From 
the  first  greatness  of  Spain,  her  ships  wore  the  Castilian  flag,  —  quar- 
tering Castile  and  Leon.  It  was  this,  as  the  national  flag,  that  was 
worn  by  the  ships  of  Columbus,  —  noteworthy  in  the  history  of  navi- 
gation as  the  first  to  cross  the  Atlantic  Ocean. 

On  the  accession  of  Charles  V.  to  the  kingdom  of  Spain,  he 
introduced  the  Burgundian  flag,  —  the  red  raguled  saltire  on  a  white 
ground,  —  which  was  to  some  extent  used  for  two  hundred  and  fifty 
years.  The  ships  of  the  Armada,  in  1.588,  bore  the  Burgundian  cross. 
In  a  series  of  maps  of  the  actions,  preserved  in  the  British  Museum,  the 
Spanish  fleet  is  as  distinctly  marked  by  the  red  saltire  as  the  English 
by  the  red  cross. 

There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  whatever  that,  during  the  latter  half 
of  the  sixteenth  and  the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  century,  the 
Spanish  flag  was  white,  with  the  red  Burgundian  cross ;  and  a  memo- 
randum drawm  up  at  Toulon, in  1662,  says  that, "During  the  war  with 
Spain,  our  ships  always  wore  in  battle  a  red  ensign  at  the  stern,  to 
distinguish  them  from  the  Spaniards,  who  wore  a  white ;  but  in  the 
last  war  with  the  English  they  (the  French)  wore  white,  as  different 
from  the  English  red."  ^ 

To  the  Bourbon  marriage  must  be  attributed  the  introduction  of  a 
white  fl*ag,  bearing  the  royal  arms,  similar  in  effect  to  the  French 
standard.  The  old  one,  however,  was  not  entirely  abolished ;  and  an 
order,  dated  Jan.  20,  1732,  systematizes  the  complexity:  — 

"  The  king,  having  resolved  that  the  ships  of  the  fleet  are  to  be 
divided  into  three  squadrons,  and  that  each  of  these  shall  belong  to 
one  of  the  ports  abeady  established  in  Spain,  orders  that  every  ship 
is  to  carry  at  the  stern  a  white  ensign,  with  the  royal  arms,  as  now  in 
use.  And  to  distinguish  the  different  squadrons,  those  ships  which 
belong  to  Cadiz  shall  wear  as  masthead  flags  or  j)ennons,  or  at  the 
bowsprit  cap,  white,  with  the  royal  arms.  Ferrol  ships  shall  wear 
white,  with  the  Burgundy  cross,  charged  at  each  of  its  four  corners 
with  an  anchor ;  and  Carthagena  shall  wear  violet  (inorado),  with  the 
shield  of  the  castles  and  lions."  ^ 

1  Jal :  Abraham  Dii  Qiiesne,  vol.  i.  p.  588. 

2  Disquisaciones  Nauticas,  por  el  Capitan  de  Navis,  C.  F.  Dnro,  p.  271. 


94  THE   SV.M1U»L>.    STANDAKDS,    AND    I;ANM:KS 

III  the  engraving  in  Anson's  '  Voyage  Around  Ihe  World '  of  the 
Spanish  g.allcon, '  Xostra  Sci(jniora  dc  Cahadonr/aJ  caiitured  hy  him  near 
the  rhilipjiine  Islands,  in  May,  1843,  she  is  shown  with  the  Bur- 
gundian  ensign  at  the  stern,  and  a  blue  or  violet  flag  with  the  shield 
of  the  castles  and  lions  at  the  niain.^ 

The  ships  that  fought  under  Navarro,  off  Touhjn,  in  1744,  belonged 
to  Cadiz ;  those  that  formed  the  squadron  olf  Havana,  in  1748,  were 
from  Ferrol.  The  Spanish  contingent  of  the  allied  fleet  that  invaded 
the  channel  in  1779  consisted  of  the  Cadiz  and  Ferrol  squadrons, 
with  possibly  some  ships  from  Carthageua.  Throughout  the  why  of 
American  Independence,  no  distinctive  squadrons  were  fitted  out 
from  that  port,  and  the  head-quarters  of  the  gTand  fleet  were  through- 
out at  Cadiz. 

During  these  wars  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the  white  flag  was 
found  to  be  inconvenient,  from  its  closely  resembling,  at  a  little  dis- 
tance, the  white  flag  of  France,  and  the  shield  bearing  white  flags 
of  Naples  and  Tuscany.  It  was  resolved,  therefore,  to  alter  it ;  and, 
after  examining  twelve  patterns  which  were  submitted,  the  existing 
flag  was  ordered,  by  a  decree  dated  j\Iay  28,  1785.  In  this,  the  flag  is 
defined  as  being  in  three  horizontal  stripes  :  the  top  and  bottom  red, 
each  one  fourth  of  the  whole  In-eadth ;  the  middle  yellow,  and  on  it 
the  simple  shield  of  Castile  and  Leon,  quarterly,  surmounted  by  the 
royal  crown.  The  merchant  flag  was  at  the  same  time  defined  as 
having  the  yellow  stripe  in  the  middle  without  the  shield,  one-third 
of  the  wdiole  wddth,  each  of  the  remaining  parts  being  divided  into 
two  equal  stripes  colored  red  and  yellow  alternately .^  There  is 
no  doubt  the  red  and  yellow  then  adopted  was  derived  from  the 
Aragon  bars,  being  also  the  colors  of  the  arms  of  Castile ;  but  the 
Aragon  arms  are  vertical.  It  is  a  coincidence  that  the  arms  of  Ad- 
miral Cordova,  at  that  time  commander-in-chief  of  the  Spanish  na^  v, 
were  barry  of  seven  o)%  and  gules. 

Such  as  it  was  appointed  in  1785,  the  Spanish  flag  has  remained, 
with  the  exceptions  of  the  short-lived  change  during  the  reign  of  Joseph 
Bonaparte,  and  at  the  time  of  the  disturbance  of  1868  to  1875,  when 
the  revolutionary  ships  flew  any  flag  tliey  thought  best,  Mdth  a  prefer- 
ence for  a  plain  red  one,  denoting  the  Commune ;  sometimes  a  tri- 
color of  violet,  wdiite,  and  red. 

1' Anson's  Voyage  Around  the  World,  &c.,  by  Richard  Walter,  p.  373.  1  vol.  4to. 
Printed  for  the  author,  1748.  Mr.  Laughton  says,  in  the  plate  in  Harris's  Collection  of 
Voyages,  the  masthead  flag  is  white. 

2  Duro,  p.  273. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODEKN  NATIONS.         95 

The  red,  yellow,  red  flag  of  1785,  but  without  shield  or  crown, 
was  ordered  by  King  Alfonzo  XII.  to  resume  its  place  as  the  national 
ensign,  on  the  6th  of  January,  1875.^ 

AusTKiAN  Standard  and  Flags.  —  The  field  of  the  imperial  stand- 
ard of  Austria  is  yellow,  with  an  indented  border  of  gold,  silver, 
red,  and  black,  and  displays  the  eagle  of  the  empire.  The  national 
or  man-of-war  Jlag  is  formed  of  three  equally  wide  horizontal  divisions, 
the  central  one  white,  and  the  two  others  red ;  on  the  central  division 
towards  the  dexter  is  a  shield  charged  as  the  flag  itself,  having  also 
the  imperial  cipher  within  a  narrow  golden  border,  ensigned  with  the 
imperial  crown.  The  Jtag  of  the  merchant  service  is  the  same,  except 
that  the  flag  is  additionally  blazoned  with  the  Hungarian  arms,  and  for 
the  outer  half  of  the  red  stripe  green  is  substituted,  indicating  the  union 
of  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary  with  Austria,  and  also  its  independence. 

The  national  colors  of  Hungary  are  red,  white,  and  green,  arranged 
horizontally,  —  the  green  in  chief,  and  the  red  at  the  base.  The  im- 
perial eagle  of  Austria  is  claimed  to  be  the  successor  of  the  eagle  of  the 
German  emperor,  which  succeeded  the  eagle  of  ancient  Eome ;  and  bears 
two  heads,  which  symbolize  the  eastern  and  western  Eoman  empires. 

Since  1495,  according  to  an  official  return,  two  thousand  and  thirty- 
three  colors  and  standards  have  been  taken  by  Austrian  troops  from 
the  enemy,  and  nine  hundred  and  sixty-nine  Austrian  standards  and 
colors  captured. 

EussiAN  Standard  and  Flags.     The  imperial  standard  of  Eussia 
is  yellow,  blazoned  with  a  double-headed  eagle,  surmounted  by  the 
imperial  crown;    each  of  the  eagle's  heads  is 

— ^^r — \     also  crowned,  and  in  each  of  the  eagle's  beaks 

--•^  -^   /^?^  1    and  in  each  claw  is  borne  a  chart,  supposed  to 


I 


yPf3S> 


represent  the  Caspian  and  Black  Seas,  the 
White  Sea,  and  the  Baltic.  On  the  breast  of 
the  eagle  there  is  a  red  shield  charged  with 
a  St.  George  on  horseback  spearing  a  dragon 
under  the  horse's  feet.  Pendent  from  the 
necks  of  the  eagle  and  surrounding  the  shield 
is  the  collar  and  badge  of  the  order  of  St.  An- 
Royai  standard  of  Russia.       drew,  established  by  Pctcr  the  Great  in  1698. 

1  'The  Heraldiy  of  the  Sea,'  a  lecture  delivered  by  J.  K.  Laughton,  A.M. R.N,,  Lec- 
turer on  Naval  Histoiy  at  the  Eoyal  Naval  College,  Feb.  28,  1879,  before  the  Royal 
United  Service  Institution. 


96 


THE   SYMnOLS.    STAXDARDS.    AND    r.AXXKKS 


The  Czar  of  all  the  Eussias  bears  (ni  his  standard  the  double-headed 
eagle,  as  an  assured  successor  of  the  Itonian  Ca-sars.  Its  two  heads, 
however,  might  denote  his  own  eastern  and  western  empires,  — Asiatic 
and  European  Russia. 

The  merchant  flag  has  three  horizontal  divisions,  the  ujiperniost 
white,  the  central  blue,  and  the  loAvermust  red.  The  man-of-icar  flag 
is  white,  with  a  blue  diagonal  cross ;  and  this  flag  is  charged  in  the 
dexter  chief  quarter  of  the  larger  flags  with  stripes  of  red,  white,  and 
blue,  for  the  three  squadrons  of  the  Russian  navy. 

The  original  ensign  seems  to  have  been  borrowed  by  Peter  the 
Great  who  originated  it,  from  the  Dutch,  and  is  merely  the  Dutch 

flag  upside  down. 
Al'terwards,  as  a 
further  distinc- 
tion, the  white 
was  charged  Avith 
a  small  blue  St. 
Andrew's  cross. 
During  the  great- 
er part  of  the  last 
century,  the  lius- 
sian  navy  More  a 
\vhite,blue,orred 
ensign,  the  latter 
bearing  the  blue 
cross  in  a  white 
canton. 

The  annexed 
engraving  is  a 
fac-simile  of  the 
banner  under 
which  the  Rus- 
sians conquered 
the  Tartars  in 
1386,  and  is  a 
curious  specimen 
of  the  banners  of 

the  fourteenth  century.  A  fac-simile  of  the  banner  was  presented  to 
the  Russian  Legion  in  1876.^ 

'Scribner's  Monthly,'  for  February,  1880,  has  an  engraving  of  a 

1  Lomlon  Graphic,  Oct.  28,  1876. 


Russian  Flag,  13S6. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        97 

military  flag  of  Peter  the  Great's  time,  representing  a  warrior  on  horse- 
back, with  a  drawn  sword;  but  the  magazine  does  not  give  any  de- 
scription of  the  flag,  or  state  where  it  is  preserved. 

In  the  Eussian  navy  they  pay  honors  and  a  respect  to  their  na- 
tional flag  that  other  nations  would  do  well  to  follow.  The  ensign  is 
lowered  with  great  formality  at  sunset.  The  officers  are  assembled  on 
the  quarter-deck,  with  the  band  in  position,  and  the  crew  in  their 
places.  As  the  flag  begins  to  descend,  the  national  air  is  played,  and 
the  officers  and  crew  stand  uncovered  before  the  emblem  of  the  na- 
tion's sovereignty.  It  is  hoisted  with  similar  ceremonies.  In  1871, 
the  Emperor  of  Eussia  presented  new  flags  to  those  regiments  of  his 
army  which  had  reached  their  centenary,  inscribed  "  1771-1871." 

The  Belgian  Standaed  ANDTj.iG.  — The  Belgian  colors  —  black, 
yellow,  and  red  —  are  those  of  the'  BiTchy"  of  Brabant.  They  were 
formed  into  a  national  lidg  in  1831,  clearly  on  the  French  model.  The 
standard  is  composed  of  equal  bars  of  black,  yellow,  and  red,  arranged 
A'^ertically,  the  black  life-xf  the  staff".  The  royal  a'rms  —  a  golden  lion  on 
a  black  shield  with  the 'supporters  and  crown  ^^  are  charged  on  the 
central  yellow  division.  The  national  ensign  }&:  the  same  flag  without 
the  arms.  The  admiral' s- flag  is  also  the  same,  but  has  four  white 
balls  in  the  upper  part  of -the  black,  stripe.  The  vicc-admiraT  s  has 
three  balls,  and  the  Tmr^adniiTf:(^s': X^h.  'Commodores'  pennants  are 
like  the  ensign,  but  swallow-tpnlficl     "■  • 

Greece  has  adopted  the  colors  of  Bavaria,  from  which  she  got  her 
first  king. 

The  merchant  flag  of  Greece  has  a  blue  union  with  a  white  cross 
cantoned  on  the  ensign,  the  field  of  which  is  white,  with  five  blue 
bars ;  that  is,  it  has  nine  alternate  stripes  of  blue  and  white. 

The  man-of-vjar  flag  has  a  yellow  crown  in  the  centre  of  the  cross. 
The  Alexandres,  the  first  vessel  bearing  the  Greek  flag  that  ever 
arrived  at  a  port  of  the  United  States,  entered  the  port  of  Boston, 
Mass.,  in  August,  1835.  She  was  built  for  a  brig  of  war,  but  was 
owned  by  her  commander ;  and  her  officers  and  crew  were  all  Greeks. 
She  was  laden  with  Samos  wine,  which,  from  her  being  a  pioneer 
vessel,  was  admitted  free  of  duty. 

Standard  and  Flag  of  the  Netherlands.  —  The  natiorial  flag 
is  of  three  equal  stripes  or  bars,  red,  white,  and  blue,  horizontally 
arranged,  the  red  in  chief,  and  white  in  the  centre. 

7 


98  THE   SYMDOLS,    .STANDAKD.s,    AND    IJANNEKS 

The  stajulard  has  the  royal  achievement  of  arms  charged  upon 
the  wliite,  with  the  motto,  "  Jc  maintundraij"  The  three  colors  were 
given  to  the  Dutch  by  Henry  IV.,  of  France,  on  their  requesting  him 
to  confer  on  them  the  national  colors  of  his  country.  They  have  ever 
since  continued  the  colors  of  the  Dutch  KepuLlic,  and  its  successor,  the 
Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands.  The  admiral's  and  llcntaiant-admiraV s 
Jiags  are  the  same  as  the  national  ensign,  but  bear  in  the  upper  or  red 
stripe  four  white  balls.  The  flag  of  the  vice-admiral  has  only  three 
balls,  and  a  rear-admiral  but  two. 

Holland,  as  an  independent  State,  had  no  existence  till  the  latter 
part  of  the  sixteenth  century.  Before  that  time,  it  had  fallowed  the 
fortunes  of  the  Duchy  of  Burgundy,  and  had  become  inc(3rporated  in 
the  dominions  of  the  King  of  Spain,  —  with  them  it  had  the  Burgun- 
dian  flag;  and  as  the  different  pc-rts  were  in  the  habit  of  using  flags 
of  their  own,  these  were  lei'deied  illegal  by  a  decree  of  1540,  and  as 
early  as  1475  all  ships  were  ordered  "to  cari)'-  the  arms  and  standards 
of  the  Duke,"  and  agai^^  in  1487,  "to  carry  tbe  banners  and  pennons 
of  the  admiral,  in  iitt'dftion  to  any  other  local  or  spe!cial  flags."  ^  It  is 
certain,  therefore,  tji.it  ii-om  these  dates  to  the  oirtbreak  of  the  War 
of  Independence  th&-  IiXlicch  ships  carried  the  Bu.'-gundian  flag,  —  the 
red  raguled  saltire  o\\  a  white  field ;  but  fiom  tlie  very  first  discon- 
tent the  Gueux  adopted  the  celprs  of  tlie"  House  of  Orange,  —  orange, 
white,  and  blue,  —  which ,'Vas/ at  fixsi,*tb  I'e  worn  promiscuously  or 
haphazard,  though  very  sh(3rtly,;*t0v  tiife ''cry  of  '  Oranje  haven  !'  —  '  Up 
with  the  orange ! '  They  were  arranged  in  horizontal  bars,  with  the 
orange  uppermost ;  but  the  number  and  order  of  the  bars  continued 
a  matter  of  fancy  until  1599,  when  the  flag  was  definitely  fixed  as 
orange,  white,  and  blue,  in  three  horizontal  stripes,  although  even 
then,  and  for  a  hundred  years  afterwards,  this  was  not  unfrequently 
doubled,  and  contained  six  strij)es,  but  in  the  same  order ;  and  in 
the  jacks  on  the  bowsprit,  or  rather  at  the  head  of  the  spritsail-top- 
mast  (jack  staff),  the  three  colors  in  no  certain  order  radiated  from 
the  centre.  When  standing  into  Gibraltar  Bay  to  annihilate  the 
Spaniards,  on  the  25th  of  April,  1607,  Heemskirk  wore  an  orange  scarf, 
and  in  his  hat  a  large  orange  plume.  Fournier,  writing  in  1643,  speaks 
of  the  Dutch  flag  as  red,  white,  and  blue ;  so  that  possibly  the  change 
was  natural,  from  the  similarity  of  colors,  and  had  then  well  begun. 
But  De  Jonge,  speaking  from  much  oflicial  information,  and  from  old 
records  and  contemporary  pictures,  considers  that  the  change  did  not 

1  J.  C.  de  Jonge  :  "Over  den  Oorsprong  der  Nederlandsche  Vlag."     In  Key,  vol.  ii. 
p.  512. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.         9& 

begin  till  1653,  and  then  very  gradually  effected  between  that  date  and 
1665  ;  and  that  the  battles  of  the  first  war  with  England  were  fought 
under  the  orange,  and  that  in  the  second  war  the  colors  were  as  now, 
—  red,  white,  and  blue ;  as,  indeed,  they  have  continued  ever  since. 
During  a  few  years  consequent  on  the  French  Eevolution,  the  flags 
of  ships  of  war  were  distinguished  by  a  white  canton  charged  with 
a  figure  of  Liberty,  armed  wdth  pike  in  hand  and  lion  at  feet.  This 
flag  was  worn  by  the  Dutch  ships  at  Camperdown.  In  1806,  after  a 
dangerous  mutiny,  it  was  considered  expedient  to  restore  the  old  flag ; 
but  by  some  omission  the  ships  of  the  Texel  and  Zuyder  Zee  wore 
the  old  flag,  w^hilst  the  ships  of  the  Zealand  squadron  wore  the  new, 
with  Liberty  in  the  canton,  —  a  curious  irregularity,  which  continued 
until  July  17,  1810,  Avhen  Holland  and  her  flag  were  suppressed  and 
absorbed  into  the  French  Empire. 

On  the  18th  of  February,  1653,  Van  Tromp  wore  the  lion  flag  at  the 
stern,  the  orange,  white,  and  blue  at  the  main  ;  De  Euyter,  the  lion  at 
the  stem,  the  tricolor  at  the  fore,  and  a  white  flag  at  the  main ;  Evert- 
zen,  a  blue  flag  at  the  main,  the  national  colors  at  the  mizzen,  and 
the  States  arms  at  the  stern.^ 

Standard  and  Flag  of  Portugal.  —  On  the  25th  of  July,  1139, 
Affonso  Henriques,  Count  of  Portugal,  with  thirteen  thousand  sol- 
diers, including  a  band  of  English  and  French 
knights,  on  their  w^ay  to  the  second  crusade 
defeated  a  Moorish  army,  commanded  by  five 
kings,  and  consisting,  according  to  the  lowest 
estimate,  of  two  hundred  thousand  men.  The 
night  before  the  battle,  as  the  Count  was  medi- 
tating in  his  tent  on  the  vast  superiority  of  the 
enemy's  numbers,  a  hermit  entered,  and  com- 
manded him  in  God's  name  to  go  forth  in  the 
morning  when  he  heard  the  bells  toll  for  mass, 
ag  o    o  ug<a .   ^^^1  ^^  ^^^^,^  towards  the  east.     He  did  as  told, 

and  within  a  halo  of  clouds  beheld  the  image  of  our  crucified  Lord, 
who  promised  him  not  only  victory  but  a  crown,  and  a  succession  of 
sixteen  generations  to  inherit  his  sceptre.^ 

Another  version  of  this  legend  is  that  Affonso  was  much  encour- 
aged by  opening  his  Bible  at  the  defeat  of  the  Midianites  by  Gideon, 
and  that  a  hermit  visited  him  and  promised  him  a  sign  of  victory. 

1  J.  K.  Laughton's  Heraldry  of  the  Sea,  1879,  pp.  20,  22. 

2  Camoen's  Poems. 


lUU  Till-:   SV.MIioLS.    STANDAKD.S,    AND    IJANNKUS 

Accordingly  at  dayl)reak,  as  the  matin  bell  sounded,  there  was  a 
luminous  cross  seen  in  the  sky,  such  as  had  been  seen  by  Constan- 
tine ;  and  an  assurance  given  him  that  he  should  be  a  king,  and  that 
his  children  to  the  sixteenth  generation  sliould  reign  in  Portugal. 
His  army  did  in  fact  salute  him  king  belbre  the  battle ;  and  he 
rode  forward  on  a  white  horse,  followed  by  enthusiastic  troops,  who 
won  a  most  brilliant  victory,  and  Portugal  became  a  kingdom.^ 

In  commemoration  of  this  victory,  Aflbuso  Henriques  changed  his 
arms,  which  he  had  received  from  liis  father,  viz.  arfjcnt,  a  cross 
azure,  and  substituted  for  them  the  present  arms  of  Portugal ;  viz., 
five  shields  disposed  crosswise  on  a  white  shield,  in  memory  of  the 
Lord's  five  wounds,  each  shield  charged  with  five  bezants,  in  com- 
memoration of  the  five  Moorish  kings  who  were  slain  in  the  Camp 
d'Ourique. 

This  tradition  was  never  questioned  until  Herculano,  giving  an 
account  of  the  battle,  endeavored  to  show  the  legend  was  unheard  of 
in  the  twelfth  century,  and  that  the  battle  was  of  inferior  importance. 
On  the  other  side,  Pereira  de  Figuerado,  in  an  earlier  treatise,  dis- 
poses, by  anticipation,  of  most  of  the  later  historian's  arguments.^ 

This  formed  the  flag  of  the  early  discoverers,  —  the  flag  that  slowly 
pushed  its  route  down  the  coast  of  Africa,  and  led  the  way  around  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  to  the  East  Indies.  With  it,  Yasco  de  Gama 
also  carried  the  armillary  sphere  given  him  specially  by  King  Dom 
Manoel ;  and  this  flag,  with  the  sphere,  in  gold  or  red,  was  long  known 
as  the  flag  of  Portugal  in  the  Indies.  The  present  flag,  adopted  in 
1815,  is  a  modification  of  the  old  and  glorious  flag  of  Prince  Henry 
the  Navigator. 

The  present  royal  standard  of  Portugal  is  a  red  banner,  charged 
with  the  royal  arms  and  crown  in  its  centre.  The  arms  are  argent, 
five  escutcheons,  each  charged  w'ith  as  many  plates  in  saltire,  arranged 
in  a  cross  azure;  the  whole  in  a  border  gu,  upoh  -which  are  seven 
castles  or ;  the  outer  shield  having  an  or  border. 

The  man-of-war  and  merchant  ensigns  are  half  iniMle,  blue  and  white, 
vertical,  the  blue  next  the  staff,  with  the  same  emlilazoued  shield  as 
the  royal  standard,  surmounted  by  a  crown,  the  shield  half  in  the  blue 
and  half  in  the  white  stripe.     A  clear  and  handsome  flag. 

Sweden  and  Norway.  —  The  ncdional  fiag  of  Sweden  is  blue  with 
a  yellow  cross,  and  that  of  Norway  is  red  with  a  blue  cross,  having 

1  Charlotte  M.  Yonge's  Christians  and  Moors  of  Spain. 

2  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Portugal.     London,  1856. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        101 

a  white  fimbriation.  These  two  flags  are  combmed  to  form  a  united 
ensign,  after  the  manner  of  the  union  jack  of  Great  Britain,  and  the 
united  flag  is  cantoned  in  the  national  ensigns.  The  man-of-war  flag 
is  swallow-tailed,  and  that  of  merchantmen  square.  The  admiral's 
flags  are  the  same  as  the  man-of-war  flag,  only  smaller.  Commodores' 
pennants  are  triangular. 

The  roj/al  standard  is  charged  with  the  royal  arms,  crown,  and  sup- 
porters. 

The  prominent  part  Sweden  once  played  in  European  history  has 
been  brought  home  by  the  discovery  in  the  war  office  at  Stockholm 
of  a  work  prepared  by  Charles  XI.,  to  commemorate  her  triumphs. 
This  is  an  illustrated  manuscript  in  twenty  volumes,  containing  up- 
wards of  two  hundred  pages  of  drawings,  with  copies  of  numerous 
flags  and  standards  captured  by  the  Swedish  armies  in  battle  or  siege 
down  to  the  year  1697.  Olof  Hofman  received  six  hundred  and  forty 
rix  dollars  for  its  execution.  A  great  part  of  the  original  trophies 
actually  exist  in  the  Eitterholm  Church,  which  does  duty  as  the  met- 
ropolitan cathedral  on  great  occasions.  The  king  ordered  an  inves- 
tigation to  be  made  of  the  vast  stores  of  such  relics  laid  up  there, 
reported  to  number  six  thousand,  but  which  were  found  not  to  exceed 
four  thousand.  Of  these,  the  most  remarkable  are  to  be  restored,  in 
the  same  manner  that  similar  neglected  relics  have  been  restored  in 
Germany  and  Switzerland. 

The  Swedish  flag  seems  to  be  merely  the  Danish,  with  the  colors 
altered,  in  1523,  when  Sweden  won  her  independence.  The  Norway 
flag  is  clearly  the  Danish  flag,  with  a  blue  cross  superimposed ;  for, 
though  it  is  described  as  blue  fimbriated  with  white,  the  authorized 
border  is  too  wide.  The  Swedish-ISrorwegian  union,  in  the  canton, 
was  devised  in  1817,  when  the  two  countries  were  united  under  one 
king. 

The  Standaed  and  Flags  of  Geemaxy.  —  The  most  recent  flag 
added  to  the  family  of  European  nations  is  the  black,  red,  and  gold 
flag  of  the  Xorth  German  Empire,  which  is  said  to  have  originated  in 
the  time  of  Barbarossa.  When  that  emperor  was  crowned,  a.d.  1152, 
ruler  of  Germany,  in  the  Frankfort  Cathedral,  the  way  from  the  Dom 
to  the  Romer  Palace,  where  the  festivities  were  held,  was  laid  with  a 
carpet  representing  the  colors  black,  red,  and  gold.  After  the  corona- 
tion, this  carpet  was  given  to  the  people,  and  every  one  tried  to  cut 
off  a  piece,  which  was  carried  by  them  about  the  city  as  a  flag.  In 
the  year  1184,  at  the  lieichstag  at  Mayence,  these  were  recognized 


102  THE    SYMBOLS.    STANDAKDS,    AM)    IJANNKIJS 

as  tlie  true  German  cokirs,  ami  were  retained  until  Xajtoleon  put  an 
end  to  the  enii»ire  in  ISOG.  Since  that  time,  tlie  llurschenschaften 
have  kept  the  old  colors  in  memory.  In  the  revolutionaiy  year,  184.S, 
the  CJerman  colors  were  once  again  brought  to  light  liy  the  National 
Assemltly  at  Frankfort.  There  was  considerable  discussion  as  to  wliicli 
color  liad  the  precedence.  '  Freilgrath  '  said  :  "  Powder  is  black,  bloml 
is  red,  and  golden  flickers  the  flame,  that  is  the  old  ijnperial  standard." 
Frederic  "Wilhelm  II.,  liowever,  was  tlie  author  of  the  motto  bearing 
the  meaning  of  the  German  standard,  — 

"  From  uight,  through  blood,  Xd  litrlit." 

This  flag  supersedes  and  covers  not  alone  the  black  eagle  flag  and 
the  standard  of  Prussia,  but  the  flags  of  all  the  lesser  states  and  prin- 
cipalities and  free  towns  Avliich  are  united  under  the  new  German 
Confederation,  viz. :  1,  Haml)urg ;  2,  Bremen ;  3,  Mechlenburg ;  4,  Sax- 
ony ;  5,  Hanover ;  6,  Brunswick ;  7,  Oldenburg ;  8,  Lubec ;  9,  Hesse 
Cassel;  10,  Frankfort ;  11,  Baden;  12,  Bavaria;  13,  Na.ssau  ;  14,  Hesse 
Darmstadt ;  and  15,  Wurtembero-. 

The  iiirperial  staiulard  of  Germany  is  orange,  charged  in  each  of  its 
four  c[uarters  with  three  black  eagles  and  an  imperial  crown.  The 
arms  of  a  Maltese  cross,  silver  and  black,  extend  across  the  entire 
field  of  the  flag,  bearing  on  its  arms  the  motto,  "  Gott  rait  uns,  1870," 
—  Gott  in  the  upper  arm,  mit  on  the  left  hand,  'Wiis  on  the  right  hand, 
and  1870  on  the  lower  arm.  The  centre  of  the  cross  bears  a  golden 
shield  blazoned  with  the  black  eagle  and  the  imperial  arms. 

The  mciTh-of-war  flag  is  white,  with  a  black  eagle  in  the  centre  of 
a  circle,  from  which  are  extended  the  arms  of  a  black  cross,  bordered 
first  with  a  narrow  white  and  then  a  narrow  black  stripe.  In  the 
upper  canton  next  the  staff  formed  by  the  cross  there  is  a  black 
jVIaltese  cross,  edged  with  white,  set  in  the  centre  of  three  horizontal 
stripes,  —  black,  white,  red. 

The  merchant  flag  is  composed  of  three  horizontal  stripes  or  bars, 
of  equal  width,  —  black,  white,  red,  —  the  black  uppermost.  The 
'pilot  flag  is  bordered  with  a  broad  band  of  white. 

The  Emperor  William,  in  1873,  ordered  all  the  Prussian  regiments 
to  state  in  detail  the  history  of  their  regimental  colors,  and  to  send  in 
carefully  prepared  drawings  and  paintings  of  them,  designing  a  history 
of  all  the  Prussian  colors  should  be  compiled  under  his  own  super- 
vision. 


OF   A^X'IEXT   AND   MODERN   NATIONS.  103 


FEE^X'H   SYMBOLS,    STAXDAEDS,   AXD   FLAGS. 

The  Standards  of  the  Franks  and  Gauls.  —  Ancient  and  Modern 
French  Standards,  Banners,  and  Flags. 

The  Standards  of  the  Franks  and  Gauls.  —  The  emblems  of 
the  barbarian  hordes  which,  rushing  upon  the  Eoman  Colossus,  over- 
run and  subdued  Gaul,  and  established  themselves  in  place  of  the  abo- 
riginal inhabitants,  are  so  numerous  and  diverse,  it  is  impossible  to 
determine  with  precision  the  ensigns  of  each.  To  the  Franks  are 
ascribed  the  half-moon,  toads,  serpents,  and  the  lion ;  the  last  is  sup- 
posed to  be  the  parent  of  the  seventeen  Belgic  lions.  According  to 
many  authorities,  the  Sicambri  bore  a  bull's  head ;  the  Suevi,  a  bear ; 
the  Alani,  a  cat ;  the  Saxons,  a  horse ;  the  Cimbri  and  most  of  the 
Celts,  a  bull.     The  military  ensign  of  the  Goths  was  a  cock.i 

The  old  Swiss  cantons  of  Uri  and  Valais,  the  purest  popular 
government  known,  have  existed  for  more  than  a  thousand  years. 
Every  spring,  the  little  army  of  Uri,  l3earing  a  banner  of  '  the  bull's 
head,'  marches  to  a  green  meadow  among  the  mountains ;  all  the  men 
of  lawful  age  following  on  foot,  the  magistrates  on  horseback,  and  the 
chief  magistrate  wearing  a  sword.  Eeaching  the  meadow,  the  people 
gather  around  the  chief  ruler ;  there  is  a  brief  pause  of  silent  prayer ; 
and  then  and  there,  in  the  general  assembly  of  the  people,  the  magis- 
trates resign  their  trusts,  the  chief  magistrate  delivers  up  the  sword  of 
his  office,  leaves  the  chair,  and  takes  his  place  with  the  other  citizens. 
If  he  has  served  them  well,  they  bid  him  take  the  chair  again ;  for 
there  is  no  rule  that  he  may  not  be  re-elected.^ 

French  Standards,  Banners,  and  Flags.  —  To  the  reign  of  Louis 
XIV.,  the  banner  of  the  King  of  France  was  blazoned  with  his  own 
device;  thus,  Charles  IX.  had  'pillars;'  Henry  II.,  'a  half-moon;' 
Henry  III.,  'three  crowns;'  Henry  IV.,  'a  Hercules  club;'  Philip 
Augustus  chose  '  a  lion; '  Louis  VIIL,  '  a  boar ; '  St.  Louis,  '  a  dragon ; ' 
Philip  the  Bold,  'an  eagle;'  Charles  the  Fair,  'a  leopard;'  John, 
'  swans  ; '  Charles  V,  '  greyhounds  and  a  dolphin  ; '  Charles  VII.  and 
VIIL,  the  '  winged  stag ; '  Louis  XIL,  the  gentlest  of  sovereigns,  '  a 
porcupine  ; '  Francis  I., '  the  salamander.'  Our  illustration  of  a  conse- 
scrated  banner,  presented  to  Charlemagne  by  the  Pope,  is  from  a 
mosaic  in  the  Triclinium  of  San  Giovannis  de  Laterno,  built  under 

1  United  Service  Journal.  2  q  "w^  Curtis's  Lecture,  October,  1872. 


1«M  THE   .SVMr.nLS.    S'l'AM  )Ai;i  >S.    AND    I'.A.NNKKS 

Charlemagne  by  T'upe  l.co,  \vlii(jli  lias  iieeii  partially  destroyefl,  and  is 

ill  restored.     The  lull  mosaic  rejiresents  St.  I'eter  prusi-nting  Loo  III. 

^vith  the  insignia  of  the  popedom,  and  giving  the  standard  of  war  to 

Charlemagne,  who  is  represented  as  kneeling.' 

For  many  centuries  it  was  customary  to 
choose  for  a  military  standard  the  colors  of 
the  saint  in  whose  intercession  the  most 
confidence  was  placed.  Often  being  charged 
with  the  custody  of  .some  relic  of  the  saint, 
its  sanctity  was  increased. 

The  ancient  kings  of  France  carried  St. 
]Martin's  blue  hood  or  cap  for  their  stand- 
ard for  six  hundred  years.  The  legend  of 
St.  ]\Iartin  is  that   he  divided   his  cloak 

Banner  presented  to  Charlemagne      witll   a   naked   IjCggar  whoni   he  foUnd    pei- 

by  the  Pope.  ishiug  with  cold   at  the  gate  of  Amiens. 

This  cloak,  miraculously  preserved,  long  formed  one  of  the  holiest  and 
most  valued  relics  of  France ;  when  war  was  declared,  it  was  carried 
before  the  French  monarchs  as  a  sacred  banner,  and  never  failed  to 
assure  certain  victory.  The  oratory  in  wdiich  this  cloak  or  cape  —  in 
French,  cliape  —  Avas  preserved,  acquired  the  name  ' chapelk',  and  the 
person  intrusted  with  its  care  was  termed  chapelain  ;  and  thus,  accord- 
ing to  Collin  de  Plancy,  our  English  words  '  chapel '  and  '  chaplain '  are 
derived.  The  canons  of  St.  Martin,  of  Tours,  and  St.  Gratian  had  a  law- 
suit for  sixty  years  about  a  sleeve  of  this  coat,  each  claiming  it  as  their 
property.  The  Count  Larochefocault  put  an  end  to  the  proceedings 
by  sacrilegiously  committing  the  contested  relic  to  the  flames.^  St. 
]\Iartin,  the  son  of  heathen  parents,  was  born  in  Hungary,  a.d.  316. 
He  was  elected  Bishop  of  Tours,  374,  and  died  a.d.  307  or  400.  He 
w^as  the  first  saint  to  w^hom  the  Eoman  Church  offered  public  venera- 
tion. St.  Martin's  standard  w^as  the  richest  of  all  the  flags  borne  by 
the  ancient  kings  of  France.  It  was  made  of  taffeta,  and  painted 
with  the  image  of  the  saint,  and  was  laid  upon  liis  tomb  for  one  or 
more  days  to  prepare  it  for  use. 

The  counts  of  Anjou,  as  grand  seneschals  of  France,  were  the  first 
flag-bearers  of  the  ensign  of  St.  Martin.  Beneton  de  Peyrins  says  the 
cape  of  St.  Martin  w^as  kept  at  Argenteuil,  and  was  carried  in  a  ca.sket 
which  enclosed  it ;  but  that  the  banner  of  St.  ]\Iartin  was  of  the  form  of 
other  banners,  resembled  the  ancient  labarum,  and  w^as  carried  by  a 
chosen  warrior,  and  not  by  a  priest. 

^  Deodorus's  Christian  Iconogi-apliy.  -  riianihers's  Book  of  Days, 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


105 


— ReprcaenUtioQi  of  the  Banner  of  St.  Denia  :  No.  1.  the  oldest,  u  from  a  window 
Cathedral  of  Chartrea ;  No.  3.  tbe  latest,  id  from  a  Manoscript  of  Froiseart.  No.  2644, 
NatiOD&l  Library  (the  ori^al  which  it  npreseota  was  curitd  at   the   difent  of  Artevelde  at 
Bosebecque) ;  No.  2,  Drawing  from  the  Library  of  the  Cclestiaa,  praa«rved  by  MoutfaoGgD. 


St.  Martin's  standard  was  succeeded  by  the  famous  Auriflamme,  or 
Oriflamme,  of  St.  Denis,  which  in  turn  gave  place  to  the  'Cornette 
Blanche.'     This  sacred  banner  of  Clovis,  fabled  to  have  been  brought 

by  an  angel  to  St.  Denis,  was 
originally  the  banner  of  the 
Abbey  of  St.  Denis,  suspended 
over  the  tomb  of  that  saint, 
and  was  presented  by  the  lord 
protector  of  the  convent  when- 
ever it  became  necessary  to 
take  up  arms  for  the  preserva- 
2  tion  of  its  rights  and  posses- 
sions. It  was  made  of  red  silk, 
with  flames  of  gold  worked  in  gold  thread  upon  the  silk,  and  was  fixed 
on  a  golden  spear,  in  the  form  of  a  banner.  Its  end  was  cut  into 
five  points,  each  adorned  Avith  a  tassel  of  green  silk. 

Guillaume  Guiart,  who  wrote  in  1306,  describes  it  as  "  a  banner 
made  of  silk  stronger  than  guimp  of  flaring  cendal,  and  that  simply 
without  any  figure  upon  it ; "  and  adds,  that  he  had  recently  seen  it. 
Later,  it  was  powdered  with  golden  flakes  of  fire,  as  represented 
in  the  '  Indice  Armorial'  of  Louvain  Geliot,  1635,  where  it  is  thus 
described :  — 

"  L'Oriliambe  estoit  faite  ile  sendal, 
C'est-a-dire  de  taffetas  ou  tissu  de  soye  rouge, 
Auciinefois  semee  de  tiammes  d'or  d'ou  elle 
Prenoit  de  nom  de  oriliambe."^ 

The  Oriflamme  was  red,  —  for  all  the  banners  of  the  churches 
dedicated  to  martyrs  were  red,  —  and  fringed  wkh  green,  the  one  color 
indicating  suffering,  the  other  hope.  The  illustra- 
tion, representing  Henry  of  Metz  receiving  the  Ori- 
flamme from  the  hands  of  St.  Denis,  is  from  a 
painted  window  in  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  de 
Chatres.  Another  account  ^  says  the  color  of  the 
Oriflamme  was  purple,  azure,  and  gold  ;  the  two 
colors  producing  orange  were  separated  in  the  Ori- 
flamme, but  united  in  its  name.  The  Oriflamme 
borne  at  Agincourt  was  an  oblong  red  flag,  split 
into  five  points.  Sometimes  it  bore  upon  it  a 
saltire  wavy,  from  the  centre  of  which  golden  rays 
diverued.^ 


The  Oriflamme. 

1  Herald  and  Genealogist,  vol.  ill.     1866. 

2  Fairholt's  Dictionary  of  Terms  of  Art. 


3  Sir  Nicholas  Harris  Nicolas. 


KMJ  TlIK    SV.Ml'.dl.S.    SlA.NDAKhS.    AND    HANNKKS 

Tlie  Orillainiiie  was  intrusted  liy  thu  coiuimuuly  nl  >t.  J)eui.s  to 
the  kings  of  Fiance,  \vho -ranked  themselves  as  vassals  »»f  tlie  alilx-y, 
as  counts  oi'  the  \\'xin. 

AVhi'n  the  kings  of  France  were  threatened  Mith  doubtful  wars, 
and  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  the  oritlaninie,  they  jjaid  their  lirst 
devotion  in  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  of  Taris,  then  repaired  to  St. 
Denis,  where,  having  been  solemnly  received,  they  descended,  without 
hood  or  girdle,  with  the  oritlamme,  to  the  vaults  under  A\hich  rested 
the  relics  of  the  saint,  and  placed  the  sacred  Ijanner  on  the  altar.  In 
1382,  the  remains  of  St.  Louis  were  placed  beside  those  of  St.  Denis. 
The  abbot  celebrated  Mass,  and,  to  heighten  the  devotion  of  the  king 
and  his  standard-bearer  the  Count  du  Yexin,  admonislied  him  of  the 
request  of  St.  Denis.  While  the  Count  was  on  his  knees,  Ijareheaded, 
and  without  a  girdle,  between  the  king  and  the  aljbot,  the  kiu'^  re- 
ceived  the  Oriflamme  from  the  abbot,  blessed  l)y  his  prayers,  and 
delivered  it  over  to  the  custody  of  the  Count  du  Yexin. 

After  the  earldom  of  Du  Yexin  was  joined  to  the  crown,  under 
Louis  le  Gros,  any  noble  whom  the  king  wished  to  honor  was  made 
its  standard-bearer,  who  kept  it  unfurled.  Sometimes  the  king  placed 
it  around  his  neck,  awaiting  the  encounter  of  battle,  and  when  it 
was  unfurled,  attached  it  to  the  end  of  a  lance.  The  chosen  stand- 
ard-bearer, before  receiving  it,  confessed,  partook  of  the  euchari.st, 
and  solemnly  vowed  to  guard  it  faithfully  with  his  life.  The  war 
ended,  the  Oriflamme  was  carried  back  to  St.  Denis  by  the  king 
himself. 

Louis  le  Gros  was  the  first  king  who  took  the  Oriflamme  to  battle, 
A.D.  1124,1  and  it  appeared  for  the  last  time  at  Agincourt,  a.d.  1415,^ 
others  say  at  Monterey,  a.d.  1465. 

At  Bouvines,  in  1214,  the  blue  royal  flag  was  carried  at  the  head 
of  the  French  knighthood,  Avhile  the  red  oriflamme  was  the  standard 
of  the  commoners. 

The  Oriflamme  was  borne  against  the  Flemings  in  the  battle 
of  Pi0.sbecq,  1382,  in  which  Philip  van  Arteveldt  was  slain.  Says 
Froissart :  "  It  w^as  a  most  excellent  banner,  and  had  been  sent  from 
heaven  with  great  mystery.  It  is  a  sort  of  gonfanon,  and  is  of  much 
comfort  in  the  day  of  battle  to  those  who  see  it.  Proof  was  made  of 
its  virtues  at  this  time ;  for  all  the  morning  there  was  so  thick  a  fog 
that  with  difficulty  could  they  see  each  other,  but  the  moment  the 
knight  had  displayed  it,  and  raised  his  lance  in  the  air,  the  fog  in- 
stantly disappeared."     (See  illustration  of  it,  p.  105.) 

1  Renault.  -  Du  Tillet. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


107 


In  an  inventory  of  the  treasury  of  the  church  of  St.  Denis,  taken 
in  1534,  the  Oriflamme  is  described  as  "  a  standard  of  "s^ery  thick  silk, 
divided  in  the  middle  like  a  gonfanon,  very  frail,  fastened  around 
a  stick  covered  with  gilded  copper,  and  a  long  pointed  spear  at  the 
end." 

This  banner  of  St.  Denis  was  said  to  have  been  destroyed  when 
the  tombs  of  the  kings  of  France  in  the  abbey  were  desecrated  and 
despoiled,  at  the  time  of  the  first  French  revolution ;  but  a  writer 
in  1867  asserts  that  it  "  is  still  suspended  from  an  eminence  at  the 
eastern  extremity  of  the  venerable  abbey  church  of  St.  Denis,  beyond 
the  high  altar."  The  monks  of  old  were  in  the  habit  of  assuring  the 
people  that  this  banner  was  brought  to  the  abbey  by  an  angel,  at  the 
time  of  the  conversion  to  Christianity  of  old  King  Clovis ;  and  tradi- 
tion assigns  an  age  of  thirteen  hundred  and  eighty  years  to  this  silken 
remnant  of  monastic  superstition  and  imposition. 

The  cornette  blanche,  a  plain  white  banner,  emblematic  of  the 
purity  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  succeeded  the  oriflamme  in  the  fifteenth 
century. 

The  fleur-de-lis,  with  which  it  was  subsequently  powdered,  are 
supposed  to  represent  the  flower  of  the  lily,  and  may  be  a  rebus 
signifying  the  flower  of  Louis.  Mr.  Planche 
says  that  Clovis  is  the  Frankish  form  of 
tlie  modern  Louis,  the  C  being  dropped,  as 
in  Clothaire,  which  is  now  written  Lothaire, 
and  Clovis  may  have  assumed  the  fleur-de- 
lis  as  his  rebus,  from  his  favorite  clove-pink 
or  gillyflower. 

Ancient  heralds  tell  us  that  the  Franks  had 
a  custom,  at  the  proclamation  of  their  king, 
to  elevate  him  upon  a  shield  or  target,  and 
l^lace  in  his  hand  a  reed  or  flag  in  blossom, 
instead  of  a  sceptre ;  and  from  thence  "  the  kings  of  the  first  and 
second  race  in  France  are  represented  with  sceptres  in  their  hands, 
like  the  flag  with  its  flower,  and  which  flowers  became  the  armorial 
figures  of  France." 

Respecting  this  device  there  are  many  legendary  tales :  —  that  a 
banner,  embroidered  with  golden  fleur-de-lis,  came  down  from  heaven ; 
that  St.  Denis  personally  bestowed  the  lily  as  an  heraldic  device  upon 
the  royal  family  of  France ;  that  a  banner  semee  of  fleur-de-lis  was 
brought  by  an  angel  to  King  Clovis  after  his  baptism ;  and  that  such 
a  banner  was  delivered  by  an  angel  to  Charlemagne.     Such  are  some 


The  Bourbon  Royal  Standard. 


1U8  'IIIH    SVMI'.nLS.    srAM)AIM)S.    AM)    IJANNKKS 

of  tlie  tales  accounting  for  the  origin  of  the  lleur-ilu-hs  as  the  device 
of  the  French  royal  family,  from  the  time  of  Clovis  to  Charles  X.^ 

The  Ik'ur-ile-lis  was  first  borne  on  a  royal  seal  by  Louis  VII.,  a.d. 
llo7-8().  Edward  III.  was  the  first  English  monarch  wlio  (quartered 
the  French  lk'ur!;-de-lis  on  the  Great  Seal  of  that  kingdom,  a.d.  1340, 
and  they  were  not  removed  from  the  English  shield  until  ISOl.^ 

Under  Philip  Augustus,  the  French  banner  was  white,  and  semee- 
de-lis,  that  is,  strewn  with  golden  lilies;  but  from  tlie  time  of  Charles 
YI.,  A.D.  1380,  it  invariably  consisted  of  three  golden  lieurs-de-lis  on  a 
blue  field,  with  a  white  cross  in  the  middle.^ 

It  is  singular  that  the  old  English  name  for  the  iris,  or  fleur-de-lis, 
is  '  flag.'  Does  the  flower  derive  its  name  from  the  standard,  or  vice 
versa  ?  The  lily  is  an  old  device,  and  forms  one  of  the  most  frequent 
decorations  of  Solomon's  Temple,  the  Hebrew  word  'susa'  or  'susiana' 
being  the  same.  The  word  '  shushau '  stands  for  six, '  the  perfect  num- 
ber,' in  Hebrew.  Two  interlaced  fleurs-de-lis  make  the  lily,  each  having 
three  prominent  leaves,  or  both  together,  the  perfect  number.  The 
name  of  '  susa '  and  its  changes  are  derived  from  the  Hebrew  for  a  lily. 

At  the  coronation  of  Charles  YIL  at  Eheims,  the  Oriflamme  was 
the  only  royal  banner.  The  white  flag  was  the  personal  banner  of 
Jeanne  d'Arc. 

A  French  national  flag  is  a  modern  idea.  Under  the  feudal  system, 
every  lord  had  his  own  personal  coat  of  arms. 

Sieur  de  Aubigny,  marshal  of  France,  one  of  the  most  experienced 
commanders  in  the  service  of  Charles  VIII.  and  Louis  XII.,  as  a  rela- 
tive of  James  IV.,  bore  the  red  lion  of  Scotland  on  a  field  argent, 
which  he  caused  to  be  '  semee  of  buckles,'  signifying  that  he  was  the 
means  of  holding  united  the  kings  of  Scotland  and  France  against 
England,  with  the  motto,  " Di^trmtia  jungit"  —  "It  unites  the  distant." 

Charles  III.,  seventh  Duke  of  Bourbon,  the  celebrated  constable, 
had  displayed  near  his  tomb  at  Gaeta  his  great  standard  of  yellow 
silk  embroidered  with  flying  stags  and  naked  flaming  swords,  with 
the  word  '  esperance,'  in  several  places  ;  meaning,  he  hoped  to  revenge 
himself  by  fire  and  sword  upon  his  enemies. 

The  banner  of  Piobert  de  la  ]\Iark,  the  Great  Boar  of  Ardennes,  had 
a  figure  of  St.  Margaret  with  a  dragon  at  her  feet.* 

1  Newton's  Heraldry. 

2  Fairholt's  Dictionary  ;  Recherches  sur  I'Origine  <lu  Blason  et  en  particulier  sur  la 
Fleur-de-lis,  par  M.  Adalbert  de  Beaumont,  avec  xxii  Planches  gravees.     Paris,  1853. 

3  Fairholt's  Dictionary. 

*  Mrs.  Bury  Palliser's  Historic  Devices,  Badges,  and  War  Cries.     London,  1870. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        109 

A  French  military  author,  who  served  and  wrote  in  the  time  of 
Charles  XIV.,  intending  to  express  the  importance  of  preserving  the 
colors  to  the  last,  observed  that,  on  a  defeat  taking  place,  the  flag 
should  serve  the  ensign  as  a  shroud ;  and  instances  have  occurred  of 
a  standard-bearer,  who,  when  mortally  wounded,  tore  the  flag  from 
its  staff,  and  died  with  it  wrapped  around  his  body.  Such  a  circum- 
stance is  related  of  Don  Sebastian,  king  of  Portugal,  at  the  battle  of 
Alcaza,  and  of  a  young  officer  named  Chatelier,  at  the  taking  of 
Taillebourg,  during  the  wars  of  the  Huguenots.  It  also  had  a  parallel 
during  our  civil  war. 

After  the  establishment  of  a  permanent  militia,  every  regiment 
carried  the  color  of  its  colonel ;  and  down  to  1789  many  of  them  had 
preserved  their  own  particular  banners.  The  white  being  the  royal 
color,  however,  superseded  them  aU,  from  the  fact  that,  when  Louis 
XIV.  suppressed  the  functions  of  colonel-generals,  whose  distinctive 
sicrn  1  was  a  white  standard,  such  a  standard  was  retained  as  an  em- 
blem  of  command ;  hence  it  became  a  sign  of  the  regal  power,  and 
displaced  all  others.  The  royal  flag  was,  in  reality,  the  national  flag 
of  the  eighteenth  century. 

As  late  as  1543,  there  is  a  royal  order  for  "  all  ships  in  the  service 

of  the  king  to  carry  the  banners  or  ensigns  of  the  admiral  of  France."  ^ 

Annebault,  who  was  admiral  of  France  from  154-3  to  1552,  commanded 

the  fleet  which  invaded  the  Channel  in  1545,  and  his  arms,  gules  a 

cross  vair,  were  probably  worn  by  French  ships.     It  is  probable  that 

with  these  were  worn  the  blue  flag  with  the  white  cross,  and  others, 

provincial  and   local.     There  is,  notwithstanding  all  that  has  been 

written,  no  trace  of  the  white  flag  as  a  national  ensign  before  the 

time  of  Henry  IV.,  though  it  is  undoubtedly  true  a  white  flag  was 

borne  by  Joan  of  Arc,  with  a  picture  of  the  crucifixion.     The  Catholic 

army  wore  first  red,  then  green,  the  color  of  Lorraine,  and  after  the 

murder  of  the  Duke  and  Cardinal  of  Guise,  black,  until  the  death 

of  Henry  III.,  when  they  resumed  the  green.     But  the  Protestants, 

from  1562,  wore  white,  as  an  emblem  of  their  superior  purity,  which 

they  continued  when  Henry  III.  joined  them,  when  it  became  royal. 

The  principal  standard  of  the  League,  captured  at  Ivry,  1590,  was 

black   charged  with  a  crucifix,  and  the  device,  "  Auspice   Christo ; " 

but  it  had  green  tassels.     The  royal  flag  was  blue,  with  golden  lilies, 

though   white   was   the    party    color.      Everybody   knows   that   the 

king  — 

''  Bound  a  snow-white  plume  upon  his  gallant  crest; " 

1  Dependens.  -  De  Bouille,  Les  Drapeaux  Francais,  p.   221.     1875. 


110  Tin-:   SYMBOLS,    .STANDAKDS,    AND    UANNEKS 

and  also  that  lie  cautioned  his  followers,  — 

"  Auil  if  my  staiidanl-hcaior  fall,  us  fall  full  well  lie  may, 
For  iK'Vor  saw  I  pnimist'  yet  <if  such  a  hluody  fray, 
Press  where  ye  see  my  white  i)luine  shiue  amidst  the  rauks  of  war, 

Aud  he  your  OriHammi'  t<i-day  tlic  liclinct  of  Navarre." 

The  wars  of  the  League  aud  the  battle  of  Ivry  were  not  naval, 
but  they  mark  the  introduction  of  the  white  Hag,  which  became  from 
that  time  royal  aud  national,  and  supplanted  the  provincial  and  town 
flags,  though  the  old  Ijlue  flag  continued  to  be  worn  liy  merchant 
ships. 

j\r.  d'Infrevillc,  Intendant  of  Toulon,  in  IGi),")  wrote :  "  The  Saint 
Philippe  is  so  richly  gilt,  that,  to  be  in  keeping  with  such  splendor, 
she  ought  to  have  a  new  flag  of  crimson  damask,  bearing  the  arms  of 
France,  aud  powdered  with  fleurs-de-lis,  and  crowned  L  L's  in  em- 
broidery. The  old  one,  which  was  made  at  Paris  for  the  Archbishop 
of  Bordeaux,  twenty-eight  years  ago,  at  a  cost  of  12,000  livres,  is  torn 
away  to  half  its  size,  and  is  quite  a  rag."  ^ 

In  1669,  an  order  was  given  reducing  the  chaos  of  flags  to  some- 
thing like  regularity.  On  the  6th  of  JSTovember  of  that  year,  it  was 
decreed  that  "  the  ensigns  at  the  stern  are  to  be  blue,  powdered  M'ith 
yellow  fleur-de-lis,  with  a  large  white  cross  in  the  middle,  without 
distinction  of  peace  or  war,  voyage  or  battle.  Merchant  ships  may 
wear  the  same  ensign  as  our  ships  of  war,  with  the  escutcheon  of 
their  province  or  town  in  one  of  the  corners.  The  pavesades  are  to 
be  blue,  powdered  with  yellow  fleur-de-lis,  bordered  with  two  broad 
white  bands." 

On  the  3d  of  December,  by  a  new  order,  "  the  ensigns  of  the  stern 
are  to  be  in  all  cases  white."  Merchant  ships  the  same,  with  the 
escutcheon  as  before.^ 

Thus,  under  the  white  flag  the  French  squadron  served  in  the 
allied  fleet  in  1672-73,  and  all  the  naval  battles  for  more  than  a 
century.  All  through  the  eighteenth  century  the  three  squadrons  of 
the  French  line  of  battle  were  distinguished,  —  the  centre  by  a  white 
flag  at  the  main,  the  van  by  a  blue  aud  white  flag  horizontally  divided 
at  the  fore,  and  the  rear  by  a  blue  flag  at  the,mizzen.  Occasionally 
these  three  flags  were  worn  at  the  main,  subordinate  officers  wearing 
their  flags  at  the  appropriate  mast ;  there  being  also  a  particular 
instruction  which  provided,  "  If  the  commanders  of  divisions  are  not 

^  Abraham  du  Quesne  et  la  Marine  de  son  Temps,  par  A.  Jal,  torn.  i.  p.  350. 
2  Du  Quesne,  par  A.  Jal,  torn,  i,  p.  588. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        Ill 

general  officers,  they  may  carry  for  distinction  a  swallow-tailed  flag 
of  the  color  of  the  squadron,  longer  and  narrower  than  a  flag  of  com- 
mand, but  shorter  and  broader  than  a  pennant."  ^ 

After  the  battle  off  Ushant,  M.  d'Orvilliers  reported  that  the  flag 
of  the  blue  division  worn  on  that  occasion  caused  mistake  and 
confusion,  in  consequence  of  two  out  of  the  three  British  admirals 
wearing  blue  flags  and  ensigns.  It  was  therefore  modified  by  the 
reintroduction  of  the  old  white  cross,  which  was  worn  during  all 
the  subsequent  events  of  that  war,  and  especially  in  the  West  Indies 
against  Eodney.^ 

In  the  navy,  both  blue  and  red  w^ere  originally  hoisted,  then  blue 
alone.  Louis  XVI.  reserved  the  white  flag  for  his  ships  of  war, 
allowing  merchant  vessels  to  employ  it,  coupled  with  some  distinctive 
badge.  In  the  eighteenth  century,  merchant  vessels  wore  the  white 
flag,  and  also  a  blue  flag  with  a  white  cross.  The  galleys  flew  a  red 
flag.^ 

The  flag  of  the  French  admiral,  the  Due  de  PenthieAT?e,  was  the  red 
flag  of  the  galleys  semee  of  fleur-de-lis,  with  a  Ijlue  shield  in  the 
centre  of  its  field,  surmounted  by  a  ducal  crown,  and  blazoned  with 
three  golden  fleurs-de-lis,  —  two  and  one,  —  the  shield  supported  by 
two  crossed  anchors.* 

With  the  revolution,  the  spirit  of  change  seized  on  the  flag  as  on 
every  thing  else.  The  Xational  Assembly,  Oct.  24, 1790,  decreed  that 
the  tricolor  should  be  adopted  by  the  navy,  thus  :  — 

"  The  flag  on  the  bowsprit  (jack)  shall  be  composed  of  three  equal 
bands  placed  vertically ;  that  next  the  staff  shall  be  red,  the  middle 
white,  and  the  third  blue. 

"  The  flag  at  the  stern  shall  carry  in  its  upper  quarter  the  jack 
above  described  ;  this  shall  be  exactly  one-fourth  of  the  flag,  and  shaU 
be  surrounded  by  a  narrow  band,  the  half  of  which  shall  be  red  and 
the  other  blue  ;  the  rest  of  the  flag  shall  be  M'hite.  This  shall  be  the 
same  for  men-of-war  and  for  merchant  sliips. 

"The  flags  of  command  shall  carry  in  their  upper  quarters  the 
three  vertical  bands,  —  red,  white,  blue ;  but  the  rest  of  the  flag  shall 
be,  as  heretofore  [a  curious  mistake],  red,  white,  and  blue ;  the  National 
Assembly  having  no  desire  to  change  in  any  way  those  dispositions 
which  have  been  made  to  distinguish  the  three  squadrons  of  the  fleet." 

1  Tactique  Xavale,  par  Le  Vicomte  Moroques,  p.  107. 

2  Eey,  Histoire  du  Drapeau,  torn.  ii.  p.  578. 

8  M.  Desjardins,  Recherehes  sur  les  Drapeaux  Franoais.     Paris,  1874. 
*  La  Croix's  Middle  Ages. 


112  THE   SYMliULS,    .STANDAKDS,   AM  >    lIAN.NKliS 

Oil  the  lotli  of  February,  1704,  the  convention  abolLshcd  tliis  flag, 
as  savoring  of  royal  tendencies,  and  decreed  :  — 

"The  flag  prescribed  by  the  National  Assenildy  is  abolished. 

"  The  national  flag  shall  be  formed  of  the  three  national  colors  in 
equal  Itands,  placed  vertically,  —  the  hoist  being  blue,  the  centre  white, 
and  the  fly  red." 

Such  has  been  the  French  tricolor  ever  since,  and  the  French 
national  flag,  except  during  the  reign  of  Louis  XVIII.  and  Charles  X., 
when  the  white  liourbon  flag  and  standard  were  resumed.  In  the 
picture  by  Loutherbourg,  in  the  Painted  Hall  at  Greenwich,  the  French 
ships  in  Lord  Howe's  action  of  the  1st  of  June,  1704,  are  represented 
as  wearing  the  ensign  suppressed  on  the  lotli  of  February  preceding,  — 
either  a  mistake  of  the  artist,  or  it  may  be  that  tlie  fleet  sailed  ii-om 
Brest  before  new  flags  could  be  made  for  it,  and  therefore  fought  under 
that  flag. 

In  1814,  on  the  return  of  the  king,  and  again  in  1815,  as  we  have 
said,  the  tricolor  was  replaced  by  the  white  flag,  whidi  continued 
until  the  abdication  of  Charles  X.,  in  1830,  when  the  tricolor  was 
restored.  In  1848,  IMarch  5,  the  Provincial  Government,  on  the  flight 
of  L(juis  Philippe,  ordered  the  colors  to  be  blue,  red,  and  Avhite,  —  the 
blue  at  the  staff  and  white  at  the  fly ;  but  two  days  later,  the  opposi- 
tion to  it  was  so  strong  that  the  order  was  cancelled.^  There  is  no  flag 
on  the  ocean  so  easily  distinguished  or  more  beautiful  tlian  tlie  French 
tricolor. 

The  golden  eagle  of  Xapoleoii,  on  an  azure  field,  surrounded  by  a 
swarm  of  golden  bees,  succeeded  the  white  standard  and  golden  fleur- 
de-lis,  which  for  so  many  centuries  were  identified  with  the  heraldry 
and  standards  of  France.^  The  first  and  second  republics  had  no 
standard.  One  of  the  principal  standards  borne  by  the  insurgents, 
June  20,  1702,  was  a  pair  of  black  breeches,  with  the  inscription, 
"  Tremhlez,  tyrans  !  void  les  sans-culottcs."  The  standard  and  arms 
of  the  second  empire  were  the  same  as  those  of  the  first. 

The  flag  of  Elba,  ^Dresented  by  X'apoleon  to  the  National  Guard  of 
Elba,  1814,  and  used  by  him  on  his  return  to  France  the  following 
year,  is  on  exhibition  in  the  collection  of  INIadame  Tussaud  &  Sons, 
London.  It  is  composed  of  tricolored  silk,  and  tlie  whole  of  the 
ornaments  are  elaborately  embroidered  in  silver.  The  reverse  side 
has  exactly  the  same  ornaments,  with  the  inscription,  'Champs  de 

1  Tlie  notes  respecting  the  French  naval  flags  have  been  compiled  principally  from 
Laughton's  Heraldry  of  the  Sea,  1879. 

2  Boutell's  Heraldry,  Historical  and  Popular. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        113 

Mai,'  where  it  was  presented  by  the  Emperor  to  his  guards,  before 
they  marched  for  Waterloo,  when  it  was  taken  by  the  Prussians, 
and  sold  by  them  to  an  English  gentleman,  who  brought  it  to 
England.^ 

Pietro  Alessandro  Garda,  the  man  who,  when  Napoleon  returned 
from  Elba,  hoisted  the  tricolored  flag  on  the  Tuileries  while  the 
palace  was  still  occupied  by  the  Royal  Guards,  died  at  Turin,  Jan.  11, 
1880.  He  was,  after  the  return  from  Elba,  attached  to  Napoleon's 
staff,  and  fought  at  Waterloo.  Since  then  he  has  been  director 
of  an  English  mining  company  in  Peru,  a  volunteer  with  his  friend 
Garibaldi,  and  a  gentleman  of  leisure,  living  quietly  in  his  own 
chateau. 

The  standard  of  the  first  regiment  of  the  old  Imperial  Guard, 
which  Napoleon  embraced  at  Fontainebleau  in  1814,  on  taking  leave 
of  the  army,  was  preserved  by  General  Petit,  and  presented  to 
King  Louis  Philippe.  It  is  deposited  at  the  Invalides  with  the 
sword  of  Austerlitz,  presented  by  General  Bertrand.  The  colors 
are  much  faded  by  time  and  service,  and  are  inscribed,  "  Garde  im- 
periale  V Emjicrenr  Na])oUon  cm  premier  regiment  cle  Grenadiers  a 
pied,  vieille  Garde;"  on  the  reverse  side  is,  "Marengo,  Austerlitz, 
Jena,  Eylau,  Friedland,  TVagram,  3foskiva,  Vienne,  Berlin,  Madrid, 
Moscoiv." 

The  French  tricolor  is  supposed  to  be  a  union  of  the  blue  banner 
of  St.  Martin,  the  red  banner  of  St.  Denis,  and  the  '  cornette  blanche,' 
there  being  evidence  that  those  colors  have  been  regarded  as  the  na- 
tional emblem  for  centuries.  Yet  the  choice  of  the  tricolor  as  the 
emblem  of  liberty  at  the  time  of  the  Ptevolution  was  purely  acci- 
dental. Blue  and  red,  the  ancient  colors  of  the  city  of  Paris,  were  at 
first  assumed,  and  the  citizens  mounted  guard  in  a  blue  and  red  cock- 
ade ;  but  the  National  Guard,  which  was  not  unfriendly  to  the  throne, 
admitted  the  white  of  the  Bourbon  standard,  and  tlms  reproduced  the 
tricolor  as  the  standard  of  the  French  nation. 

A  correspondent  ^  of  London  '  Notes  and  Queries,'  which  has  sev- 
eral communications  on  the  origin  of  the  French  tricolor,  says :  "  In 
1789,  after  the  defection  of  the  French  guards,  it  was  determined  to 
raise  a  city  guard  of  forty  thousand  men,  each  district  to  contribute 
a  battalion  of  eight  hundred  men.  The  name  of  the  guard  was  the 
'  Parisian  Militia ; '  their  colors  the  blue  and  red  of  the  city,  mixed  with 
the  wliite  of  their  friends.     This  Parisian  militia  became  the  National 

1  Madame  Tussaud's  Catalogue. 

2  Andrew  Steinmetz,  vol.  vi.,  2d  series,  p.  16-t. 


Ill  THE    SYMI?()I.S.    STANDAlins,    AND    I'.A.NNKHS 

CJuaril,  and  their  colors  tlie  tricolor,  from  the  union  or  fraternization." 
Another  correspondent  says:  "  In  or  aljout  loot!,  (hnin;,'  the  caiitivity 
of  -Tnhn  of  Fmnce  in  the  Towi'r  of  Lijmlon,  and  the  regency  of  the 
l)ai4iliin  Charles,  the  states-general  of  I'aris  elfected  great  changes 
in  the  mode  of  government.  Paris  became,  in  lact,  republic,  and  the 
municipality  governed  the  estates,  and,  in  truth,  all  France.  At  this 
time  it  was  decided  that  the  city  of  Paris  should  have  colors  of  its 
own,  and  under  the  authority  of  Etienue  jMarcel  a  Hag  was  selected, 
half  blue  and  half  red,  with  an  agrafe  of  silver,  and  the  motto, '  A  honne 
Jill.''  Shortly  after,  when  Etienne  ]\larcel  was  murdered  with  sixty 
of  his  followers,  the  colors  of  the  city  were  suppressed,  and  remained 
in  obscurity  until  1780.  Upon  the  accession  of  Charles  V.,  he  erected* 
the  Bastile  St.  Antoine  on  the  very  spot  where  Etienne  ]\Iarcel  had 
been  slain,  as  a  monument  of  defiance  on  the  part  of  the  crown  against 
the  capital,  which  remained  for  centuries  a  state  prison,  and  symljol 
of  despotism.  By  a  singular  coincidence,  the  Bastile  was  destroyed 
on  the  anniversary  of  the  day  upon  which  the  ancient  colors  of  Paris 
—  the  colors  of  Etienne  Marcel  —  became  victorious  over  royalty. 
On  that  day,  July  14,  1789,  Lafayette  restored  the  colors  of  the  city 
to  the  people,  adding  thereto  the  royal  emljlern,  white,  and  thus  com- 
posed that  tricolor  which,  according  to  Lafayette's  prophetic  words, 
'  Dcvait  faire  le  tour  clu  monde.^ 

"  At  first,  the  French  revolutionists  adopted  a  green  cockade,  which 
was  quickly  discarded,  when  it  was  remembered  that  it  was  the 
livery  of  the  Counts  d'Artois,  the  most  detested  of  the  royal  family. 
On  the  night  of  the  11th  of  July,  after  the  dismissal  of  Necker,  at 
the  first  meeting  of  the  populace  in  the  Palais  Royal,  they  were 
harangued  by  Camille  Desmoulins,  who  told  them  'there  was  no 
resource  but  to  fly  to  arms,  and  take  a  cockade  by  M'hicli  to  recognize 
each  other.'  He  was  rapturously  applauded,  and,  snatching  a  poplar 
leaf  from  the  garden  of  the  Palais  Poyal,  he  held  it  up  before  the 
excited  crowd,  and  exclaimed,  '  What  colors  will  you  have  ?  Cry  out ! 
choose !  "Will  you  have  green,  the  color  of  hope  ?  or  the  blue  of 
Ciucinnatus,  the  color  of  liberty,  of  America,  and  of  democracy  ? ' 
The  people  cried,  '  The  green,  the  color  of  hope ! '  ^ 

Still  another  correspondent  of  '  Notes  and  Queries '  says,  "  The  tra- 
dition in  France  concerning  the  adoption  of  the  tricolor  is  that  it  was 
originally  the  field  of  the  arms  of  the  Orleans  family,  which  was 
made  up  in  fact  of  the  red  of  the  ancient  oriflamme,  which  was  gules, 
semee  of  lys,  or ;  of  the  arms  of  Yalois,  azure,  semee  in  like  manner ; 

1  H.  r.  H. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODEEN  NATIONS.       115 

and  of  Bourbon,  argent,  semee  of  the  same.  As  the  Orleans  claimed 
descent  from  all  three  branches,  they  took  for  the  field  of  their 
escutcheon  their  three  tinctures,  and  blazoned  them,  'tierce  in  pale 
azure,  argent,  and  gules,  semee  of  fleur-de-lis  or!  The  tradition  is, 
when  Philip  of  Orleans  threw  himself  into  the  arms  of  the  repub- 
licans, and  called  himself  L'lilgalite,  he  caused  the  fleur-de-lis  to  be 
erased  from  the  escutcheons  which  were  stuck  up  in  the  Palais  Ptoyal. 
The  field  being  left,  it  was  identified  with  his  name,  and  by  degrees 
became  the  republican  flag."  ^ 

The  tricolor  did  not  at  once  replace  other  emblematic  signs.  Only 
a  few  of  the  ninety  battalions  of  the  Parisian  militia  which  took  part 
in  the  fete  of  the  Confederation  combined  the  three  colors,  and  not 
one  of  them  was  designed  according  to  the  present  fashion.  The 
famous  flag  of  the  Twelfth  Brigade,  which  General  Bonaparte  led 
across  the  bridge  of  Arcole,  was  not  a  tricolor,  and  the  flag  of  the 
Fifth  Half  Brigade,  carried  by  Augereau,  had  republican  ornaments  on 
a  white  ground. 

The  imperial  standard  of  Napoleon  I.  was  the  tricolor,  semee  of 
golden  bees,  and  charged  with  the  eagle  of  the  empire  upon  the  cen- 
tral division  of  the  white  field. 

In  the  guard-chamber  of  Windsor  Castle,  England,  suspended  over 
the  marble  busts  of  the  Dukes  of  Marlborough  and  Wellington,  hang 
two  little  French  flags  of  peculiar  significance.  The  one  a  white  flag 
of  the  Bourbons,  spotted  with  fleur-de-lis;  the  other,  the  tricolor. 
These  flags  are  presented  annually,  by  the  Dukes  of  Marlborough  and 
Wellington,  to  the  reigning  sovereign  of  Great  Britain  on  the  anni- 
versaries of  the  battles  of  Blenheim  and  Waterloo,  and  are  the  tenure 
of  service  by  which  the  noble  dukes  hold  the  estates  of 'Blenheim  and 
Stratfieldsaye,  settled  on  them  by  Parliament.  The  banner  rendered 
by  the  Duke  of  Marlborough  was  formerly  suspended  in  Queen  Anne's 
closet  at  Windsor,  where  she  first  received  intelligence  of  the  victory 
of  Blenheim.2 

When  King  William  IV.  was  on  his  death-bed,  and  awoke  on 
June  18,  he  remembered  it  was  the  anniversary  of  tlie  battle  of 
Waterloo,  and  expressed  a  pathetic  wish  to  live  over  that  day,  even 
if  he  were  never  to  see  another  sunset.  Calling  for  the  flag  which 
the  Duke  of  Wellington  always  sent  him  on  that  anniversary,  he 
laid  his  hand  upon  the  eagle  which  adorned  it,  and  said  he  felt 
revived  by  the  touch. 

The  flags  and  standards  taken  in  battle,  which  were  removed  from 

1  A.  A.  -  Guide  to  Windsor. 


IIG         Tin-:  svmi'.kls.  standakds.  and  I'.an.nkiis 

the  Hotel  des  Invalides  on  the  approach  of  the  i'russian  army  in 
187U,  and  phiced  in  safety  at  Brest,  were  in  1871  restored  to  thoir 
old  places  about  tlie  tomb  of  Napoleon  I.,  or  in  the  chajiel.  Their 
number  is  luit  small,  for  in  1814  the  governor  of  Les  Invalides 
ordered  the  whole  collection  ttj  be  Imrnt,  to  save  it  from  the  enemy. 
At  that  time,  the  chapel  alone  contained  sixteen  hundred  of  these 
trophies  of  the  triumphs  of  Napoleon  I.^ 

On  the  night  of  the  30th  of  March,  1814,  all  the  Ijanners  which 
hung  under  the  dome  of  the  Invalides  Mere  taken  down,  and  formed 
into  a  pile  in  the  court-yard;  the  banners  with  their  lances,  surmounted 
by  Russian,  Prussian,  and  Austrian  eagles.  Upon  them  were  thrown 
other  trophies,  such  as  the  sword  and  regal  insignia  of  Frederick  the 
Great.  The  ashes  of  this  pile  were  swept  up  and  thrown  into  the 
Seine.  The  next  day,  after  the  entry  of  the  allies,  a  Kussian  officer 
came  to  seek  the  banners,  and  General  Darmaud  showed  him  where 
they  had  been,  and  told  him  they  had  been  burnt  the  night  pre- 
vious.2  It  has  been  said  that  the  ashes  of  these  trophies  were  thrown 
into  a  cask  of  wine,  and  that  the  veterans  drank  the  mixture  to  the 
health  of  the  Emperor ;  and  that  the  sword  of  Frederick  the  Great  was 
concealed  in  the  cupola  of  the  Invalides,  and  is  now  in  the  possession 
of  a  private  gentleman. 

In  1829,  an  American  ship  entering  the  port  of  Ha^Te  with  a 
tricolored  flag  at  her  masthead  was  ordered  to  take  it  down.  Tlie 
three  colors  were  not  to  be  displayed  in  a  French  port,  even  as  a 
signal  flag.^ 

In  1830,  the  United  States  government  was  officially  notified  "  that 
the  tricolored  flag  has  been  ordered  to  be  hoisted  on  all  French  ships 
of  war  as  well  as  commerce ; "  and  in  a  circular  letter  dated  "  Navy 
Department,  Oct.  22,  1830,"  United  States  navy  officers  were  ordered 
"  to  recognize  the  same  as  the  flag  of  the  French  nation,  and  respect 
it  accordingly."  From  that  time  to  the  present  (1880)  —  through  the 
reign  of  Louis  Philippe,  King  of  the  French,  the  second  republic,  the 
second  empire,  and  now  the  third  republic  —  the  tricolor  has  continued 
to  be  the  national  ensign  of  France. 

The  eagles  introduced  into  the  French  armies  as  regimental  stand- 
ards by  Napoleon  the  Gl'eat,  and  which  were  revived  by  Napoleon  III., 
were  wrought  from  pure  gold,  and  had  an  intrinsic  value  of  about 
two  thousand  dollars.     The  ribbon  attached  to  them  was  of  silk,  five 

1  London  Times  and  New  York  Tribune,  Jul}-,  1871. 

2  Independence  Beige,  1872. 

^  Philaduli)liia  Saturday  Evening  Post,  August,  1829. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


117 


A  French  Eagle. 


inches  broad,  three  feet  long,  and  richly  embroidered.  During  the 
war  of  1870,  it  was  a  prize  much  coveted  liy 
the  soldiers  of  Iving  William's  army,  who,  it 
is  claimed,  captured  nearly  two  hundred  of 
them  in  the  successive  disastrous  defeats  of  the 
French. 

After  that  war,  the  regiments  contented  them- 
selves with  provisional  flags.    On  the  2d  of  June, 
1871,  the  war  minister  ordered  the  standards  then 
in  use  to  be  handed  o^'er  to  the  artillery,  which  was 
to  destroy  the  silk  of  the  old  flags,  and  send  the 
eagles  and  gold  fringe  to  the  domain  ofiice.     In 
exchange,  small  flags  without  inscriptions  Avere 
served  out   provisionally.      In  1876,  the  army 
owned  only  a  few  Napoleonic  eagles,  Avith  the  '  X '  cut  out,  and  some 
common  woollen  flags.     In  that  year,  by  a  decree  of 
President  ]Mc]\Iahon,  all  of  the  infantry  and  cavalry  regi- 
ments received  white,  blue,  and  red  silk  standards,  in 
the  centre  of  which,  surrounded  by  a  cornette  of  laurel 
and  oak  leaves,  was  embroidered  the  once  celebrated 
'  R.  F.'  (Republique  Francaise).      The  streamers  bore 
the  name  of  the  regiment,  division,  and  army  corps, 
and  number,  also  the  device,  "  HonnPAtr  et  'potrie." 

In  June,  1878,  the  minister  of  war  ordered  for  the 
colors  of  the  infantry,  and  standards  of  the  cavalry 
and  artillery,  of  the  French  army,  a  l)lue  staff,  sur- 
mounted by  a  small  rectangular  block,  like  the  ped- 
estal for  the  Pioman  eagle,  bearing  on  one   face   the 
number  and  designation  of  the  regiment,  and  on  the 
other  the  letters  'Fi.  F.'      In  place  of  the   imperial 
eagle  a  gilt  laurel  wreath  surmounts  this,  traversed  by 
a  golden  dart.     The  flag  is  of  silk,  with  a  fringe  of 
Head  of  a  French    gold.     The  colors  Were  presented  in  September,  1878, 
standard,  1878.      ^^^  ^  great  national  festival,  to  the  troops  composing 
the  garrison  of  Paris,  and  to  delegates  from  the  territorial  forces. 


118  Tin:  sYMr.oi.s.  stankakks.  am>  hannkhs 


A  n  loer.  lo  us* 


THF.  BO'i'KlJ  JiRXS    OF    EJJChAlW. 
lOr.O  to  1880. 


HICHARD  n. 


AD  1405     lo  160  J 


tY 


TF 


^ 


i"^ 


■WILLIAM     in. 


V.'ItDAV  m     *  MARY 


D.    1707   lo  I7lt 


A  D.  1714      to    1801 


AD  ISie     to   1637 


H  M.    THE  QTJEF.N. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND   MODERN   NATIONS.  119 


BEITISH   SYMBOLS,   STAN"DAEDS,   AND   FLAGS. 

The  Standaeds  and  Banners  of  Ancient  Britain,  England,  Ire- 
land, Scotland,  and  G-eeat  Britain,  from  the  Eoman  Con- 
quest,  AND   under    the    SaXONS,    DaNES,    AND    XOR.MANS,   TO    THE 

Eeign  OF  Queen  Victoria. 

Julius  Csesar,  having,  B.C.  55,  conquered  the  southeast  of  Britain, 
sent  to  the  Eoman  senate  the  standards  of  seven  British  kings.  From 
Latin  records,  traditions,  and  ancient  pictures  it  is  ascertained  that 
the  allied  petty  kings  fought  under  ensigns  exhibiting  the  figures  of 
animals  abounding  in  their  provinces.  The  ram,  ewe,  hind,  and 
grouse,  which  abounded  in  the  southeast  of  the  island,  were  the 
typical  signs  on  the  standards  of  that  region.  The  stag,  goat,  cor- 
morant, and  the  golden  eagle  of  the  mountains  of  Cambria,  represented 
the  southwest.  The  wolf,  beaver,  and  black  eagle  were  the  character- 
istics of  the  northeastern  provinces.  The  wild  boar,  bear,  vulture, 
and  raven  were  the  symbolic  tokens  of  the  woody  countries  of  the 
northwest.  These  badges  were  represented  on  targets  and  quivers, 
made  of  osier  twigs  covered  with  white  leather,  and  were  hoisted 
as  ensigns.  Such  were  the  primitive  standards  of  the  ancient 
Britons. 

Cacibelan,  King  of  Colchester,  B.C.  54,  being  vanquished  by  Ctesar, 
became  tributary  to  Eome,  and  presented  Cfesar  with  a  brigandine, 
or  royal  coat  of  arms,  ornamented  with  pearls  of  the  country,  which 
was  sent  to  Eome  and  consecrated  to  Venus.  That  war-dress,  imitated 
from  the  Oriental  coat  of  mail,  with  scales,  exhibited 
shells  and  fishes,  a  brigantine,  a  boat,  and  a  beaver,  em- 
blems of  the  Brigantes,  who  also  depicted  a  bear  on  their 
targets.  The  British  pennons,  banners,  and  flags  of  this 
time  were  of  woollen  cloth  or  white  leather.  Emblems 
were  also  engraven  on  iron  arms  and  wooden  weapons, 
as  clubs  and  staves.  These  last  have  been  the  type  of  a 
staff  or  mace  bearing  the  royal  arms,  which  is  still  car- 
ried by  British  peace-officers. 

A  Eoman  prefect  governed  London,  a.d.  44,  assisted 

by  a  pnetor  or  judge.    These  magistrates  had  over  their 

Arms  of  London,    tribunal  or  judgment-seat  a  Phrygian  cap,  bearing  the 

monogram,  S.  P.  Q.  E. ;  the  staff  wliich  supported  the 

cap  was  blue,  the  color  of  the  Eoman  people  and  army,  and  purple, 

representing  the  Eoman  senate  and  nobility ;  these  colors  were  dis- 


120  IlIK    SV.MlJdl.S,    STAM>Al;i>S.    AM)    I'.ANNKKS 

posed  like  two  twisted  viblxins.  I'.y  imUiii^  on  tlie  '  lil)eity  cap,'  the 
prefect  was  empowered  to  free  any  slave  The  'sword  of  mercy'  and 
cliil)  of  Hercules  also  figured  in  the  armorial  hearings  of  the  city  under 
the  lioman  prefects. 

The  Emperor  Trajan,  waging  war  in  tlurgistan,  a.h.  1)8  to  117,  cap- 
tured a  standard  exhibiting  a  dragon  struck  down  Ly  a  horseman. 
He  adopted  it  as  his  ensign,  and  had  it  hoisted  in  all  the  provinces  of 
his  empire.  The  Georgian  chevalier  trampling  on  the  dragon  was 
hence  borne  on  the  ensign  and  on  the  breast})lates  of  the  Ifoman 
officers,  and  waved  on  citadels  and  towns  all  over  Britain.  The  Em- 
peror Valentiuian  III.,  a.d.  42G-440,  having  recalled  his  legions  from 
the  south  of  P.ritain  to  resist  an  invasion  of  barliarians,  tlie  Saxons 
raided  upon  the  southern  coasts,  and  the  forlorn  liritains  armed  in 
self-defence,  and  hoisted  the  standard  of  Trajan,  which  they  conse- 
crated to  Albion,  the  first  patronal  god  of  the  isle.  Thence  Alljion 
was  depicted  as  a  chevalier  on  a  white  horse,  trampling  on  the  dragon ; 
and  many  cities  adopted  that  badge  as  an  emblem  for  their  fortified 
gates. 

The  Hibernian  or  Irish  harp  was  adopted  by  Constance  Chlorus 
on  his  return  from  the  conquest  of  Hibernia,  a.d.  301. 

The  evacuation  of  the  Eomans  was  followed  by  the  invasion  of  the 
Anglo-Saxons  and  Jutlanders,  a.d.  449,  under  Hengist,  whose  brother 
Horsa  was  killed  on  the  field  of  battle.  Horsa  had  adopted  for  his 
ensign  the  war-horse  of  Odin,  the  northern  god  of  war ;  and  Hengist 
set  up  the  ambling  horse  of  Odin  as  his  standard  over  a  newly  con- 
quered city,  which  received  the  name  of  Canterbury,  and  became  the 
capital  of  the  kingdom  of  Kent,  of  which  Hengist  was  the  first  king. 
The  horse  rampant,  an  attitude  known  as  the  '  canter,'  or  '  Canterbury 
gallop,'  has  been  ever  since  the  ensign  of  the  county  of  Kent. 

The  city  of  Glastonbury,  a.d.  408-510,  bore  the  standard  of  tlie 
Eoman  dragon,  of  a  red  color,  allusive  to  Tor,  the  god  of  fire.^ 

In  the  Anglo-Saxon  poem  of  'Boewulf,'  supposed  to  have  been 
written  in  the  tenth  century,  we  read,  "  Then  to  Beowulf  he  gave  a 
golden  banner."  St.  Oswald,  who  fell  fighting  in  defence  of  Christi- 
anity against  Penda,  Lincolnshire,  was  buried  at  Bardney  Abbey,  a.d. 
642,  gorgeously  enshrined,  with  a  banner  of  gold  and  purple,  paly 
or,  bendy,  suspended  over  his  remains.  The  Picts  regarded  with  rev- 
erence the  banner  called  Brcchannoch,  from  its  association  with  St. 
Columb,  their  spiritual  father.  The  keeper  of  this  sacred  relic  had 
lands  assigned  him  for  its  custody. 

1  Brunet's  Regal  Armorie. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        121 

Ossian  mentions  the  standard  of  the  kings  and  chiefs  of  clans,  and 
says  that  the  king's  was  bine,  studded  with  gold,  and  having  on  it  a 
white  horse.  The  Anglo-Saxon  ensign  was  very  grand :  it  had  on  it 
a  white  horse,  as  the  Danish  was  distinguished  by  a  raven.  William, 
the  Conqueror  sent  Harold's  standard,  captured  at  the  battle  of  Hast- 
ings, which  bore  the  device  of  a  dragon,  to  the  Pope.  His  own  stand- 
ard was  sumptuously  embroidered  with  gold  and  precious  stones,  in 
the  form  of  a  man  fighting.  When  he  sailed  for  England,  the  white 
banner,  consecrated  by  Pope  Alexander  II.  expressly  for  the  occasion, 
was  hoisted  at  the  masthead  of  the  ship  on  which  he  was  embarked. 
The  device  assigned  Arthur,  the  mythic  king  of  Britain  in  the  sixth 
century,  is  azure,  —  three  crowns  proper,  —  and  over  this  the  motto, 
'  Trois  en  un.'  King  Arthur's  shield  forms  the  centre  of  the  star  of 
the  Bath. 

Arthgal,  the  first  Earl  of  Warwick,  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
knights  of  the  Bound  Table.  '  Arth,'  or  '  ISTarth,'  signifies  a  bear,  and 
one  of  his  descendants  is  said  to  have  slain  a  giant  who  encountered 
him,  with  a  tree  torn  up  by  the  roots ;  hence  the  cognizance  of  the 
'bear  and  ragged  staff,'  which  is  at  least  as  old  as  the  fifteenth 
century.  The  House  of  Orleans  and  Dukes  of  Burgundy  bore  the 
same  device. 

A  particular  account  of  the  standards  of  the  successive  rulers  of 
Britain  may  be  found  in  Sir  Winston  Churchill's  curious  work,  '  Divi 
Brittanici,'  also  in  Brunet's  '  Eegal  Armorie  of  Great  Britain.' 

The  origin  of  the  standard  of  the  three  saxes  or  swords  of 
Essex,  A.D.  530,  is  thus  explained :  The  Roman  Empire  was  invaded 

in  the  second  century  by  a  tribe  of 
Goths  wearing  a  crooked  sabre  called 
'  saex,'  from  which  the  tribe  derived  the 
name  of  '  Saxons.'  These  Saxons  con- 
quered that  part  of  Germany  washed  by 
the  Elbe,  which  they  named  '  Saxony.' 
Then,  uniting  with  the  Jutes  and  An- 
^«^^3^:^S^aHK^^^^^?s»    gjgg^  they  became  powerful  pirates  or 

The  Three  Saxes  or  Swords  of  Essex.         sCa-kingS,  and  COUquered  thrCC    CautOUS 

in  Britain,  which  they  erected  into  kingdoms,  named  '  South- Sax,' 
'  East-Sax,'  and  '  West-Sax,'  —  that  is  to  say,  the  Saxons  of  the  south, 
east,  and  west,  —  whose  contractions  are  Sussex,  Essex,  and  Wessex. 
The  chiefs  or  kings  of  these  cantons  having  formed  an  alliance,  hoisted 
a  standard  bearing  three  saxes  or  swords  as  an  emblem  of  their  triple 
union  and  common  origin.     The  three  swords  of  the  Saxon  standard 


122  THE    .SYMli(»L.S,    .S'lANDAKl*.-,    AM)    UANNLKS 

were  damasceued  with  Gothic  hieiu;4lyphics,  and  iliuir  tyi»i.'  has  been 
preserved  in  the  armorial  bearings  of  Ivssex. 

Edill'rid,  \.i).  5*J2-G1G,  a  Saxon  king  of  ]5ernicia,  in  the  nortli  <>!' 
Northumberknd,  liad  a  standard  called  the  'tufa,'  which  exhibited  a 
bear,  a  Koman  emblem  of  the  polestar  and  the  ancient  ensign  of  War- 
wick, the  capital  of  Bernicia.  The  bear  was  also  the  device  on  the 
streamer  of  Bangor,  iu  AVales.^ 

The  Anglo-Saxons  estal)lislied  eight  kingdoms  in  I>ritain,  l»ut 
Edwin,  the  successor  of  EdiliVid,  united  the  kingd(jms  of  Bernicia  and 
Decia,  by  the  name  of  the  kingdom  of  Northumberland,  and  assumed 
the  title  of  Bretwalda,  or  ruler  of  Britain,  as  presiding  at  the  Witeu- 
agemote,  or  parliament  of  the  heptarchy.  The  standard  of  the  Bret- 
walda was  a  bear,  which  was  stamped  on  a  coin  that  had  currency  all 
over  Britain.^  He  was  the  first  Christian  king  of  Northumberland, 
and,  falling  in  battle,  a.d.  Oct.  12,  633,  was  canonized,  and  became  St. 
Edwin.  Not  only  in  war  was  his  standards  (vexilla)  borne  before 
him,  but  in  peace  he  was  preceded  by  his  '  signifier,'  and  also  when  he 
walked  the  streets  had  a  standard  borne  before  him  which  the  Eo- 
mans  called  'tufa,'  and  the  Angles,  'turef,'  being  a  tuft  of  feathers 
affixed  to  a  spear.- 

A  great  battle  was  fought,  a.d.  742,  at  Burford,  in  Oxfordshire, 
when  the  golden  dragon,  the  standard  of  Wessex,  was  victorious  over 
Ethelbald,  the  King  of  Mercia. 

Egbert  (a.d.  827-837),  King  of  Wessex,  who  dissolved  the  heptai-chy 
and  temporarily  united  the  seven  kingdoms  in  one,  assumed  the  title 
of  '  King  of  the  Anglo-Saxons,'  and  spread  the  red  dragon  of  Wessex 
as  the  national  standard  throughout  his  whole  dominion.  This  re- 
puted standard  of  King  Arthur,  as  dear  to  the  Anglo-Saxons  as  to  the 
Britons,  became  the  standard  of  Winchester,  the  capital  of  Egbert's 
kingdom. 

Among  the  Saxon  kings  of  England  there  were  two  who  were  re- 
XJUted  saints  :  Edmund  the  Martyr,  a.d.  975,  and  Edward  the  Confes- 
sor, A.D.  1042  ;  and  these,  with  St.  George,  are  the  three  patron  saints  of 
England.  The  banners  of  these  saints  accompanied  the  English  army, 
and  waved  over  the  fields  where  the  Edwards  and  Henrys  fought. 

St.  Edmund's  banner  is  considered  to  have  been  azure,  three 
crowns  or,  two  and  one,  the  same  as  the  badge  assigned  Arthur ;  but, 
from  the  description  by  Lydgate,  two  banners  were  appropriated  to 
him,  of  which  drawings  are  given  in  that  writer's  work, — one  of  them 
that  mentioned  above. 

1  Brunet's  Eegal  Annorie.  '   ^  Stevenson's  Notes. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        123 

"  Over  he  [the  kmg] ,  seyde  Lady  Hevene  Quene, 
Myu  own  bauer,  with  here  shall  he." 

''This  other  standard,  feeld  stable  off  colour  yude, 
In  which  off  Gold  been  notable  crownys  thre, 
The  first  tokne  in  cronycle  men  may  fynde 
Graunted  to  hym  for  Royal  dignyte, 
And  tlie  second  for  virgynyte  ; 
For  martirdam,  the  thrydde  in  his  suffryng 
To  these  annexyd  ffeyth,  hope,  and  charyte, 
In  tokne  he  was  martyr  mayde  and  kyng. 
These  thre  crownys  Kyng  Edmund  bar  certeyn, 
Whan  he  was  sent  be  grace  off  Goddis  bond 
At  Geynesburnh  for  to  slen  Kyng  Sweyn." 

"By  which  myracle  men  may  understond 
Delyvered  was  from  trybut  all  thys  loud 
Mawgre  Danys  in  full  notable  wyse ; 
For  the  hooly  martyr  dissolvyd  hath  that  bond, 
Set  this  Region  ageyn  in  his  franchise." 

"  These  thre  crownys  history  aly  t'  aplye.     Applieado 
By  pronostyk  nobally  sovereyne 
To  sixte  Herry  in  fygur  signefye 
How  he  is  born  to  worthy  crownys  tweyne, 
Off  France  and  England,  lynealy  t'  atteyne 
In  this  lyff  beer,  afterward  in  hevene 
The  thrydde  crowne  to  receyve  in  certeyne 
For  his  merits  above  the  sterry  swene." 

The  other  represented  Eve  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  and  the  serpent 
tempting  her. 

"  The  feeld  powdered  with  many  hevenly  steiTe 

And  halft'  cressantis  off  gold  ful  bright  and  cleer ; 
And  when  that  evere  he  journeyde  nyh  or  ferre, 
Ny  in  the  feeld,  with  hym  was  this  baneer." 

**  This  hooly  standard  hath  power  and  vertu 
To  stanche  fyres  and  stoppe  tlawmys  rede 
By  mp-acle,  and  who  that  kan  take  heede 
God  grantyd  it  hym  for  a  prerogatyff." 

"  This  vei-tuous  baner  shal  kopen  and  conserve 
This  loud  from  enmyes  dante  ther  cruel  pryde 
Off  syxte  Herry,  the  noblesse  to  preserve 
It  shaU  be  borne  in  werrys  by  his  syde."  ^ 

^  Retrospective  Re^-iew,  2d  series,  vol.  1. 


124  illK    SYMl'.oLS,    STANDAKDS.    AND    r.ANNKKS 

Tlie  banners  ol'  St.  Edmund  or  St.  Edward  do  not  occur  in  any  of 
the  illuminations  of  the  chronicles  or  other  manuscripts  in  the  Brit- 
ish ^luseum ;  and  the  only  proof  of  their  being  used  so  late  as 
the  reign  of  Henry  V.,  other  than  the  allusion  to  the  banner  (»f  St. 
Edmund,  by  Lydgate,  who  wrote  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  V.  and  VI., 
are  the  statements  of  contemporary  chronicders.  Le  Fevre,  Seigneur 
de  St.  Henry,  in  his  account  of  the  battle  of  Agincourt,  informs  us 
that  Henry  had  five  banners ;  viz.,  the  banner  of  the  Trinity,  the  ban- 
ner of  St.  George,  the  banner  of  St.  Edward,  and  the  banner  of  his 
own  arms.  This  list  enumerates  but  four,  the  fifth  was  probably  one 
of  the  banners  of  St.  Edmund.  The  lianner  of  the  Trinity,  we  infer 
from  a  painting  of  the  arms  of  the  Trinity  in  Canterbury  Cathedral, 
was  "  Guiles  an  orle  and  pale,  argent,  inscribed  with  the  Trinity  in 
Unity."  Lydgate  says  the  fifth  banner  alluded  to  by  St.  Eemy  was 
that  of  the  Virgin  ]\Iary.  After  enumerating  the  banners  of  St.  George, 
the  Trinity,  and  St.  Edward,  he  adds :  "  The  device  on  the  banner  of 
St.  Edward  the  Confessor  was,  without  doubt,  the  cross  and  martlets, 
as  they  are  carved  iu  stone  in  Westminster  Abbey,  where  he  is 
buried,  and  which  Eichard  II.  impaled  with  his  own,  as  may  be  seen 
by  the  banner  of  that  king  on  the  monumental  brass  of  Sir  Simon  de 
Felkrig,  his  standard-bearer,  at  Felkrig,  in  Norfolk."  ^  Arms  were 
invented  for  Edward  the  Confessor  in  the  time  of  Edward  I.  The 
Anglo-Norman  heralds  were  probably  guided  in  their  choice  by  a  coin 
of  that  monarch,  upon  the  reverse  of  which  appears  a  plain  cross  with 
four  birds,  one  in  each  angle.  The  arms  as  then  blazoned  are  azure, 
a  cross  flory,  between  five  martlets  or,  and  formed  the  standard  of  St. 
Edward  as  usually  displayed  by  the  English  monarchs  down  to  the 
fifteenth  century .^ 

The  Danes,  a.d.  1000,  under  the  command  of  Sweyn,  conquered 
England,  and  unfurled  their  standard  of  the  raven.  A  black  raven 
was  exhibited  on  the  royal  shield  and  banner  on  a  silver  ground. 

Canute,  King  of  England  and  Denmark,  having  conquered  Xorway, 
hoisted  the  Norwegian  lion,  —  a  golden  lion  rampant,  with  a  battle- 
axe,  represented  on  an  azure  shield,  strewn  with  red  hearts,  and  bear- 
ing the  three  crowns  of  England,  Denmark,  and  Xorway. 

Edward  the  Confessor,  on  his  accession,  a.d.  1040,  changed  the  royal 
seal  bearing  a  black  raven  to  a  white  falcon.  Tlie  king  kept  a  tame 
falcon,  which  was  represented  on  his  sceptre,  and  has  since  been  con- 
verted into  a  dove. 

The  ensign  of  Eolla,  the  first  Duke  of  Normandy,  bore  a  leopard, 

^  Boutell's  Heraldry.  ^  Eetrospective  Review,  2d  series,  vol.  i. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        125 

the  emblem  of  the  iSTorthmen.  AVhen  Maine  was  annexed  to  Nor- 
mandy, a  second  leopard  was  added  to  the  Norman  standard,  and  nn- 
furled  at  Mans,  the  capital  of  Maine.  AYilliam  the  Conqueror,  in 
1066,  introduced  the  two  leopards  as  the  royal  standard  of  Britain ; 
his  personal  standard  represented  a  man  fighting.  The  dragon,  the 
standard  of  the  West  Saxons,  was  Harold's  standard  at  Hastings ;  a 
winged  dragon  on  a  pole  is  constantly  represented  near  his  person  on 
the  Bayeux  tapestry.  And  Eichard  I.  (Creur  de  Lion),  in  1190,  seeing 
that  no  Western  nation  had  adopted  the  legend  and  name  of  St.  George 
and  the  dragon,  selected  it  as  the  type  of  his  intended  exploits,  and  on 
his  return  from  the  crusade,  1223,  instituted  the  festival  of  St.  George. 
Henry  III,  1264,  at  the  battle  of  Lewes,  and  Edward  I.,  in  Wales, 
fought  under  the  dragon.  It  was  borne  in  the  battle  between  Canute 
and  Edmund  Ironsides,  1016.  Edward  III.,  also,  at  the  battle  of 
Cressy,  1346,  had  a  standard  "  with  a  dragon  of  red  silk,  adorned  and 
beaten  with  very  fair  lilies  of  gold."  And  Henry  VII.'s  standard  at 
Bosworth,  1485,  was  a  red  dragon  upon  a  green  and  white  silk. 

The  banners  of  the  sovereigns  of  England,  from  the  Conquest  up  to 
the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  bore  their  family  devices,  when  the  last 
brilliant  relics  of  the  feudal  system,  the  joust,  the  tournament,  and  all 
their  paraphernaha,  fell  into  disuse. 

The  standard  of  William  Eufus,  1087,  bore  a  young  eagle  gazing 
at  the  sun,  with  the  motto,  " Pcrfcro,"  —  "I  endure  it." 

Pope  Urban  II.,  in  1096,  proclaimed  the  first  crusade,  and  gave  as 
a  war-cry,  " Dieu  le  veut,"  —  "God  wills  it."  In  that  holy  war,  the 
noble  crusaders,  wearing  cuirasses  and  iron  masks,  which  concealed 
their  features,  adopted  various  ensigns  for  recognizance  on  the  field  of 
battle.  These  standards,  banneroUs,  and  streamers  exhibited  suggestive 
figures  and  rebuses  for  rallying  the  troops ;  and  these  mottoes  or  war- 
cries  from  that  time  became  surnames,  and,  with  the  devices,  Avere 
exhibited  on  the  crests  of  helmets  and  on  various  parts  of  the  armor. 
Until  this  century,  the  Oriental  armorial  bearings  adopted  by  the  na- 
tions of  Western  Europe  were  only  worn  by  kings,  princes,  dukes,  and 
marquises,  or  displayed  upon  the  fortified  gates  of  cities.  On  the 
return  of  the  first  crusaders  they  were  introduced  and  propagated 
among  the  nobility,  clergy,  and  gentry,  who  called  them  family  arms. 
Thus  originated  the  modern  system  of  heraldry. 

Stephen  of  Blois,  grandson  of  WiUiam  the  Conqueror  by  his 
daughter  Adel,  1135-1154,  adopted  for  his  banner  the  sagittary,  an 
emblem  of  hunting,  and  the  ensign  of  the  city  of  Blois,  whence  he 
derived  his  title  of  Count  of  Blois. 


ll'G 


nil:  s^.Mnoi.s.  srAM>Ai;i>s.  .\m»  1'.a.\m;i:s 


.1-    or   Ul.Ol.llhr. 


Henry  II.,  1154-118*.»,  surnaiiiod  'The  rianlai^enet,'  succeeded  Ste- 
phen, and  adopted  the  green  l>ruoni,  or  riantc  Gnut  ("II  'portoit  viuj 
G-cnnclt  cntre  deux  Plantcs  dc  Gcncstc"),  fur  his  device.  The  .sur- 
name came  from  his  father,  Geoffrey,  Count 
of  Anjou,  who,  having  committed  a  crime, 
punished  himself  by  flagellation  with  birches 
of  green  broom,  and  wore  a  branch  of  it  on 
his  helmet  in  sign  of  his  humility  and  pen- 
ance. Henry  II.  married  Eleanor  of  Guy- 
enne,  who  brouglit  him  the  duchy  of  that 
name.  Tlie  arms  of  Bordeaux,  its  ca])ital, 
having  a  golden  lion,  that  charge  was  mar- 
shalled with  the  two  leopards  on  the  es- 
cutcheon of  England.  From  tlie  conquest 
of  Ireland  by  Henry  11.,  1172,  up  to  Henry 
\'I1I.,  the  kings  of  England  styled  them- 
selves '  viceroys  of  Ireland.' 
Eichard  I.,  1189-1199,  bore  several  devices  on  his  shields  and  ban- 
ners ;  viz.,  a  star,  probably  of  Bethlehem,  issuing  from  the  horns  of  a 
crescent,  in  token  of  his  victories  over  the  Turks;  a  mailed  hand 
holding  a  shivered  lance,  with  the  motto,  "  Lahor  vivis  convcait ;  "  a 
sun  or,  and  two  anchors,  —  motto,  "  Christo  duce."  ^  Engaging  in  the 
third  crusade,  he  carried  a  white  Latin  cross  on  his  banner.  The 
Christian  nations  of  Europe,  following  that  crusader,  carried  either 
Grecian,  Armenian,  or  Latin  crosses  on  their  banners ;  viz.,  France,  a 
red  cross ;  Flanders,  a  green  cross ;  Germany,  a  black  cross ;  Italy,  a 
yellow  cross.  On  assuming  the  title  of  '  King  of  Jerusalem,'  Eichard 
hoisted  the  banner  of  the  lion  of  that  holy  city,  —  the  dormant  lion  of 
Judah,  the  badge  of  David  and  Solomon,  kings  of  Jerusalem  from  the 
tribe  of  Judah.  Thencefortli  Eicliard  ol)tained  the  surname  of  '  Cceur 
de  Lion,'  either  for  his  lion,  or  his  great  achievements  against  the  in- 
fidels. On  the  second  seal  of  this  king  is  the  first  representation  of 
the  three  lions  or  leopards,  which  from  that  time  have  contintied  on 
the  royal  arms  and  banners  of  England. 

In  1838,  the  tomb  of  Eichard  was  discovered  in  Eouen  cathedral. 
The  recumbent  effigy  of  the  king  has  a  dormant  lion  at  his  feet.  The 
armorists  of  later  centuries,  ignorant  of  the  Norman  leopards,  repre- 
sented Eichard  with  three  lions  passant. 

John  and  Henry  III.,  1199-1272,  bore  the  star  and  crescent,  and 
John  was  the  first  to  add  Doniinus  Hibernice  to  tlie  royal  titles.    AYlien 
1  Boutell's  Heraldry,  and  Historical  Badges  and  Devices. 


OF  A^X^IEXT  AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


127 


Isabella,  the  sister  of  Henry  III.,  married  Frederic  II.,  Emperor  of 
Germany,  the  Emperor  sent  Henry  a  live  leopard  in  token  of  the 
British  armorial  bearings,  which  were  still  the  two  leopards  of  Wil- 
liam the  Conqueror.  Henry  III.  then  altered  the  standard  of  his 
father  John  by  adding  a  third  leopard,  as  a  device  of  his  imperial 

alliance.  When,  later,  Henry 
was  beaten  at  Guyenne  and 
fled  to  England,  the  French 
made  rebuses,  in  which  the 
weak  monarch  was  represented 
as  a  retreating  leopard.  When' 
Henry  the  Third's  daughter 
Margaret  was  married  to  Al- 
exander, of  Scotland,  in  1252, 
her  robe  was  embroidered  with 
three  leopards  on  the  front  and 
three  on  the  back.^ 

A  mandate  of  Henry  III. 
to  Edward  Fitzode,  in  1244, 
directed  him  to  cause  a  dragon 
to  be  made  in  the  fashion  of  a 
standard,  of  red  silk,  sparkling 
all  over  with  gold,  the  tongue  of  which  should  be  made  to  resemble 
flaming  fire,  and  appear  to  be  continually  moving,  and  the  eyes  of 
sapphires  or  other  suitable  stones,  and  to  place  it  in  the  church  ot 
St.  Peter,  at  Westminster,  against  the  king's  coming  there ;  and  the 
king  being  informed  of  the  cost,  it  should  be  defrayed.^  Tliis  standard 
is  mentioned  in  Dart's  '  History  of  AVestminster  Abbey.' 

That  this  standard  was  sometimes  sent  forth  to  battle  may  be  pre- 
sumed, as  it  is  stated  that  at  the  battle  of  Lewes,  1264,  a  dragon 
standard  was  borne  before  King  Henry  III. ;  and  at  a  much  earlier 
battle,  between  Edmund  Ironside  and  Canute,  it  is  stated,  "  Putjis 
locus  erat  inter  Draconeni  et  standarum.^ 

Edward  I.,  1272-1307,  was  the  first  English  monarch  who  assumed 
a  rose  for  his  device,  a  golden  rose,  stalked  proper  or  vert.  When 
Eleanor,  the  wife  of  Edward  I.,  followed  him  to  the  last  crusade, 
Edward  hoisted  the  three  leopards  of  his  father,  Henry  III.,  whilst 


Margaret,  Daughter  of  Henry  III.,  in  her  Wedding 
Garments,  1252. 


1  Bninet,  Boutell,  Harlean  MS.,  &c.     I  have  a  pliotograph  of  Isabella  II.,  of  Spain, 
in  which  her  dress  is  covered  with  castles  and  lions. 

-  Excerpta  Historica  ;  or,  Illustrations  of  English  History.     London,  1833. 
3  Retrospective  Review. 


128  TllK   SYMI'.oLS.    SIANhAKDS,    AND    I'.ANNKHS 

Eleauor  unfuilod  the  hauiier  of  the  lion  in  repose,  —  an  emhleni  of 
Leon,  in  Spain,  'wliieli  was  her  Lirtliplace. 

The  chronicler  of  Caerlaverock  describes  the  royal  banner  ol 
Edward  I.  after  this  characteristic  niaiiucr:  "On  liis  l)aniier  wciv 
three  leopards,  couraut,  of  fine  g<jld,  set  on  red  ;  tierce  were  they, 
hanghty  and  cruel,  thus  placed  to  signify  that,  like  them,  the  kinii 
is  dreadful  to  his  enemies.  Fur  his  bite  is  slight  t(j  none  tliat  in- 
llame  his  anger;  and  yet,  towards  such  as  seek  his  iViend>]ii])  or  suli- 
mit  to  his  power,  his  kindness  is  soon  rekindled."  ^ 

The  royal  banners  of  England,  from  the  time  of  Edward,  have  borne 
the  same  blazonry  as  the  royal  shield.     Edward  III.  placed  on  his 

(standards  his  quartered  shield  at  their 
bszs^^ar-r— — _  head,  and  powdered   them   with   fleur- 

de-lis  and  lions.  Drawings  of  many 
of  these  banners  and  standards  are 
preserved  in  Herald's  College.  The 
English  sovereigns,  in  addition  to  the 
banner  of  their  royal  arms,  used  ban- 
ners and  standards  charged  Avith  their 
badges.  The  royal  banner  f»f  arms 
charged  their  insignia  upon  the  entire 
standard  of  Edward  III..  1337.  fiekrwitliout  accessories,  uutll  the  time 
of  the  Stuarts,  when  the  arms  were  sometimes  associated  with  other 
devices,  or  the  flag  bore  the  entire  royal  achievement  charged  upon 
the  centre  of  its  field.  Examples  of  royal  standards  thus  emblazoned 
appear  in  the  pictures  at  Hampton  Court,  representing  the  embarka- 
tion of  Charles  II.,  in  1660,  and  of  William  III.,  in  1688.  Of  late 
years  the  royal  standard  is  a  square  flag,  blazoned  with  the  arms  of 
the  United  Kingdom  over  the  whole  field. 

Edward  III.,  1327-1377,  bore  silver  clouds  proper,  with  descend- 
iuo-  rays;  also  a  blue  boar,  with  his  tusks  and  his  'clies'  and  his 
members  of  gold.  He  was  the  first  monarch  that  used  the  English 
vernacular  dialect  in  a  motto.  His  standard,  as  given  by  Sir  Charles 
Barker,  is  the  lion  of  Eugland  in  a  field  semee  of  rising  suns  and 
crowns  ;  motto,  "  I)icu  ct  moii  droit." 

He  first  quartered  the  fleur-de-lis  of  France,  1337,  with  the  three 
leopards  of  England,  and  for  the  first  time  the  lion  passant  gardant 
bearing  a  crown  as  a  crest,  as  it  is  continued  on  the  royal  standard 
and  arms.  His  standard  erected  at  Cressy  was  of  red  silk  embroid- 
ered with  lilies  of  gold.    When  Edward  III.  did  homage  to  Philip  YL, 

1  Sie^'e  of  Caerlaverock. 


OF  A^X1EXT   AND   MODERN   NATIONS.  129 

of  France,  at  Amiens,  1329,  for  the  dukedom  of  Guyenne,  he  wore 
a  robe  of  crimson  velvet,  with  three  leopards  embroidered  in  gold 
and  silver.  The  King  of  France  wore  a  blue  robe.  When  Edward 
assumed  the  title  of  '  King  of  France,'  he  wore  a  robe  and  mantle  of 
blue,  and  created  a  j)ursuivant  or  herald,  called  '  manteau  Ueu'  or 
blue  mantle. 

It  is  a  matter  of  familiar  history  that  Edward  III.,  on  laying  claim 
to  the  French  crown,  quartered  the  French  lilies  with  the  English 
lions ;  and  that,  from  some  affectation  which  we  may  wonder  at  but 
cannot  interpret,  he  placed  the  lilies  in  the  first,  or  honorable,  quarter. 
That  the  lions  were  heraldically  put  in  the  secondary  place  is  certain. 
Macaulay  has  elegantly  interpreted  the  position  thus  :  — 

"  Look  how  the  lion  of  the  sea  lifts  up  his  ancient  crown, 
And  underneath  his  deadly  paw  treads  the  gay  lilies  down. 
So  stalked  he  when  he  turned  to  flight,  on  that  famed  Picard  field, 
Bohemia's  plume,  Genoa's  bow,  and  Caesar's  eagle  shield ; 
So  glared  he  when,  at  Agincourt,  in  wrath  he  turned  to  bay. 
And  crushed  and  torn  beneath  liis  claws  the  princely  liunters  lay." 

Edward  the  Black  Prince  bore  for  his  device  "a  sunne  arysing 
out  of  the  cloudes,  betokening  that,  although  his  noble  courage  and 
princely  valour  had  hitherto  been  hid  and  obscured  from  the  world, 
now  he  was  arysing  to  glory  and  honnor  in  France." 

The  cherished  and  popular  belief  is  that  the  crest  and  motto  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales  was  won  by  the  Black  Prince  at  Cressy. 

*'  There  lay  the  trophy  of  our  chivalry 

Plumed  of  his  ostrich  feathers,  which  the  Prince 
Took  as  the  ensign  of  his  victory, 

Which  he  did  after  weare,  and  ever  since 
The  Prince  of  Wales  doth  that  achievement  beare, 
WMch  Edward  first  did  win  by  conquest  there."  '■ 

"  From  the  Bohemian  crown  the  plume  he  wears, 
Which  after  for  his  credit  he  did  preserve 
To  his  father's  use,  with  this  fit  word,  '  I  serve.'' "  ^ 

But  this  tradition  is  not  supported  by  history,  for  the  crest  of  the 
blind  King  of  Bohemia  was  not  a  plume  of  ostrich  feathers,  but  the 
wings  of  a  vulture  expanded.  On  the  other  hand,  an  ostrich  feather 
argent,  its  pen  gules,  was  one  of  the  badges  of  Edward  III.,  and 
was,  with  slight  difference,  adopted  by  the  Black  Prince,  and  by  all 
his  sons  and  their  descendants.  The  Black  Prince  used  sometimes 
three  feathers,  sometimes  one  argent.      His  brother,  John  of  Gaunt, 

1  Alleyue.  2  i3eu  Jonson. 

9 


130  THE    SV.Ml'.oI.S.    STANDARDS.    AND    I'.ANNKKS 

three  or  one  ermine,  the  stems  vr,  on  a  sal)le  grouml.  A  single 
feather  was  worn  by  liis  brother,  Thomas  of  Gloucester,  and  by  their 
nephews,  Edward,  Duke  of  York,  and  Kichard, 
I  )uke  of  Cambridge.  It  is  more  than  likely  that 
l-Mward  I.  adopted  this  crest  at  the  battle  of 
Poitiers,  joining  to  the  family  badge  the  old 
En;_;lislv  word,  ledcn  (Theyn),  /  serve,  in  accord 
with  the  words  of  the  Apostle,  "the  heir,  Avliile 
^^^*^-5!yiJ~'  he  is  a  child,  differeth  nothing  from  a  servant." 

Crest  of  ua.  Black  rrinco.  rp,^^  teatlicrs  are  placed  separately  upon  the 
tomb  of  the  Black  Prince,  in  Canterbury  Cathedral.  Tliis  I'eatlier 
badge  was  also  used  by  Piichard  II.  and  by  Henry  IV.,  before  and 
after  he  came  to  the  throne ;  by  his  brother  Humphrey,  the  good 
Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  all  the  members  of  the  Beaufort  branch. 
Henry  VI.  bore  two  feathers  in  saltire.  Three  or  one  was  adopted 
as  a  cognizance  by  his  son,  Prince  Edward,  and  was  worn  by  Warwick 
at  the  battle  of  Bar  net.  ^ 

In  1344,  during  the  reign  of  Edward  III.,  the  order  of  the  Garter 
was  instituted,  but  was  not  fully  organized,  nor  were  its  knight  com- 
panions chosen,  until  1350.  The  companions  were  twenty-five,  the 
sovereign  making  the  twenty-sixth,  witli  authority  to  nominate  the 
others.  At  first,  the  (jueen  and  the  wives  of  the  knights  shared 
the  honors  of  the  fraternity,  and  were  called  '  Dame  dc  la  Fraternity 
dc  St.  George,'  wearing  robes  and  hoods  adorned  with  the  garter. 
Charles  I.  attempted  to  revive  this  usage,  but  was  unsuccessful.  The 
original  number  of  knights  remained  unchanged  until  1786.  In  that 
year  a  statute  was  passed  fixing  the  number  at  twenty-six,  exclusive 
of  the  princes  of  the  royal  family  or  illustrious  foreigners  on  whom 
the  order  might  be  conferred.  The  Prince  of  Wales,  having  been  a 
knight  of  the  original  institution,  is  reckoned  among  the  twenty- 
six  companions.  From  time  to  time  special  statutes  have  admitted 
foreign  sovereigns.  Extra  knights  have  also  been  admitted  by  stat- 
ute. The  meetings  are  held  on  St.  George's  day  (April  23),^  in  St. 
George's  Chapel,  Windsor,  where  installations  take  place,  and  the 
banners  of  the  knights  are  suspended. 

The  motto  adopted  for  this  order,  "  Honi  soit  qui  mal  y  pense," 
Edward  III.  placed  upon  a  scroll  at  the  top  of  his  standard,  and  it 

1  Boutell's  Heraldry  ;  Hist.  Badges  and  Devices  ;  Ellis's  Heraldry  ;  The  Retrospective 
Review  ;  Bninet's  Kegal  Amiorie. 

2  The  23d  of  April  is  otlierwise  noted  as  the  anniversaries  of  tlie  birtli  of  Shakspeare 
and  of  his  death. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.       131 

has  since  remained  upon  the  scroll  of  the  British  shield,  as  well  as  on 
the  garter  of  the  sovereign,  and  of  the  knights  of  the  order. 

Eichard  II.,  son  of  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  1377-1399,  adopted 
a  white  hind,  couchant  on  a  mount,  under  a  tree  proper,  the  banner  of 
his  mother,  Joan,  surnamed  the  Fair  Maid  of  Kent,  which  appertained 
to  her  arms  previous  to  her  marriage. 

After  the  suppression  of  the  insurrection  led  by  Wat  Tyler,  King 
Eichard  changed  the  hind  into  a  white  hart,  gorged  with  a  royal 
crown  around  his  neck,  ornamented  with  the  fleur-de-lis  of  France, 
and  a  loose  golden  chain.  On  the  marriage  of  Eichard  with  Anne  of 
Luxemburg,  all  the  royal  plate  of  England  was  engraved  wath  this 
device.  In  1396,  on  his  second  marriage,  with  Isabella  of  France,  he 
adopted  a  lion  and  a  hart  as  supporters  of  the  royal  shield,  and  he 
is  the  first  monarch  whose  suj)porters  are  authenticated,  —  a  golden 
lion  gardant  stood  on  the  right  hand,  a  silver  hart  affronte,  on  the  left 
of  the  shield,  with  horns  and  hoofs  or,  bearing  a  crown  around  its 
neck,  and  a  golden  chain  hanging  down.  The  three  leopards  were 
also  then  changed  into  three  lions  Uoparde,  or  spotted.  Eichard' s 
standard  was  a  hart  with  two  suns.  He  also  used  as  supporters  to 
his  own  arms  two  angels  blowing  trumpets. 

Henry  IV.,  of  Bolingbroke  and  Lancaster,  1399-1413,  introduced 
the  red  rose  of  Edmund  of  Lancaster,  whose  daughter  was  his  mother, 

and  which  became  ever  after  the 
badge  of  the  Lancastrians,  as  opposed 
to  the  white  rose  of  York.  The  red 
rose  of  Lancaster  was  blessed  by  the 
Primate  of  England  when  he  anointed 
Henry  IV.  with  the  holy  oil  from  the 
sacred  ampulla.    He  also  had  for  cog- 

Standartl  of  Henry  IV.,  of  Bolingbroke         nizanCCS    the    antclopC    aud    the    silvcr 

and  Lancaster.  g^^.^j^g  ^f  ^Y\q  Dq  Bohuus.     The  Stand- 

ard of  Henry  IV.  of  England  had  a  swan  and  a  large  rose,  the  field 
semee  of  foxtails,  stocks  of  trees,  and  red  roses,  per  fesse  argent  and 
azure,  the  livery  colors  of  the  Lancastrians  having  at  the  head  the  red 
cross  of  St.  George  on  a  white  field. 

Henry  V,  1413-1422,  had  for  devices  an  antelope  or,  armed,  crowned, 
spotted,  and  horned  with  gold,  a  red  rose,  and  a  silver  swan.  His  sup- 
porters were  a  lion  and  antelope,  —  an  antelope  argent  being  substi- 
tuted for  the  wdiite  hart,  as  a  companion  to  the  lion  of  Aquetain.  His 
standard,  exhibiting  the  antelope  gorged  with  a  crown  and  a  golden 
chain  pendant,  was  carried  at  the  battle  of  Agincourt,  in  1415. 


132  THE   SYMBOLS,   STANDARDS,   AM)    liANNKKS 

"NVlien  Ileiiiy  V.  entered  the  lists  against  Mowbray,  Uuke  of  Nor- 
folk, his  caparisons  were  embroidered  with  the  antelope  and  swan ; 
Henry's  antelope  appeared  also  at  his  interview  A\iih  King  Charles  at 
Melun. 

"  The  king  of  England  had  a  large  tente  of  bhie  velvet  and  green, 
richly  embroidered  with  two  devices :  the  one  was  an  antelope  draw- 
ing in  a  horse  mill ;  the  other  was  an  antelope  sitting  on  a  high  stage 
with  a  branch  of  olife  in  his  mouth,  and  the  tente  was  replenished  and 
decked  with  this  poysie : "  — 

^'^  After  husie  laboure  commith  victorious  reste.^' 

He  also  used,  at  times,  a  beacon  or  cresset,  a  fleur-de-lis  crowned, 
and  a  fox's  tail.  When  Henry  V.  made  his  entry  into  Ilouen,  a  page 
carried  behind  him,  in  guise  of  a  banner,  a  fox's  tail  attached ;  and 
when  presented  to  Katherine  he  wore  in  his  helmet  a  fox's  tail  orna- 
mented with  precious  stones.  After  the  victory  of  Agiucourt  he 
assumed  the  motto,  "  Non  nobis,  domind' '^ 

After  his  marriage  with  Katherine,  daughter  of  Charles  YL,  of 
France,  Henry  V.  assumed  the  title  of  '  King  of  France,'  and  hoisted 
the  French  standard,  —  a  blue  flag  in  imitation  of  the  Oriflamme, 
strewed  with  fleur-de-lis  of  gold,  bearing  in  the  middle  a  cross  of 
scarlet  cloth. 

In  later  times,  the  Oriflamme  of  England  was  stripped  of  its  golden 
fleur-de-lis,  but  the  blue  flag  with  a  red  Latin  cross  was  preserved  as 
the  flag  of  the  British  nation.^ 

The  accession  of  Henry  V.  was  remarkaljle  for  the  revival  of  the 
Knights  of  the  Bath,  when  the  knights  attending  the  king  at  the 
Tower  of  London  bathed  themselves  in  the  Thames  M'ith  great  solem- 
nity, and  were  afterwards  arrayed  in  a  white  garment,  as  an  emblem  of 
their  revived  innocence. 

Henry  VI.,  1422-1461,  was  anointed  and  crowned  at  Paris  when 
only  nine  years  old.  His  badges,  devices,  and  supporters  were  the 
same  as  his  predecessor's.  On  his  banner  were  antelopes  and  roses. 
He  was  the  first  sovereign  to  use  the  motto,  "Dim  et  mon  Droit." 
He  also  had  for  his  devices  a  panther  passant  gardant  argent, 
spotted  with  many  colors,  with  vapor  issuing  from  his  mouth  and 
ears,  and  two  feathers  in  saltires,  the  sinister  argent  surmounted  by 
the  dexter  or. 

According  to  historic  traditions,  the  vjhite  and  red  Roses  of  York 
and  Lancaster  —  "  the  fatal  colors  of  our  striving  houses  "  —  were  first 
1  Harlean  MSS.  2  Brunet. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


133 


chosen  during  the  momentous  dispute  about  1450,  bet^veen  Somerset 

and   the  Earl  of  Warwick,  in  the  Temple  garden,  when  Somerset, 

to  collect  the   suffrage  of  the  bystanders,  jDlucked  a  red  rose,  and 

Warwick  a  white   rose,  and   each   called   upon  every   man   present 

to  declare   his  party  by  taking  a  rose  of  the  color  chosen  by  him 

whose  cause  he  favored.     This  was  the  prologue  to  the  great  national 

tragedy  which  ended  in  the  extinction  of  the  royal  line  and  name  of 

Plantagenet. 

"  This  brawl  to-day, 

G-rown  to  this  faction  in  the  Temple  garden, 
Shall  send,  between  the  red  rose  and  the  white, 
A  thousand  souls  to  death  and  deathly  night." 

King  Henry  VI.,  Part  I.  Act  ii.  so.  4. 

But  the  roses  were  only  renewed.  Both  Edw^ard  I.  and  his  brother 
Edmund  of  Lancaster  wore  the  red  rose,  which  was  taken  by  John  of 
Gaunt  on  his  marriage  with  Blanche,  the  heiress  of  Lancaster.  When 
John  of  Gaunt  adopted  the  red  rose,  his  younger  brother,  Edmund 
Langley,  Duke  of  York,  assumed  the  white  (derived  from  the  Castle  of 
Clifford),  which  he  transmitted  to  his  descendants,  the  House  of  York. 
Mr.  Planche  inclines  to  derive  the  rose  originally  from  Eleanor  of 
Provence,  queen  of  Henry  III. 

Edward  IV.,  1461-1483,  adopted  for  his  badge  a  white  lion  and  a 
white  rose,  supported  by  a  lion  and  a  bull.     The  sun  in  splendor  and 


standard  of  Edward  the  Fourth. 


sable  buU  was  another  of  his  devices.  He  also  placed  the  white  rose 
en  soldi  on  his  standard  in  commemoration  of  his  victory  at  the 
battle  of  Mortimer's  Cross,  1471,  when,  before  the  battle,  it  is  said, 
the  sun  appeared  to  Edward,  then  Earl  of  March,  "  like  three  suns, 
and  suddenly  it  joyned  altogether  in  one  ;  for  which  cause  some 
imagyne  that  he  gave  the  sun  in  its  fuU  brightness  for  his  badge  or 
comizance." 


134  Tin:   SY.MIJoLS.    STANDARDS,    AND    15ANNEKS 

■'  Ei)WAKi>.  — Dazzlf  iniiio  eyes,  <»r  do  I  soo  throo  suns? 

KiciiAKD.  —  Tlin'c  gloriuus  suus,  each  uuc  ii  iierfcct  sun; 
Not  separated  with  the  rackini;  oUnids, 
But  sevur'd  iti  a  pale  clear-shining  sky. 
Sec,  see  !  they  join,  embrace,  and  seem  to  kiss. 
As  if  they  vow'd  some  league  iuviolahlo: 
Now  are  they  but  one  lamp,  tnie  light,  one  sun ! 
In  this  the  heaven  figures  some  event. 

Edward.  — 'Tis  wondrous  strange  ;  tlie  like  yet  never  heard  of. 
I  think  it  cites  us,  brother,  to  the  field ; 
That  we,  the  sons  of  brave  Plantagenet, 
Each  one  already  blazing  by  our  meeds. 
Should,  notwithstanding,  join  our  lights  together, 
And  overshiue  the  earth,  as  this  the  world. 
Whate'er  it  bodes,  henceforward  will  I  bear 
Upon  my  target  tliree  fair  shining  suns." 

Henry  VI.,  Part  III.  Act  ii.  sc.  1. 

The  honor  of  bearing  Edward  IV.'s  standard  at  the  battle  of  Tow- 
ton  devolved  upon  Ealph  Vestynden,  afterwards  first  yeoman  of  the 
chamber,  who  had,  for  his  services  at  the  battle,  an  annuity  of  ten 
pounds  granted  to  him,  "  yerely,  unto  the  tyme  he  be  rewarded  by  us 
of  an  office."  Edward's  standard  at  that  battle  was  "  the  bull  sable, 
corned  and  trooped  or."  It  was  used  by  him  on  other  occasions,  and 
others  of  the  House  of  York,  being  the  cognizance  or  device  of  the  Clares 
(Earls  of  Gloucester),  from  whom  the  House  of  York  was  descended. 

In  1378,  Edmund,  Earl  of  Cambridge,  fourth  son  of  Edward  III., 
on  being  created  Duke  of  York  by  his  nephew,  Pdchard  II.,  assumed 
the  badge  of  a  fetter-lock,  shut,  bearing  a  falcon  within  it,  emblematic 
of  the  succession  to  the  crown,  whicli  was  locked  up  from  all  hope 
to  him.  Edward  IV.,  of  the  race  of  York,  unlocked  this  golden  fetter- 
lock, and  in  1474  gave  this  badge,  unlocked  and  open,  to  his  second 
son,  liichard,  Duke  of  York,  implying  the  hope  of  succession  open  to 
his  posterity.  There  is  a  description  of  three  standards  of  Edward  IV. 
in  'Excerpta  Historica,'  taken  from  a  manuscript  in  the  College  of 
Arms,  marked  as  compiled  between  the  years  1510  and  1525. 

Ptichard  III.,  1483-1485,  had  for  his  standard  at  the  battle  of 
Bosworth  a  dun  cow.  Having  a  blue  boar  in  his  coat  of  arms  when 
he  was  Duke  of  Gloucester,  he  introduced  it  as  a  supporter  of  the 
royal  shield,  but  changed  it  into  a  white  one.  This  boar  argent, 
with  the  bristles  and  hoofs  or,  was  placed  on  the  left  side,  opposite 
the  lion  gardant.  The  other  charges  of  his  escutcheon,  when  king, 
were  the  three  leopards,  the  fleur-de-lis,  and  the  white  rose,  rayonnee 
of  the  House  of  York. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        135 

Henry  VII.,  1485-1509.  Eichard  III.  having  been  killed  at 
Bosworth,  in  the  fourteenth  battle  between  the  two  roses,  Henry- 
Tudor,  of  the  Lancastrian  race,  the  conqueror,  was  proclaimed  king, 
by  the  name  of  Henry  VII.  He  married  his  cousin  Elizabeth,  of  York, 
the  daughter  of  Edward  IV,  and  by  this  union  the  two  rival  parties 
became  reconciled  and  the  roses  imited.  In  the  marriage  procession, 
each  partisan  of  the  Lancastrian  house  gave  his  hand  to  a  lady  of  the 
York  party,  holding  a  bouquet  of  two  roses,  red  and  white,  entwined. 
Henry  VII.  introduced  into  his  arms  a  branch  of  hawthorn,  allusive 
to  the  battle  of  Bosworth,  where  the  crown  of  Eichard  III.  was  found 
on  a  hawthorn  bush.  On  the  birth  of  Prince  Henry,  subsequently 
Henry  VIII.,  the  armorists  composed  a  rose  of  two  colors  (the  leaves 
alternately  red  and  white),  as  an  emblematical  offspring  of  the  mar- 
riage. Horticulturists  also  forced  nature  into  an  act  of  loyalty,  and 
produced  the  party-colored  flower  known  to  the  j)resent  day  as  the 
rose  of  York  and  Lancaster. 

Hutton  says,  Henry  VII.,  after  the  battle  of  Bosworth,  offered  at 
St.  Paul's  three  standards.  The  first,  and  chief,  bore  the  figure  of  St. 
George ;  the  second,  a  red  dragon  on  white  and  green  sarcenet ;  and 
the  third,  a  dun  cow  upon  yellow  tartan,  —  and  erected  them  in  the 
church;  also,  that  Henry  VII.'s  standard  at  Bosworth  was  a  red 
dragon  upon  green  and  white  silk,  —  the  red  dragon  of  Cadwallader, 
"Eed  dragon,  dreadful.^'  Henry  claimed  an  uninterrupted  descent 
from  Arthur,  Uther,  and  Caradoc,  the  aboriginal  princes  of  Britain. 
His  grandfather,  Owen  Tudor,  bore  a  dragon  for  his  device,  in  proof 
of  his  descent  from  Cadwallader,  the  last  British  prince  and  first  king 
of  Wales,  A.D.  678.  The  dragon  being  Henry's,  it  is  reasonable  to 
consider  the  other  two  were  Eichard's  standards.  Henry  VII.  also 
carried  for  his  badge  a  portcullis,  and  the  red  and  white  roses  com- 
bined, emblematic  of  the  union  of  the  rival  houses. 

Henry  VIIL,  1509-1547,  and  Edward  VL,  1547-1553,  used  the 
same  cognizances.  The  former  sometimes  displayed  a  greyhound 
courant  and  collared,  and  at  others,  after  the  siege  of  Boulogne,  a  white 
swan,  the  arms  of  that  city.  Mary,  1553-1558,  before  her  accession, 
adopted  the  red  and  white  roses,  but  added  a  pomegranate,  to  show 
her  descent  from  Spain.  On  assuming  the  sceptre,  she  took  "  winged 
time  drawing  truth  out  of  a  pit,"  with  this  motto,  "  Veritas  temjwris 
Jilia."  The  eagle  and  lion  were  her  supporters.  The  badges  of  '  good ' 
Queen  Bess  were  the  white  and  red  roses,  the  fleur-de-lis,  and  Irish 
harp,  all  ensigned  by  the  royal  crown,  to  which  James  I.,  1G03,  added 
the  Scotch  thistle.      Elizabeth  had  for  her  supporters  a  lion  and  a 


i;;(j 


THE   SV.MlloLS.    SIANDAKDS,    AND    ILVNNKK.S 


di-a^on,  and  James  I.,  160o-1025,  took  for  his  the  lion  and  unicorn, 
^\•hit■h    have  continued  the  supporters  of  the  royal  arms  ever  since. 

At  the  P'ield  of  the  Cloth  of  Gold, 
1~)'20,  the  front  of  the  tent  of 
Henry  VIII.  was  adorned  with 
the  gi^fantic  figure  (tf  an  English 
archer,  hearing  this  motto,  in 
Latin,  "He  prrrails  vliom  1  favor',' 
suggestive  of  the  purpose  of  the 
interview.  It  was  called  the '  Field 
of  the  Cloth  of  Gold '  on  account 
of  the  numerous  tents  being  or- 
namented with  armorial  bearings 
and  banners  of  cloth  of  gold.  Our 
illustration  of  Henry  YIII.'s  stand- 
ard at  the  siege  of  Boulogne,  1544, 
standards  of  Heury  VIII.  i«   ^om   a   coarsc   painting    pre- 

From  the  picture  of  his  embarkation  at  Dover  Castle  served    at  Cowdry,  ill    SuSSeX,  the 
for  the  Field  of  Cloth  of  Gold.  1520.  ,        „_        -_,.  ^    ^^       , 

seat  01  Lord  Viscount  JNIontague. 
The  city  of  Boulogne  having  been  restored  to  France  in  1550,  the 
swan  was  erased  from  the  British  arms ;  but  the  badge  has  continued 

a  popular  sign  in  England. 
Henry  VIII.  was  the  first 
English  monarch  who  took 
the  title  of  '  King  of  Ire- 
land,' ir.Oli. 

The  following  interesting 
description  of  royal  stand- 
ards is  from  a  manuscript, 
A.D.  1500,  in  the  College  of 
Heralds :  — 

Edwakd  III. —  The  cross 
of  St.  George.  Per  fess  azure 
and  fjvlcs.  A  lion  of  Eng- 
land imperially  crowned,  in 
chief  a  coronet  of  crosses, 
pate,  and  fleurs-de-lis,  between  two  clouds  irradiated  proper ;  and  in 
base  a  cloud  bet\\-een  two  coronets,  —  Dieu  et  Mon.  In  chief  a 
coronet,  and  in  base  an  irradiated  cloud,  —  Dkoyt.  Quarterly,  1  and 
4  an  irradiated  cloud,  2  and  3  a  coronet. 

EiciiARD  II.  —  Tlie  cross  of  St.  George,  argent  and  vert ;  a  hart 


Standard  of  Henry  VIII.  at  the  Siege  of  Boulogne,  1544. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        137 

lodged  argent,  attired,  iinguled,  ducally  gorged  aud  chained  or,  be- 
tween four  suns  in  splendor,  —  Dieu  et  Mon.    Two  suns  in  splendor, 

—  Droyt.     Four  suns  in  splendor. 

Henry  V.  —  The  cross  of  St.  George,  argent  and  azure.  A  swan  with 
wings  displayed  argent,  beaked  gules,  membered  sahlc,  ducally  gorged 
and  chained  or;  between  three  stumps  of  trees,  one  in  dexter  chief,  and 
two  in  base  of  the  last,  —  Dieu  et  Mon.  Two  stumps  of  trees  in  pale 
or,  —  Droyt.     Five  stumps  of  trees,  three  in  chief  and  two  in  base. 

Another  of  Henry  V.  —  The  cross  of  St.  George,  argent  and  azure  ; 
an  heraldic  antelope  at  gage  argent,  maned,  tufted,  ducally  gorged,  and 
chained  or ;  chain  reflexed  over  the  back,  between  four  roses  gules, 

—  Dieu  et  Mon.  Two  roses  in  pale  gules,  —  Droyt.  Five  roses  in 
saltire  gules. 

Edward  IV.  (see  illustration i).  —  The  cross  of  St.  George.  Per  fess 
azure  and  gules  ;  a  lion  of  England  imperially  crowned,  between  three 
roses  gules  in  chief,  and  as  many  argent  in  base,  barbed,  seeded,  and  irra- 
diated or,  —  Dieu  et  Mon.  In  chief  a  rose  gules,  and  in  base  another 
argent,  —  Droyt.    In  chief  two  roses  gules,  and  in  base  as  many  argent. 

Henry  VII.  —  The  cross  of  St.  George,  argent  and  vert ;  a  dragon 
gules,  between  two  roses  of  the  last  in  chief,  and  three  in  base  argent, 

—  Dieu  et  Mon.     A  rose  gules  in  chief,  and  another  argent  in  base, 

—  Droit.  In  chief  three  roses  gules,  and  in  base  two  argent.  On 
another  standard  of  Henry  VII.  appears  a  greyhound  courant  argent, 
collared  gules ;  the  wliole  being  semee  of  Tudor  roses,  portcullis,  and 
fleurs-de-lis  or.^ 

Mary  Stuart,  1559-1587,  the  only  child  of  James  V.,  of  Scot- 
land, and  Mary  de  Guise,  claimed  the  crown  of  England  in  right  of 
her  grandmother,  Margaret,  eldest  daughter  of  Henry  VII.,  of  Eng- 
land, and  wife  of  James  IV.,  of  Scotland.  Assuming  the  title  of 
Queen  of  England,  France,  and  Scotland,  she  marshalled  the  arms  of 
the  three  kingdoms,  and  exhibited  it  on  her  banners,  furniture,  equi- 
page, and  liveries. 

Ja-AIES  I.,  son-of  Mary  Stuart,  1603,  on  his  accession  to  the  throne 
of  England,  discontinued  the  Norman  leopards,  considering  them  a 
badge  of  slavery  under  the  Norman  race,  and  substituted  three  golden 
lions  passant  gardant  on  the  British  shield  and  banner,  and  intro- 
duced the  royal  unicorn  of  Scotland,  "  argent,  gorged  with  a  golden 

1  Ante,  p.  1.33. 

2  See  also  '  Excerpta  Historica '  for  a  description  of  the  standards  borne  in  tlie  field 
by  peers  and  knights  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI 1 1.,  from  a  manuscript  in  the  College  of 
Arms,  I.  2,  compiled  between  the  years  1510-1525. 


lo.S  THE   SVMUULS,    .STANDAIJDS,    AM)    KANNKKS 

coronet  bearini,'  Ueurs-de-lis  ;ind  crosses  patees,  to  which  was  appended 
a  loose  j^folden  cliain,"  us  a  companion  to  the  English  lion,  suppcirting 
the  shield  of  Crreat  Britain.  The  standard  of  the  unicorn,  introduced 
to  Britain  by  the  Anglo-Saxons,  had  Ijeen  brought  into  Scotland  Ijy 
the  English  driven  irom  England  by  "William  the  Conqueror.  The 
red  lion  ramjjant  of  Scotland  was  also  marshalled  by  James  I.  on  the 
left  (juarter  of  the  British  shii'ld. 

The  Commonwealth,  1648-1G58.  —  After  the  execution  of  Charles 
I.,  the  royal  arms  were  defaced,  the  standard  altered,  and  the  ancient 
mottoes  superseded  by  a  maxim  setting  ibrlh  the  supremacy  of  the 
people.  The  national  seal,  six  inches  in  diameter,  represented  the 
House  of  Commons  sitting,  with  the  speaker  in  the  cliair,  encircled 
by  this  legend,  "  The  first  year  of  freedom,  by  God's  blessing,  restored, 
1C4S."  On  the  reverse  was  a  map  of  England  and  Ireland,  the  sea 
studded  with  ships.  The  flag  of  England  bore  the  British  cross,  also 
that  of  Ireland,  and  the  national  harp  of  that  country. 

Oliver  Cromwell,  being  proclaimed  Lord  Protector  of  the  Republic, 
1653,  had  his  family  arms  marshalled  with  those  of  the  national  govern- 
ment ;  viz.,  a  lion  rampant  on  a  shield,  supported  on  the  right  side  by 
a  crowned  lion,  and  on  the  left  by  a  gryphon,  with  a  crowned  lion  sta- 
tant  for  a  crest.  His  motto  was  "Pax  quccritur  Bcllo."  After  his  victory 
over  the  Scotch  and  English  royalists  at  Worcester,  having  annexed 
Scotland  as  a  conc^uered  province  to  England,  he  added  the  cross  of 
St.  Andrew  to  the  badges  of  the  republic.  After  the  death  of  Crom- 
well, and  the  resignation  of  his  son  Eichard,  the  Commonwealth  added 
as  supporters  to  the  republican  shield  two  angels,  —  the  '  conductor ' 
angel  of  Britannia,  and  the  '  guardian '  angel  of  the  land,  —  holding  a 
laurel  crow^n  over  the  shield,  and  bearing  in  the  other  hand  a  palm 
branch  and  a  branch  of  laurel.^ 

The  Jlcif/  of  the  Commonwealth  was  azure;  in  fess  a  double  shield, 
that  is,  two  shields  conjoined,  like  those  on  the  front  of  the  public 
acts  of  the  Commonwealth  or,  the  first  being  argent ;  a  cross  gules  for 
England,  the  other  l:)eing  azure;  the  harp  or,  stringed  argent;  these 
within  a  label  or  scroll,  like  a  horseshoe,  but  forming  three  folds 
argent,  in  Roman  letters  sahle,  "  Floreat  —  RES  :  Pvblica  ; "  without 
this  two  branches  of  laurel,  stalked  and  slipped  or,  leaved  vo^t,  and 
placed  in  like  form  as  the  scroll,  fringed  or  and  azure?  The  standards 
displayed  at  the  funeral  of  the  Protector  afford  a  curious  example 
of  republican  armory.^ 

1  Brunet's  Eegal  Armoiie.  2  ggg  Prestwick's  Respublica. 

^  See  illustration,  ante,  p.  17. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        139 

The  great  banner  of  the  States,  called  '  the  Union,'  as  displayed  at 
the  funeral  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  was  parted  per  pale  gules  and  azure, 
having  in  the  dexter  chief  points  the  Eoman  letter  '  0/  and  in  the 
sinister  chief  point  the  Eoman  letter  'P,'  in  gold, —  that  is,  for  'Oli- 
ver, Protector ; '  between  these  letters,  in  middle  chief,  an  imperial 
crown  of  gold  proper,  beautified  with  lilies,  roses,  and  crosses  pattee  ; 
under  the  above,  a  royal  mantle  of  estate  displayed,  being  ermine  and 
gold,  with  tassels  of  gold,  and  thereon  two  shields  of  the  arms  of  the 
Commonwealth,  —  one  for  England,  the  other  for  Scotland;  viz.,  first 
shield  argent,  a  cross  gules,  for  St.  George  of  England ;  second,  azure,  a 
saltire  cross  argent,  for  St.  Andrew  of  Scotland ;  beneath  the  mantle, 
or  in  base,  a  scroll  of  silver,  and  thereon,  in  Eoman  letters  of  gold,  the 
motto  :  "  Pax  Qv.eritvr  Bello." 

The  great  tanner  of  the  States  or  Commonwealth,  displayed  at  the 
same  funeral,  was  quarterly,  the  four  banners  of  England,  Scotland, 
Ireland,  and  Wales ;  viz.,  first  and  fourth,  argent,  a  cross  gules,  for 
England  and  Wales ;  second,  azure,  a  saltire  argent,  for  Scotland ;  and 
third,  azure,  a  harp  or,  stringed  argent,  for  Ireland.  Over  all,  in  fess, 
in  an  escutcheon  of  pretence  sahle,  a  lion  rampant  argent,  for  the  name 
and  family  of  Cromwell.^ 

The  admiral's  flag,  during  the  Commonwealth,  was  the  cross  and 
harp.  Off  Portland,  on  the  1st  of  February,  1653,  Blake,  on  board  the 
Triumph,  carried  the  cross  and  harp  at  the  main ;  Monk,  who  was 
admiral  of  the  white  division,  at  the  fore ;  and  Penn,  who  commanded 
the  blue  division,  at  the  mizzen. 

The  Covenanter's  hanner,  of  Scotland,  was  first  imfurled  in  1638, 
and  was  displayed  at  the  battle  of  Drumclog,  1679,  and  at  Both  well 
bridge  the  same  year.  This  old  emblem  is  cherished  with  peculiar 
reverence  by  the  Scotch  people.  One  of  these  banners  is  preserved 
by  the  Antiquarian  Society  of  Edinburgh,  and  another  is  shown  at  the 
Mareschal's  College,  at  Aberdeen.  It  is  of  white  silk,  with  the  motto, 
" Si^e  expecto,"  in  red  letters,  and  underneath,  in  English,  "For  Be- 
ligion.  King,  and  Kingdom.'"  The  banner  is  much  torn,  but  otherwise 
in  good  preservation. 

"  The  limbs  that  fought,  the  hearts  that  swelled,  are  crumbled  into  dust, 
But  that  frail  silken  flag,  for  which  and  under  which  they  fought, 
Survives,  a  tattered,  senseless  thing,  to  meet  the  curious  eye. 
And  wake  a  momentary  dream  of  hopes  and  days  gone  by."  "^ 


1  Prestwick's  Respublica.     See  also  illustration,  ante,  p.  17. 

2  New  Monthly  Magazine. 


140         'nil-:  SYMBOLS,  siandakds.  and  kannkks 

At  the  tercentennial  celeliration  of  rre«l)yterianisni,  in  IMiiladel- 
pliia,  Nov.  20,  1S72,  at  the  rear  of  the  pnlpit  of  the  Seventh  I'resby- 
terian  Church  was  displayed  the  American  Hag  crossed  with  the 
Coveuautei*s'  Hag  of  blue  silk,  with  a  red  cross  of  St.  Andrew,  and  tlie 
motto,  "  Covenants,  Jiilii/ion,  King,  and  Kingdoni."  ^ 

The  Covenanters'  blue  banner  has  been  suggested  as  tlie  pcjssible 
origin  of  the  blue  field  in  tlie  union  of  our  stars  and  stripe.s. 

The  Blue  Blanlei. —  This  ancient  standard,  the  banner  (jf  the  Edin- 
burgh craftsmen,  and  ])robably  the  origin  of  the  blue  banner  of  the 
Covenanters,  is  still  held  in  great  honor  and  reverence  by  the  burgliers 
of  Edinburgh.  It  was  presented  to  the  trades  of  Ediid)urgh  by 
James  III.,  of  Scotland,  in  1483,  "  as  a  perpetual  rcmendjrance  of 
their  loyalty,  and  having  power  to  display  the  same  in  defence  of 
their  king,  country,  and  their  own  rights."  It  was  borne  by  the 
craftsmen  at  the  battle  of  Flodden,  1513,  and  displayed  for  the  pur- 
pose of  assembling  the  incorporated  trades  to  protect  Queen  IMary, 
after  her  surrender  to  the  confederated  states  at  Carberry  Hill.  It 
was  brought  out  on  the  occasion  of  the  rescue  of  James  VI.  from 
a  rabble  that  assailed  him  in  the  old  Tolbooth.  I'ennycriek's  his- 
tory of  it,  published  in  1722,  was  reprinted,  with  plates,  in  1826.  A 
handsome  carved  oak  case,  in  which  to  preserve  it,  was,  in  1869  or  1870, 
presented  to  the  convener  of  the  incorjDorated  trades  of  Edinburgh.^ 

William  III.'s  standard,  hoisted  on  board  the  frigate  Brill,  Oct.  16, 
1688,  when  about  to  embark  for  England,  displayed  the  arms  of 
Nassau  quartered  with  those  of  England.  The  motto,  embroidered  in 
letters  three  feet  long,  was  happily  chosen.  The  House  of  Orange 
had  long  used  the  elliptical  device,  "  I  will  maintain."  The  ellipsis 
was  now  filled  with  words  of  high  import,  —  "  The  liberties  of  Emjland 
and  the  Protestant  religion."  ^  He  landed  at  Torbay  from  the  ship 
bearing  this  flag,  Sunday,  Nov.  4,  1688,  auspiciously  the  anniversary 
both  of  his  birth  and  his  marriage. 

The  battle  of  Caton  Moor,  or  Northallerton,  fought  Aug.  22,  1138, 
is  called  the  'battle  of  the  standard,'  because  the  English  barons 
rallied  around  a  sacred  stand,  constructed  of  a  ship's  mast,  fixed  on 
a  four-wheeled  vehicle,  bearing  the  banners  of  St.  Peter  of  York, 
St.  John  of  Beverly,  and  St.  Wilfrid  of  llipon,  and  surmounted  by  a 
pyx  containing  a  consecrated  host.  This  standard  was  brought  forth 
by  the  Archbishop  of  York  when  the  English  were  hotly  pressed  by 
the  invaders  headed  by  King  David. 

1  The  Philadelphia  Press.         ^  Xotes  and  Queries,  4th  series,  vol.  vi.,  October,  1870. 
8  Macaulay's  England. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        141 

A  particular  and  minute  account  of  the  banner  or  standard  of  St. 
Cuthbert  of  Durham,  made  in  1346,  has  been  preserved  in  a  little 
volume  entitled  '  The  Antient  Kites  and  Monuments  of  the  Monas- 
tical  and  Cathedral  Church  of  Durham,  1672.'  It  contained  a  relic 
of  the  saint,  which  was  thought  to  endow  it  with  peculiar  sanctity 
and  power.  This  banner,  a  yard  broad  and  five  quarters  deep,  was 
of  red  velvet,  embroidered  and  wrought  with  flowers  of  green  silk 
and  gold,  the  nether  part  of  it  indented  in  five  parts  and  fringed  with 
red  silk  and  gold.  "  In  the  midst  of  the  banner  cloth  was  the  cor- 
porax  cloth,  with  which  St.  Cuthbert  in  his  lifetime  had  been  used 
to  cover  the  chalice  when  he  said  mass.  This  corporax  cloth  was 
covered  over  with  white  velvet,  half  a  yard  square  every  w^ay,  having 
a  red  cross  of  red  velvet  on  both  sides  over  the  same  holy  relique, 
most  cunningly  and  artificially  compiled  and  framed,  being  finely 
fringed  about  the  skirts  and  edges  with  fringe  of  red  silk  and  gold, 
and  three  little  silver  bells  fastened  to  the  skirts  of  said  banner  cloth 
like  unto  sacring  bells."  The  bearer  of  this  banner  had  faith  it  was 
never  carried  or  shown  in  any  battle,  but,  by  the  especial  grace  of 
God  Almighty  and  the  mediation  of  holy  St.  Cuthbert,  it  brought 
home  the  victory. 

After  the  Eeformation,  St.  Cuthbert's  banner  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Whittingham,  who  was  made  the  Dean  of  Durham,  and  his  wife, 
a  Frenchwoman,  is  reported  to  have  burned  it.^ 

In  the  Middle  Ages,  the  English  standard  was  not  a  square  flag, 
like  the  modern  standard,  which  is  rightly  a  banner,  but  was  elongated, 
like  the  guydon  and  pennon,  but  much  larger,  becoming  narrow  and 
rounded  at  the  end,  which  was  slit,  unless  the  standard  belonged  to 
a  prince  of  the  blood  royal. 

The  size  of  the  standard  was  regulated  by  the  rank  of  the  person 
whose  arms  or  device  it  bore.^  The  English  standards  were  generally 
divided  into  three  portions,  one  containing  the  arms  of  the  nobleman, 

next  his  cognizance  or  badge,  and  then 
his  crest ;  these  were  divided  by  bands, 
on  which  was  inscribed  his  war-cry  or 
motto,  the  whole  being  fringed  with  his 
livery  or  family  colors. 

The  standard  of  the  Douglas  and  the 
gauntlets  of  Percy,  relics  of  the  fight  of 

Jhe  Douglas  standard,  1382.  ^,,      ,  a  ic    1  ooo  .■^^ 

Otterburne,  Aug.  15,  1.388,  are  still  pre- 
served in  Scotland.     The  story  of  the  battle  represents  Douglas  as 

1  Penny  Cyclopedia.  2  See  ante,  p.  24. 


142  TIIK    SYMBOLS.    STANhAKKS.    AND    KANNKKS 

having,  in  u  i)ei'Soniil  encouutcr  with  Percy  in  front  of  Newcastle, 
taken  fruni  him  liis  spear  and  hanging  flag,  saying  he  would  carry  it 
hunie  with  liiin,  and  plant  it  on  his  castle  of  Dalkeitli.' 

The  battle  was  an  ellbrt  of  Percy  to  recover  this  valued  standard, 
which,  however,  found  its  way  to  Scotland,  uotwitljstanding  the  death 
of  its  captor.  One  of  the  two  natural  sons  of  I)ouglas  founded  the 
family  of  Douglas,  of  Cavers,  in  lioxburghshire,  the  last  male  descend- 
ant of  which,  James  Douglas,  died  in  1878;  and  in  their  hands  these 
relics  of  Otterburue  have  been  preserved  nearly  iive  hundred  years. 
It  is  found,  however,  that  history  has  misrepresented  the  matter.  The 
Otterburne  Hag  proves  not  to  be  a  spear  pennon,  but  a  standard  thir- 
teen feet  long  (two  yards  longer  than  the  regulated  size  of  an  empe- 
ror's standard),  bearing  the  Douglas  arms ;  it  evidently  was  Douglas's 
owu  banner,  which  his  sons  would,  of  course,  be  most  anxious  to  pre- 
serve and  carry  home.  Here  is  a  standard  laid  up  in  store  at  Cavers, 
more  than  a  hundred  years  before  America  was  discovered  !  ^ 

Charles  I.,  in  his  issue  with  the  Parliament,  having  decided  to 
make  a  solemn  appeal  to  the  sword,  issued  a  proclamation  requiring 
all  his  subjects  who  could  bear  arms  to  meet  him  at  Xottingham  on 
the  23d  of  August,  1641,  when  he  designed  to  raise  his  royal  standard, 
the  first  and  only  time  of  such  a  rally  since  the  barons  raised  the  stand- 
ard at  Northallerton,  a.d.  1138.  At  the  appointed  time,  a  numerous 
company,  mounted  and  on  foot,  came  from  the  surrounding  country, 
rather  to  indulge  their  curiosity  with  respect  to  the  mode  of  conduct- 
ing an  ancient  ceremony  never  before  witnessed  in  the  memory  of 
any  living  man,  than  to  offer  loyal  assistance  to  their  sovereign. 

On  the  hill,  three  troops  of  horse  and  a  corps  of  six  hundred  foot 
were  drawn  up  to  guard  the  standard.  As  the  herald  was  about  to 
begin.  King  Charles  desired  to  see  the  proclamation ;  and,  calling  for 
pen  and  ink,  placed  the  paper  on  his  knee  as  he  sat  in  the  saddle, 
and  made  several  alterations  with  his  own  hand,  returning  it  to  the 
herald,  who  then  read  it,  but,  on  coming  to  the  passages  the  king  had 
corrected,  with  some  embarrassment.  Immediately  after  the  reading, 
the  trumpets  sounded,  the  standard  was  advanced,  and  the  spectators 
threw  up  their  hats,  shouting  "  God  save  the  king ! "  The  standard 
raised  was  a  large  blood-red  streamer  bearing  the  royal  arms  quar- 
tered, with  a  hand  pointing  to  the  crown  which  stood  above,  and 
inscribed  with  the  motto,  "  Give  Cccsar  his  due."  Farther  on  towards 
the  point  were  represented  at  intervals  the  rose,  the  fleur-de-lis,  and 
the  harp,  each  surmounted  by  a  royal  crown. 

1  Chambers's  Book  of  Davs. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        143 

It  was  with  difficulty  the  standard  could  be  fixed  in  its  place,  the 
ground  being  solid  rock,  and  no  instruments  to  pierce  it  having  been 
provided.  Scarcely  had  this  object  been  accomplished  by  digging 
into  the  firm  stone  with  the  daggers  and  halbert  points  of  the  soldiers, 
when  a  fierce  gust  of  wind,  sweeping  with  a  wild  moan  across  the  face 
of  the  hill,  laid  ]3rostrate  the  emblem  of  sovereignty.  This  accident 
was  regarded  as  a  presage  of  evil,  and  a  general  melancholy  over- 
spread the  assembly.  No  further  attempt  was  made  that  day,  and 
the  standard  was  borne  back  into  the  castle  in  silence.  The  next 
day  and  the  day  following,  the  ceremony  was  repeated,  with  less 
gloomy  auspices,  the  king  attending  on  each  occasion.^ 

The  Eoyal  Standard  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  —  The 
origin  of  the  emblazonments  on  that  gorgeous  banner  may  be  thus 
briefly  sketched.^  The  lions  passant  gardant  or,  on  a  red  field,  were 
the  arms  of  Normandy,  and  two  of  them  were  introduced  by  William 
Eufus ;  the  third  was  added  by  Henry  II.  for  the  duchy  of  Aquitaine, 
in  right  of  his  wife.  Edward  III.  quartered  with  the  lions  the  fleur- 
de-lis  powdered  on  a  blue  field,  of  which  five  were  entire,  and  borne 
in  the  first  and  fourth  quarters.  This  he  did  on  claiming  the  sover- 
eignty of  France,  in  right  of  his  mother,  Isabel,  sister  and  heiress  of 
Charles  the  Fair ;  the  royal  standard,  composed  thus  of 
the  arms  of  France  and  England  combined,  continued 
until  the  reign  of  Henry  V.,  when  the  French  king  hav- 
ing reduced  the  number  of  fleurs-de-lis  to  three,  Henry 
did  the  same.  They  so  appear  on  the  standard  carried 
by  the  Great  Harry,  in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  on 
a  royal  standard  at  the  main  of  a  ship  of  w^ar  i^w^- 
Anusuf  HeuiTv.,  poscd  the  Ark  Eoyal  of  Ealeigh)  of  the  time  of  Elizabeth, 
of  England.  j^g  represented  on  the  tapestry  of  the  old  House  of  Lords, 
which  was  destroyed  by  the  fire.  On  a  staff  abaft,  this  ship  had  a  plain 
square  flag  of  St.  George,  white,  with  a  red  cross.  On  the  union  of 
England  and  Scotland,  through  the  accession  of  James  I.,  the  stand- 
ard was  changed,  the  first  and  fourth  quarters  bearing  each  the  arms 
described,  the  second  introducing  the  lion  of  Scotland,  and  the  third 
quarter  the  harp  of  Ireland. 

William  III.  placed  an  escutcheon  of  pretence  upon  the  royal 
standard  for  Nassau,  which  was  removed  by  Queen  Anne ;  and  the 

*  Cattermole's  Great  Civil  War. 

2  The  royal  banners  of  England  have  always  borne  the  same  blazonry  as  the  royal 
sbield,  for  which  see  engraving  of  royal  arms,  from  the  Conquest  to  Queen  Victoria,  p.  118. 


144  TMK    SYMHULS,    STANDARDS,    AND    IJANNKKS 

standard  then  stdod,  the  first  and  iourlli  iiuartcrings  tliu  lions  of 
Eiiudanil  and  Scotland,  the  second  quarter  tJie  Ueur-de-lis,  and  the 
third  quarter  the  harp.  George  I.  again  changed  it,  and  during  his 
reign  the  arms  of  Brunswick,  of  Lunenburg,  of  ancient  Saxony,  and 
the  crown  of  Charlemagne,  formed  the  fourth  quarter,  the  other 
quarters  remaining  as  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne.  On  the  legis- 
lative union  with  Ireland,  in  1801,  the  tieurs-de-lis  of  France  were 
removed. 

The  royal  standard  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  was  established,  and  first  hoisted  on  the  Tower  of  London,  and 
on  Bedford  Tower,  Dublin,  and  displayed  by  the  Foot  Guards,  Jan.  1, 
1801.^  AVhen  the  new  standard  was  first  hoisted  on  b(jard  the  Loyal 
William,  at  Spithead,  after  the  L^nion,  it  was  considered  ominous,  by  the 
sailors  of  the  fleet,  that  a  gale  of  wind  blew  it  from  the  masthead  and 
it  was  lost.2  It  is  a  gorgeous  banner,  and  when  flashing  its  golden 
splendor  in  the  bright  beams  of  the  sun  presents  a  beautiful  appear- 
ance. The  emblazonry  represents  the  arms  for  the  time  being  of  the 
nation,  as  impressed  on  the  coins  and  borne  upon  the  great  seal  and 
seals  of  office. 

The  royal  standard  is  never  hoisted  except  on  occasion  of  the  first 
ceremony.  It  is  never  displayed  on  shipboard  except  when  the  sov- 
ereign or  some  member  of  the  royal  family  is  actually  present,^  or  on 

1  Haydn' .s  Book  of  Dates.  -  Britisli  Naval  Chronicle. 

3  The  only  occasion  on  which  the  Royal  Standard  has  been  displayed  within  the 
United  States  of  America  since  1776  was  when  the  Prince  of  Wales  embarked  at  Port- 
land, Maine,  Oct.  15,  1860,  to  return  to  England  after  his  tour  through  the  United 
States  and  Canada. 

"  The  Prince's  last  act  on  American  soil  was  to  take  leave  of  the  Mayor  of  Portland. 
He  then  stepped  humedly  down  the  cai-peted  steps  where  he  embarked  to  his  barge, 
which  had  a  silken  union  jack  flying  at  the  stern.  The  moment  he  stepped  on  board,  a 
sailor  at  the  bow  unrolled  a  small  royal  standard  of  silk  attached  to  a  staff,  and  placed  it 
at  the  bow  of  the  boat.  As  soon  as  it  was  in  place,  the  whole  British  squadron,  muster- 
ing eight  or  ten  ships,  honored  it  with  a  royal  salute  of  twenty-one  guns.  The  yards  of 
the  sliips  were  at  the  same  time  manned,  and  when  the  Prince  stepped  on  the  deck  of  the 
Hero,  his  own  ship,  the  Royal  Standard  was  run  up  at  her  main,  and  again  saluted  by  the 
whole  fleet,  which  immediately  after  weighed  and  put  to  sea,  the  Hero  leading.  As  they 
passed  Fort  Preble,  the  American  ensign  was  ran  up  at  the  fore,  and  saluted  by  the  whole 
fleet,  with  twenty-one  guns  fron  each  ship,  wliich  was  returned  by  the  guns  of  the  fort." 
—  Goold's  History  of  the  Portland  Rifle  Corps. 

A  Royal  Standard  was  captured  at  York,  now  Toronto,  the  capital  of  Upper  Canada, 
when  that  place  was  taken  by  a  land  and  naval  force  under  General  Pike  and  Commodore 
Isaac  C'hauncey,  on  the  27th  of  April,  1813,  and  is  presei-ved  in  the  gunnery-room  of 
the  U.  S.  Naval  Academy,  Annapolis,  Md.  This  is  probably  the  only  instance  of  the 
royal  standard  of  the  United  Kingdom  having  come  into  the  possession  of  an  enemy. 
The  following  is  Commodore  Chauncey's  official  account  of  its  capture :  — 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS.        145 

the  Sovereign's  birthdays,  when  the  commander-in-chief  of  a  fleet 
hoists  it  at  the  main.  In  garrisons  at  such  times  it  always  supersedes 
the  jack,  or  common  garrison  flag. 

As  established  in  ISOl,  it  was  heraldically  described  as  "quarterly, 
first  and  fourth,  gules  three  lions  passant  gardant  in  pale  or,  for  Eng- 
land ;  second,  oi\  a  lion  rampant  gules  within  a  double  tressure  flory 
counter  flory  of  the  last  for  Scotland  ;  third,  azure,  a  harp  or,  stringed 
argent,  for  Ireland.  On  an  escutcheon  of  pretence,  ensigned  with  the 
electoral  bonnet ;  and  divided  per  pale  and  per  cheveron,  enarched 
with  three  compartments,  the  arms  of  his  Majesty's  dominions  in  Ger- 
many ;  viz.,  two  lions  passant  gardant  in  pale  or,  for  Brunswick ; 
second,  or,  semee  of  hearts  proper,  a  lion  rampant  azure,  for  Bruns- 
wick ;  third,  gules,  a  horse  courant  argent,  for  Saxony.  In  the  centre, 
on  an  escutcheon  gules,  the  crown  of  Charlemagne  proper,  being  the 
badge  of  the  office  of  arch-treasurer  to  the  holy  Eoman  Empire."  ^ 

The  white  horse  on  a  red  field  was  the  armorial  bearing  of  ancient 
Saxony  or  Westphalia,  and  has  for  centuries  been  borne  by  the  illus- 
trious House  of  Brunswick.  The  banner  of  Wittekend  bore  a  black 
horse,  which,  on  his  conversion  to  Christianity  by  Charlemagne,  was 
altered  to  a  white  one,  as  the  emblem  of  the  pure  faith  he  had  em- 
braced. In  1700,  a  medal  was  struck  at  Hanover  to  commemorate 
the  accession  to  the  electorate  of  George  Lewis,  Duke  of  Hanover, 
afterwards  George  I.  This  medal  bears  on  one  side  the  head  of  the 
Elector,  and  on  the  reverse  the  white  horse.  On  the  accession  of 
George  I.,  the  white  horse  was  introduced  as  a  royal  badge  in  the 
standards  and  colors  of  certain  regiments  of  cavalry  and  infantry. 

By  the  peace  signed  at  Amiens,  1802,  the  French  fleurs-de-lis  were 
required  to  be  erased  from  the  British  shield,  though  they  had  already 
been  dropped.  From  1.337,  the  King  of  England  had  styled  himself 
'  King  of  France.'  George  III.  was  the  first  who  relinquished  that 
title. 

At  the  death  of  William  IV.,  1837,  when  Queen  Victoria  came 
to  the  throne,  under  the  Salic  law,  she  relinquished  the  kingdom  of 
Hanover  (since  incorporated  with  the  empire  of  Germany)  to  her 
uncle,  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  and  the  escutcheon  of  pretence,  Avitli 

"  Sir,  —  I  have  the  honor  to  present  to  j'ou,  by  the  hands  of  I^ieutenant  Dudley,  the 
British  standard  taken  at  York  on  the  27th  of  April  last,  accompanied  by  the  mace,  over 
which  hung  a  human  scalp.  These  articles  were  taken  from  the  Parliament  House  by 
one  of  my  officers  and  presented  to  me.  The  scalp  I  caused  to  be  presented  to  General 
Dearborn,  who,  I  believe,  still  has  it  in  his  possession." 

^  Naval  Chronicle,  vol.  v. 

10 


146  THE   SYMr.OL:^.    STANl  )Ai;i  )S,    AND    IJANNEKS 

its  electoral  bonnet,  blue  lion,  and  white  horse,  was  removed  from  the 
royal  arms  and  standard,  leaving  simply  the  (niarterings  for  the  three 
realms  vi'  the  United  Kingdom,  —  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland. 

Sir  Walter  Scott,  alluding  to  the  royal  Inumer  of  Scotland,  says 
that  upon  it  — 

"  The  niilily  lii'ii  raiiiiis  in  ^nld." 

The  Scottish  lion  being  rampant  [/iiJi.<i  on  a  iirld  *//•,  as  displayed  on 
the  standard  of  the  United  Kingdom. 

The  origin  of  the  tressure  Hory  of  Scotland,  wiiich  surrounds  the  lion 
rampant,  is  believed  to  be  this :  Achaius,  sixty-fifth  King  of  Scotland, 
being  a  peaceable  and  godly  ruler,  made  a  league,  about  a.d.  792,  with 
Charlemagne,  Emperor  of  the  Eomans  and  King  of  France ;  and  in 
token  thereof  the  tressure  of  lilies  was  given  by  him  to  Achaius,  to  be 
borne  on  the  arms  of  Scotland,  as  a  memorial  to  posterity  of  an  alli- 
ance offensive  and  defensive  between  the  two  kingdoms,  and  as  a  pledge 
of  brotherly  love,  to  signify  that  the  French  arms  or  lilies  should  defend 
and  guard  the  lion  of  Scotland.  About  the  same  time,  he  adorned  the 
crown  of  Scotland  with  four  lilies  and  four  crosses ;  the  first,  emblems 
of  peace  and  unity,  the  latter,  symbols  of  tlieir  faith  in  Christ,  and  of 
the  inviolable  fidelity  of  the  kingdom  of  Scotland.^ 

The  hcuy  and  trefoil  of  Ireland.  —  Queen  Elizabeth  was  the  first 
sovereign  to  assume  the  Irish  harp  and  shamrock.  The  harp  was  an 
attributive  ensign  of  the  goddess  Hibernia,  the  patroness  of  Ireland. 
The  Irish  monarchs  being  styled  '  bards,'  their  standard  bore  a  harp. 
The  hai-p  of  Bryan  Boiroiske,  King  of  Ireland,  killed  by  the  Danes 
in  1039,  was  preserved  at  Dublin  until  1782. 

The  shamrock,  or  trefoil,  a  druidical  symbol,  was  held  in  great 
veneration  by  the  Hibernians.  Monkish  historians  of  Ireland  record 
this  legend :  About  440,  St.  Patrick  preached  the  gospel  in  a  field  to 
the  pagan  peasantry  of  Ireland,  but  could  not  persuade  them  of  the 
Christian  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  until,  picking  up  a  plant  of  the 
trefoil,  held  sacred  among  them,  he  showed,  by  the  union  of  three 
leaves  on  one  stem,  evidence  of  three  bodies  united  in  one  person. 
Having  persuaded  them  by  this  natural  example  of  the  reality  of 
a  hitherto  incomprehensible  mystery,  he  converted  multitudes,  who 
adopted  the  shamrock  in  token  of  their  belief.  The  Irish  armorial 
bearings  subsequently  disappeared  from  the  British  shield,  but  were 
restored  in  1801,  when  Ireland  was  united  (?)  to  England.  The  harp 
first  appears  on  the  Irish  pieces  of  Henry  YIII.     The  groat  of  Eliza-' 

1  Pi'estwick's  Kesimblica. 


OF   A^X1EXT   AND   MODERN  NATIONS.  147 

beth  has  three  harps.     Henry  YIII.  is  said  to  have  given  his  daughter 
three  harps  for  her  perfecting  in  music' 

The  Thistle  of  Scotland.  —  The  origin  of  the  thistle  as  the  emblem 
of  Scotland  is  said  to  be  this :  About  the  year  1010,  in  the  reign  of 
Malcolm  I.,  the  Danes  invaded  Scotland,  and  landed  at  Buchan-ness, 
intending  to  storm  Stain's  Castle,  a  fortress  of  some  importance.  ]\lid- 
night  was  the  time  selected  for  the  attack,  and,  as  their  presence  was 
unknown  and  unlooked  for,  they  expected  to  succeed,  without  much 
trouble,  in  gaining  possession  of  the  castle.  The  Danes  advanced 
slowly  and  silently,  and,  to  prevent  the  possibility  of  their  footsteps 
being  heard,  they  took  off  their  shoes.  They  reached  the  place,  and 
they  had  only  to  swim  the  moat  and  place  their  scaling-ladders,  and 
the  castle  was  theirs,  when,  in  another  moment,  a  cry  from  the  in- 
vaders themselves  wakened  the  inmates  to  a  sense  of  their  danger ; 
the  guards  flew  to  their  posts,  the  soldiers  mounted,  armed,  and  pur- 
sued the  Danes.  This  sudden  change  had  arisen  from  a  simple 
cause.  It  appeared  that  the  moat,  instead  of  being  filled  with 
water,  was  dried  up  and  overgrown  with  tliistles,  which,  piercing 
the  unprotected  feet  of  the  Danes,  caused  them  to  forget  their 
cautious  silence,  and  to  utter  the  cry  which  had  alarmed  the  sleep- 
ing inmates  of  the  castle.  Thus  was  the  thistle  the  means  of 
preserving  Scotland,  and  was  thenceforth  adopted  as  her  national 
emblem.     Burns  thus  alludes  to  it :  — 

"  The  rough  bniT-thistle  spreading  wide 
Among  the  bearded  here, 
I  turned  my  weeder-clips  aside, 
And  spared  the  symbol  dear." 

Anciently,  in  France,  there  was  an  order  of  knighthood  dedicated 
to  our  Lady  of  the  Thistle.  It  was  revived  by  Charles  VII.,  of 
France,  and  James  II.,  of  Scotland,  when  they  united  against  Eng- 
land about  1440.  James  II.,  of  Scotland,  had  the  thistle  painted  on 
a  sacred  banner  of  St.  Andrew,  and  hence  it  became  a  national  stand- 
ard for  Scotland.  In  1687,  James  YII.  of  Scotland  and  II.  of  Eng- 
land entwined  the  thistle  of  Scotland  with  the  roses  of  England.  The 
jewel  of  the  Knights  of  the  Thistle  bore  the  image  of  St.  Andrew  and 
his  cross,  and  the  motto  was,  "  Nemo  me  impune  laccssit"  —  "  ]^o  one 
injures  me  with  impunity." 

The  crosses  of  St.  Anclrevj  and  St.  Patrick.  —  The  origin  of  the 
"crosses  of  St.  Andrew  and  St.  Patrick  have  been  thus  stated :  In 
1248,  the  Christian  allies  besieged  the  walls  of  Seville,  employing 


1  is  Tin:    SVMI'.oLS.    S'I'.\M»AK1)S.    AM)    I'.ANNKKS 

divers  war-inachinos,  among  which  was  the  saltire  or  scaling-ladder, 
by  aid  of  whiih  they  sunnountcd  the  walls.  This  victory  having 
been  gained  on  St.  Andrew's  day  by  the  assistance  of  the  saltire, 
that  Ijadge  was  adopted  by  tlie  coilquerors,  ami  a  7V  iJcam  was 
sung  in  all  the  churches  in  Injnor  of  St.  Andrew.  In  the  mean 
time,  Seville  having  been  converted  to  Christianity,  the  archlnshop, 
who  succeeded  the  mufti,  transferred  the  saltire  to  the  banner  of 
St.  Andrew,  to  whose  miraculous  assistance  the  clergy  ascribed  the 
taking  of  the  strong  golden  tower  of  the  city.  Long  rejoicing  for  the 
miraculous  victory  led  to  the  legend  that  St.  Andrew  had  been  cruci- 
fied on  a  saltire,  which  they  hence  named  the  '  cross  of  St.  Andrew.' 
Crucifixion  on  a  saltire  never  having  been  adopted  by  any  nation,  its 
use  in  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Andrew  must  be  considered  a  monkish 
legend.  St.  Patrick,  the  apostle  of  Ireland,  is  alleged  to  have  died 
on  such  a  cross.  Hence  the  representation  of  these  crosses  on  the 
union  jack  of  the  United  Kingdom.^ 

Another  version  is  that  the  cross  of  St.  Andrew  as  the  national 
insignia  of  Scotland  is  derived  from  a  miraculous  occurrence,  when 
Achaius,  king  of  the  Scots,  and  Hungus,  king  of  the  Picts,  joined 
their  forces  to  oppose  the  invasion  of  Athelstane,  the  Saxon  king  of 
England.  The  Scottish  leaders,  havinij  addressed  themselves  to  God 
and  their  patron  saint,  there  appeared  in  the  blue  firmament  of  heaven 
the  figure  of  the  white  cross  on  which  St.  Andrew  had  suffered.  Pre- 
suming from  this  heavenly  vision  that  their  prayers  were  favorably 
received,  the  soldiers  fought  with  enthusiastic  courage,  and  defeated 
the  invaders,  who  left  their  king,  Athelstane,  dead  upon  the  field  of 
battle  in  East  Lothian,  a.d.  940 ;  and  ever  since  the  white  saltire  upcju 
an  azure  field  has  been  carried  by  the  Scottish  nation.^ 

St.  George,  of  Cappadocia,  who  furnishes  the  red  Latin  cross  for 
the  union,  according  to  Mr.  Emerson,  was  not  a  very  reputable  char- 
acter, but  a  low  parasite,  who  obtained  a  contract  to  sui)ply  the  army 
with  bacon.  He  was  a  rogue  and  an  informer,  l^ecame  rich,  and  then 
had  to  run  for  his  life.  He  sa^•ed  his  money,  embraced  Arminianism, 
was  made  Bishop  of  Alexandria  in  Egypt,  and  in  361  was  dragged 
to  prison.  He  was  finally  taken  out  and  lynched,  as  he  deserved  to 
be.  This  bishop  is  the  St.  George  of  England  and  Russia,  —  a  very 
different  character  from  the  Georgian  chevalier  and  dragon-destroyer 
of  the  Trajan  standard.^ 

1  Brunet's  Regal  Armorie.  ^  Xewton's  Di.splay  of  Heraldry. 

3  Cardinal  Newman,  created  in  1879,  took  his  title  from  the  Cliurch  of  St.  Georgio 
<ie  Nelabro,  the  only  one  in  Rome  dedicated  to  the  patron  saint  of  England.    This  cluuch 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


149 


ST     GEORCES  CnOSS  ST  ANDREW  S  CBOSS 


A  very  curious  history  of  the  origin  and  formation  of  the  union  jack, 
written  by  Sir  Harris  Nicolas,  is  in  Braley's  '  Graphic  lUustrator.' 

The  Union  Jack  or  Flag  of  Great  Britain.  —  The  combination 
of  the  crosses  of  St.  George  and  St.  Andrew  produced  the  first  union 

jack,  which  was  declared  in  1606, 
by  King  James  I.,  the  national 
ensign  of  Great  Britain,  happily 
symbolizing  the  union  of  England 
and  Scotland,  in  its  union  of  the 
crosses  of  the  two  realms.  In  1801, 
in  consequence  of  the  legislative 
union  with  Ireland,  a  second  union 
ensign  was  established.  The  new 
device  combined  the  three  crosses 
of  St.  George,  St.  Andrew,  and  St. 
Patrick.  The  blazonry  of  this  jack 
is  borne  by  the  Duke  of  Welling- 
ton upon  a  shield  of  pretence  over 
his  paternal  arms,  as  an  "  augmen- 
tation of  honor "  significant  and 
expressive.  The  Duke  of  Marl- 
borousrh's  arms  bear  in  like  manner 
the  cross  of  St.  George  upon  a 
canton,  in  commemoration  of  the 
services  of  his  ancestor. 

When  or  why  the  name  '  jack  ' 
was  given  to  this  flag  is  conjectural :  in  old  records  it  is  almost  uni- 
versally styled  the  'UNION  flag.'  Some  have  thought  as  the  upper 
part  of  a  trooper's  armor  was  so  named,  the  name  was  transferred 
during  the  time  of  the  Crusades  to  the  St.  George's  cross  on  a  white 
field,  whicli  the  soldiers  of  the  cross  wore  over  their  armor  before  and 
behind.  Others  think  the  new  flag  received  this  name  in  honor  of 
James  I.,  it  being  the  abbreviation  of  his  signature,  Jac.  The  name 
is  mentioned  in  1673,  in  the  English  treaty  with  the  Dutch,  which 
obliges  "  all  Dutch  ships  or  sciuadrons  of  war  meeting  those  of  Great 


UNION     OR    KINGS    COLORS    lSO< 


•g-^     ^ 


PJ 


UNION  ENSICN    JAN. 16  17  07 


UNION    rUk«     1801. 


contains,  under  the  high  altar,  the  head  of  St.  George  and  liis  red  silk  Ijanner,  whiili 
are  e.xhibited  on  the  day  after  A.sh  Wednesday  and  on  St.  George's  Day,  tlie  only  days 
the  church  is  open  to  tlie  public.  Two  minutes'  walk  distant  is  the  Church  of 
S.  Maria-in-Cosmedin,  under  which  is  preserved  a  piece  of  St.  Patrick's  skull,  exliihited 
on  that  saint's  day. 


i:)() 


Tin:  SYMBOLS. 


.\M>AiM)s.  AND  I'.anm:i:s 


Lritain,  carrying  the  king's  Hag,  called  '  the  jack,'  within  certain  seas 

and  hounds  to  strike  tlieir  topsail  and 
]n\\or  tlieir  tlag  with  like  ceremony  and 
respect  as  heretofore  hy  1  hitch  ships  to 
those  of  the  King  of  England  or  liis  an- 
cestors." 

At  llie  time  of  the  union,  devices  repre- 
senting it  were  popular.  Dur  engraving  is 
a  fac-simile  of  one  of  these. 

The  royal  ordinance  establishing  the  first 
'  union  jack  '  is  as  follows  :  — 


A  Union  Device  of  ISitO. 


"  Whereas  some  differences  hath  arisen  between  our  subjects  of 
South  and  North  Britain,  travelling  by  sea,  about  tlie  bearing  of  their 
flags ;  for  the  avoiding  of  all  such  contentions  hereafter,  we  have,  with 
the  advice  of  our  council,  ordered  from  henceforth  all  our  sul)jects  of 
this  Isle  and  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain,  and  the  inemljers  thereof, 
shall  bear  in  the  maintop  the  red  cross,  commonly  called  St.  George's 
cross,  and  the  white  cross,  commonly  called  St.  Andrew's  cross,  joined 
together,  according  to  a  form  made  by  our  heralds,  and  sent  by  us 
to  our  admiral,  to  be  published  to  our  said  subjects ;  and  in  the  fore- 
top  our  subjects  of  South  Britain  (England)  shall  wear  the  red  cross 
only,  as  they  were  wont ;  and  our  subjects  of  Xorth  Britain  (Scotland) 
in  the  foretop  the  white  cross  only,  as  they  were  accustomed  :  where- 
fore, we  will  and  command  all  our  subjects  to  be  conformable  and 
oljedient  to  this  our  order,  and  that  from  henceforth  they  do  not  use 
or  bear  their  flags  in  any  other  sort,  as  they  will  answer  to  tlie  con- 
trary at  their  peril. 

"  Given  at  our  Palace  this  12th  day  of  April,  4th  lacques,  x.jk  1606."  ^ 

There  are  instances  in  M-hicli  this  union  flag  is  represented  with 
the  St.  C^eorge's  cross  spread  across  the  entire  head,  and  the  St.  An- 
drew's cross  the  entire  fly.  No  drawing  is  extant  "of  the  form 
made  by  the  heralds,"  sent  to  the  admiral  to  be  published,  but  the 
paintings  of  Yandevelde  and  others  show  on  the  bowsprits  of  vessels 
of  war  the  flag  known  as  the  '  union  jack,'  presumptive  proof  that  such 
was  the  union  devised  by  the  heralds.  In  a  drawing  of  the  Duke  of 
York's  yacht  visiting  the  fleet  in  the  ^Nledway,  painted  by  Vandevelde 
and  preserved  in  the  British  Museum,  all  the  ensigns  have  a  red 
cross  in  a  canton ;  but  every  bowsprit  is  furnished  with  a  union  jack, 
and.  two  of  the  largest  ships  carry  it  aloft,  —  one,  the  Breda,  at  the 

'  United  Service  .Journal. 


OF   ANCIENT   AND   MODERN  NATIONS. 


151 


main,  and  another  at  the  mizzen.      There  is  also  an  admiral's  ship 

with  the  white  at  the  main. 

In  a  paper  dated  Friday,  Jan.  14,  1652,  "By  the  commissioners 

for  ordering  and  managing  y«  affairs  of  the  Admiralty  and  Xavy," 

ordering  what  flag  shall  be  worn  by  flag-ofiicers,  it  is  ordered,  "  all  the 

shijDps  to  wear  jacks  as  formerly." 

The  king's  proclamation,  Jan.  1,  1801,  establishing  and  ordering 

the  present  red  ensign,  known  as  the  '  meteor  flag  of  old  England,' 

which  the  lively  imagination  of  poets  has 
transformed  into  the  omnipotent  banner 
which  "for  a  thousand  years  has  braved 
the  battle  and  the  breeze,"  to  be  worn  by 
all  the  merchant  ships  of  the  kingdom,  in- 
stead of  the  ensign  before  that  time  usually 
worn  by  them,  says,  "  To  the  end  that  none 
of  our  subjects  may  presume  on  board 
their  ships  to  wear  our  flags,  jacks,  and 
pendants  which,  according  to  ancient  usage, 
have  been  appointed   as  a  distinction  to 

St.  Andrew.  St.  George.  St.  Patrick,    q^j,  sMps,  or  any  flags,  jacks,  or  peudauts 

in  shape  or  mixture  of  colors  so  far  resembling  ours  as  not  to  be 
easily  distinguished  therefrom,  we  do,  with  the  advice  of  our  privy 
council,  hereby  strictly  charge  and  command  all  our  subjects  what- 
soever that  they  do  not  presume  to  wear  on  any  of  their  ships  or 
vessels  our  jack,  commonly  called  the  'union  jack,'  nor  any  pen- 
dants, nor  any  such  colors  as  are  usually  borne  by  our  ships,  without 
particular  warrant  for  their  so  doing  from  us,  or  our  high  admiral  of 
Great  Britain,  or  the  commissioners  for  executing  the  office  of  high 
admiral  for  the  time  being ;  and  we  do  hereby  also  further  command 
all  our  loving  subjects,  that,  without  such  warrant  as  aforesaid,  they 
presume  not  to  wear  on  board  their  ships  or  vessels  any  flags,  jacks, 
pendants,  or  colors  made  in  imitation  of  or  resembling  ours,  or  any 
kind  of  pendants  whatsoever,  or  any  other  ensign  than  the  ensign 
described  on  the  side  or  margin  hereof,"  &c."  The  proclamation  then 
excepts  from  this  order  certain  vessels  temporarily  employed  by  the 
government,  which  are  to  "  wear  a  '  red  jack '  with  a  union  jack  de- 
scribed in  a  canton  at  the  upper  corner  thereof,  next  the  staff"."  All 
merchant  ships  displaying  the  union  jack,  &c.,  were  to  have  their 
colors  seized,  and  the  masters  and  commanders  and  other  persons 
so  offending  were  to  be  duly  punished.  This  union  flag  or  jack  was 
worn,  and  continues  to  be  worn,  on  the  bowsprit  of  all  ships  of  war. 


152  Tin:    SV.MUoLS,    STANDARDS,    AND    J^ANNKIiS 

It  is  also  worn  by  the  acliniral  of  the  fleet  at  the  main  of  his  llag-ship, 
and  is  the  garrison  coh)r  hoisted  over  all  the  forts  belonging  to  her 
Majesty's  dominions,  it  is  heraldically  described  thus:  The  crosses 
of  St.  George  and  St.  Andrew,  on  iields  arycnt  and  azure,  the  crosses 
saltire  of  St.  Andrew  and  St.  Patrick  quarterly,  per  saltire  counter 
charged  arycnt  and  gules,  the  latter  fimbriated  of  the  second,  sur- 
mounted by  the  cross  of  St.  George,  gules  fimbriated  as  the  saltire."  ^ 

It  does  not  appear  why  the  red  saltire  is  called  St.  Patrick's  cross, 
in  defiance  of  all  Church  tradition.  St.  Patrick  never  had  a  cross,  and 
to  give  him  one  is  simply  an  Irish  bull.  The  saltire,  so  far  as  it 
belongs  to  any  saint,  is  St.  Andrew's.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the 
red  saltire,  bordered  with  white,  really  represents  the  Fitz  Gerald 
arms,  "  argent,  a  saltire  gules." 

In  1823,  it  was  royally  ordained  no  merchant  ship  or  vessel  shovild 
carry  the  union  jack,  unless  it  was  bordered  on  all  sides  with  white, 
equal  in  breadth  to  one-fifth  of  the  breadth  of  the  jack  exclusive  of 
the  border.  The  penalty  for  using  the  royal  union  jack  on  board 
a  merchant  vessel  is  £500. 

An  idea  was  long  entertained  in  England  that  the  admiral's  red 
flag  had  been  taken  from  the  main  masthead  of  the  admiral's  ship, 
and  that  the  Dutch  obtained  that  trophy  in  one  of  the  battles  between 
Blake  and  Van  Tromp,  —  a  mistaken  notion,  for  the  red  flag  never 
has  been  surrendered.  The  last  admiral  who  wore  it,  before  it  was 
restored  to  the  navy  by  the  creation  of  a  batch  of  admirals  and  rear 
and  vice  admirals  of  the  red  after  the  battle  of  Trafalgar,  Oct.  21, 1805, 
was  Sir  George  Eooke,  as  admiral  of  the  fleet,  when  commander  of  the 
combined  forces  of  England  and  Holland  in  the  Mediterranean  in 
1703.  Upon  the  union  of  England  with  Scotland,  1606,  the  red  flag 
was  discontinued,  and  the  union  jack  superseded  a  red  flag  at  the 
main,  as  the  distinguishing  flag  of  the  admiral  of  the  fleet.^ 

Up  to  1864,  the  royal  navy  wore  ensigns  of  the  three  colors,  red, 
white,  or  blue,  according  to  the  rank  of  the  officer  commanding.  In 
that  year,  the  white  ensign  was  alone  reserved  for  the  royal  navy, 
and  the  blue  and  red  ensigns  were  given  up  to  the  use  of  the  naval 
reserve  and  mercliant  marine.  At  the  same  time,  the  several  grades 
of  admirals  of  the  red  and  blue  were  merged  under  the  white  ensign, 
with  a  St.  George's  red  cross  on  a  white  field  for  their  distinguishing 
flags,  the  union  being  continued  in  all  the  ensigns.^ 

1  British  Naval  Chronicle,  vol.  v.  pp.  64,  65. 

2  British  Naval  Chronicle,  1805,  also  1816. 

3  In  the  first  edition  of  this  work  the  full  circular  order  from  the  admiralty,  dated 
Aug.  4,  1864,  was  given. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODEEN  NATIONS.        15^ 

The  military  flags  of  Great  Britain  in  use  may  be  grouped  in  the 
two  divisions,  —  '  cavahy  banners '  styled  '  standards/  and  '  infantry 
colors.'  The  standards  of  the  cavalry  are  small  in  size ;  their  color 
is  determined  by  that  of  the  regimental  facings;  they  are  charged 
with  the  cipher,  number,  heraldic  insignia,  and  honors,  such  as 
'  Waterloo,'  '  Alma,'  &c.,  of  each  regiment.  The  standards  of  the 
household  cavalry  are  crimson,  richly  embroidered  with  the  royal 
insignia  of  Enoland. 

Every  infantry  regiment  or  battalion  of  the  line  has  its  "  pair  of 
colors."  One  is  the  queen's  color,  a  union  jack  charged  with  some 
one  or  more  of  the  regimental  devices ;  the  other  is  the  regimental 
color,  and  its  field  is  of  the  same  tincture  as  the  facings,  and  bears 
the  cipher,  number,  device,  motto,  and  honors  of  the  corps.  At  first, 
each  infantry  regiment  had  one  color  only ;  afterwards,  there  were 
three  to  each  regiment.  In  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne,  the  colors 
were  reduced  to  their  present  number,  —  a  '  pair.'  The  colors  of  the 
Foot  Guards  reverse  the  arrangement  of  those  of  the  line.  Their 
queen's  color  is  crimson,  either  with  or  without  a  cantoned  jack,  but 
always  charged  with  the  royal  cipher  and  crown,  and  the  regimental 
devices.  The  regimental  color  of  the  Guards  is  the  union  jack.  The 
Guards  also  have  small  company  colors. 

The  royal  artillery  and  rifles  of  the  line  have  no  colors.  The  vol- 
unteer regiments  have  been  left  to  determine  for  themselves  whether 
they  shall  carry  color.s,  and  also  the  character  of  the  colors  they  may 
decide  to  adopt.  What  may  be  termed  the  volunteer  banner  is  worthy 
of  the  force.  It  has  the  figures  of  an  archer  of  the  olden  time,  and  a 
rifleman  of  to-day,  with  the  motto,  "  Defence,  not  defiance."  ^ 

In  1873,  the  colors  of  the  native  army  in  India  were  assimilated  to 
those  of  the  British  army,  and  the  devices,  &c.,  of  the  colors  of  all  the 
native  regiments  were  ordered  to  be  registered  at  the  College  of  Arms. 

The  standard  of  a  regiment  is  a  telegraph  in  the  centre  of  the 
battle  to  speak  the  changes  of  the  day  to  the  wings.  "Defend  the 
colors !  form  upon  the  colors ! "  is  the  first  cry  and  first  thought  of 
a  soldier.  This  standard  contains  the  honor  of  the  band,  and  the 
brave  press  round  its  bearer.  An  instance  of  the  attachment  shown  by 
English  troops  to  their  standards  occurred  after  the  battle  of  Corunna.. 
It  was  night.  The  regimental  color  of  the  Fiftieth  was  missing ;  a  cry 
arose  that  it.  had  been  lost ;  the  soldiers  were  furious ;  Sir  Henry 
Fane,  with  a  loud  and  angry  voice,  called  out,  "  No,  no !  the  Fiftieth 
cannot  have  lost  their  colors  ! "     They  were  not  lost.     Two  ensigns  — 

^  Boutell's  Heraldry, 


ir)4  Tin:    SYMltoLS,    STANDAliDS,    AND    KANNKKS 

Stewart,  a  ►Scutchiuaii,  and  IMoore,  an  Iri.slnnan  —  hud  been  slain  as 
they  bore  the  banners  cliarging  through  the  vilhige  of  El  Vina.  Two 
color-sergeants,  seizing  the  prostrate  colors,  continued  tlie  charge,  and 
carried  them  through  the  battle.  Wlien  the  figlit  was  done,  an  otHcer 
received  one  of  these  standards  from  tlie  sergeant.  It  was  dark,  and 
he  forgot  l.>oth  their  use  and  their  honor,  and  had  gone  to  the  rear, 
intending  to  embark  with  them,  though  tlie  regiment  was  still  in 
position.  The  stray  color  was  found,  and  the  soldiers  pacified;  Imt 
this  olhcer  never  could  remove  the  feeling  which  his  well-meaning 
but  ill-judged  caution  had  produced  against  him.  Tiiis  shows  the 
sentiments  entertained  by  British  troops  for  their  colors,  pervading 
all  ranks,  from  the  general  to  the  drummer.  Sir  Henry  Fane's  words 
rendered  him  a  favorite  with  the  Fiftieth  liegiment  ever  after. 

A  British  color-sergeant,  shot  down  and  overrun  by  the  enemy, 
once  seized  in  his  mouth  a  corner  of  the  flag,  and  his  teeth  locked 
upon  it  in  the  rigidity  of  death.  The  enemy  cut  it  away,  leaving  a 
bit  between  his  fixed  teeth.  The  standard  was  retaken,  and  ever 
since  the  flag  of  the  regiment  is  made  with  that  little  piece  carefully 
cut  out,  in  memory  of  the  sergeant  who  was  buried  with  the  fragment 
in  his  mouth. 

In  the  jMilitary  Hospital  at  Chelsea  is  preserved  a  large  number  of 
military  trophies,  among  them  the  following  American  flags :  — 

1.  An  American  national  color  of  Second  Eegiment  of  the  line, 
taken  by  General  Brock  on  the  frontier. 

2.  An  American  flag,  taken  probably  in  the  Eevolutionary  War. 

3.  An  American  flag,  the  same  as  the  above. 

4.  A  regimental  color  of  the  Fourth  American  Regiment,  1812-14. 

5.  An  American  flag  taken  by  the  Eighty-fifth  Eegiment  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Mississippi. 

6.  An  American  flag,  taken  in  the  first  war,  probably  at  Boston. 

7.  An  American  regimental  flag  of  the  Second  Eegiment.^ 

The  American  ensign  of  the  Canadian  rebel  steamer  Caroline  is 
preserved  in  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  JMilitary  and  Naval  Institute, 
Scotland  Yard,  London. 

Immediately  before  the  battle  of  Trafalgar,  Nelson  exhibited  the 
ever  memorable  signal,  "  England  expects  every  man  vAll  do  his  duty." 
The  illustration  is  from  an  original  drawing  in  the  Eoyal  Service  In- 
stitution, and  shows  how  great  a  number  and  variety  of  flags  was 
used.  Each  set  of  flags  had  to  be  arranged  according  to  its  number 
in  the  signal-book,  and  run  up  to  the  masthead,  until  answered  and 

1  London  Paper,  1836. 


OF  ANCIENT  AND  MODERN  NATIONS. 


155 


understood  by  each  sliip.  Then  another  set  was  run  np,  and  so  on 
until  the  signal  was  completed.  Each  set  represented  a  word,  except 
the  last  word,  '  duty,'  which,  strange  to  say,  was  not  represented  by 

any  number  in  the 
signal-book,  and 
had  to  be  spelled 
out.  This  tedious 
method  of  signal- 
ling is  to  some  ex- 
tent still  used  by 
the  navy  and  mer- 
chant ships  of  all 
nations.  Sir  Har- 
ris Nicolas  deemed 
it  worth  while  to 
ascertain  as  pre- 
cisely as  he  could 
the    circumstances 

"England-expects-every-n,an-wai-do-his-d-u-t-y."  ^^^^^^^,  ^^^^^-^^^    ^j^^^^ 

words  were  uttered.  There  are  three  accounts  of  the  matter,  —  one 
by  Mr.  James,  in  his  '  Naval  History ; '  one  by  Captain  Blackwood, 
who  commanded  the  Euryalus  at  the  battle  of  Trafalgar  ;  and  one  by 
Captain  Pasco,  who  was  Nelson's  flag-lieutenant  in  the  victory.  Sir 
Harris  Nicolas  accepts  Pasco's  version,  because  that  officer  himself  sig- 
nalled the  words.  "  His  lordship  came  to  me  on  the  poop,"  says  Pasco, 
"  and,  after  ordering  certain  signals  to  be  made,  said,  '  Mr.  Pasco,  T  wish 
to  say  to  the  fleet,  "  England  confides  every  man  will  do  his  duty  !  "  ' 
and  he  added,  '  You  must  be  quick,  for  I  have  one  more  to  make,  which 
is  for  close  action.'  I  replied,  'If  your  lordship  will  permit  me  to 
substitute  "  expects  "  for  "  confides,"  the  signal  will  soon  be  com- 
pleted, because  the  word  "  expects  "  is  in  the  vocabulary,  whereas  the 
word  "  confides  "  must  be  spelled  ? '  His  lordship  replied,  in  haste, 
and  with  seeming  satisfaction, '  That  will  do,  Pasco  ;  make  it  directly  ! ' 
When  it  had  been  answered  by  a  few  ships  in  the  van,  he  ordered  me 
to  make  the  signal  for  close  action."  Captain  Blackwood  says  the 
correction  suggested  by  the  signal-ofticer  was  from  "  Nelson  expects  " 
to  "  England  expects ; "  but  Captain  Pasco's  is  accepted  as  being  more 
probable. 

The  flag  which  floated  over  the  Nelson  column  in  Trafalgar  Square  in 
1844  was  part  of  the  ensign  which  thirty-eight  years  before  waved  over 
the  hero  on  the  memorable  day  of  his  last  great  achievement  and  death. 


156  SVMliULS,    .STANDAKDS,    AND    IJANNKKS. 

A  gentleninn  residing  at  Sacnunonto.  Cal.,  Ims  in  liis  possession  a 
bauuer  of  green  wilh  a  goklen  harp  in  the  centre,  wliich  is  the  identical 
banner  carried  by  the  rebels  of  1798  in  Ireland,  and  most  notably  at 
the  siege  of  Drogheda.  It  was  bronglit  to  the  United  States  by  liis 
father,  James  Gildea.  The  Hag  is  thirty  i'eet  long  by  ten  wide,  and 
has  been  well  preserved. 

At  Cyprus,  in  1878,  when  Sir  Garnet  Wolseley  took  possession,  the 
British  Hag  was  solemnly  censed,  blessed,  and  hoisted  l)y  Greek  priests, 
the  guards  presenting  arms. 

Note. — Campbell,  tlie  poet  of  Hoj)e,  wrote,  some  time  previou.s  to  our  eivil  war,  the 
following  lines,  wliiuh,  however,  since  slavery  has  been  abolished,  at  the  expense  of  a 
bloody  and  costly  war,  have  now  no  significance  :  — 

"  United  States  I  your  banner  wears 

Two  emblems,  —  one,  of  fame  ; 
Alas  !  the  other  that  it  bears 

Keminds  us  of  your  shame. 
Your  standard's  constellation  types 

White  freedom  by  its  stars  ; 
But  what's  the  meaning  of  your  stripes,  — 

They  mean  your  negi'o's  scars." 

In  reply  to  this  bitter  epistle,  the  Hon.  George  Lunt,  of  Massachusetts,  •WTote  :  — 

"England  !  whence  came  each  glowing  hue 

That  tints  your  flag  of  meteor  light,  — 
The  streaming  red,  the  deeper  blue, 

Crossed  with  the  moonbeams  pearly  white  ? 
The  blood  and  bruise  —  the  blue  and  red  — 

Let  Asia's  groaning  viillions  sjicak  ; 
The  white,  it  tells  of  color  fled 

From  starving  Erin's  jKillid  cheek  I  " 

A  fair  retort,  as  true  to-day  as  it  was  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago. 

"The  cry  that  comes  across  the  sea 
From  your  low  cabins  reaches  me. 
Like  a  Banshee's  wild,  despairing  wail, 
Brought  on  the  surging  northern  gale, 
Connemara  ! 

"  Men  stagger  as  they  try  to  stand 
Upon  your  famine-stricken  land. 
And  women  lying  down  to  die. 
Bare  icy  breasts,  because  their  babies  cry  : 
Connemara ! "  ^ 

IRC,  in  Providence  Journal,  18S0. 


Pa^H  |.' 


PL  IV 


NEW  ENGLAND  COLORS    1686-1776 


NEW  ENGLAND  COLORS  1686 

(FROM  DRAFT  IN  BRITISH  STATE  PAPER  OFFICE 


Q 

II 

W' 

ZfB 

^^^■^^^^^^^^  ^^^ 

^ 

MERCHA 

NT  P 

^L  AG  1701 

NEW  ENGLAND  FLAG  1737 


FLAG  OF  THE  SCHOONER  ROYAL  SAVAGE 
/  JULY    1776 


PART   II. 

A.D.  860-1777. 


THE  EARLY   DISCOVERIES   OF  AMERICA,   AND   THE   FIRST 
BANNERS   PLANTED   ON  ITS   SHORES, 

A.D.  860-1634. 

COLONIAL  AND   PROVINCIAL  FLAGS, 

1634-1766. 

FLAGS  OF  THE   PRE-REVOLUTIONARY  AND   REVOLUTIONARY 
PERIOD,   PRECEDING   THE   STARS  AND   STRIPES, 

1766-1776. 

THE  GRAND  UNION   OR  CONTINENTAL  FLAG  OF   THE 

UNITED   COLONIES, 

1776-1777. 


"Far  o'er  yon  nzurc  main  tliy  viow  txttnd, 
Wlii'iv  seas  anil  .skies  in  IjIuu  confusion  lilund: 
Lo  !  there  a  mighty  reahn,  by  Heaven  lUsigned 
The  hist  retreat  lor  poor  oppress'il  mankiml  : 
Fornieil  witli  tliat  pomp  which  marks  the  liaml  divine, 
And  clothes  yon  vault  where  worlds  unnumhered  shine. 
Hero  spacious  plains  in  solemn  grandeur  spread, 
Here  cloudy  forests  cast  eternal  shade  ; 
Kieh  valleys  wind,  the  sky  tall  mountains  liiave. 
And  inland  seas  for  commerce  s])read  tiie  wave. 
With  noble  floods,  the  sea-like  rivers  roll. 
And  fairer  lustre  purples  round  tlie  pole. 
Here,  warmed  by  happy  suns  gay  mines  unfold 
The  useful  iron  and  the  lasting  gold  ; 
Pure,  changing  gems  in  silence  learn  to  glow, 
And  mock  the  .splendors  of  the  covenant  bow. 

Far  from  all  realms  this  world  imperial  lies, 
Seas  roll  between,  and  threat'ning  tempests  rise, 
Alike  removed  beyond  ambition's  pale. 
And  the  bold  pinions  of  the  venturous  sail  ; 
Till  circling  years  the  destined  period  bring, 
And  a  new  iMoses  lift  tlie  daring  wing. 

On  yon  fair  strand  behold  that  little  train 
Ascending  venturous  o'er  the  unmeasured  main ; 
No  dangers  fright,  no  ills  the  course  delay  ; 
'T  is  virtue  jirompts,  and  God  directs  the  way. 

Here  emjiire's  last  and  brightest  throne  sliall  rise, 
And  peace  and  right  and  freedom  greet  the  skies  ; 
To  morn's  fair  realms  her  trading  shijjs  sliall  sail 
Or  lift  their  canvas  to  the  evening  gale  : 
In  wisilom's  walks  her  sons  ambitious  .soar, 
Tread  starry  fields,  and  untried  scenes  explore  ; 
And  hark  !  what  strange,  what  solemn  bi'eaking  strain 
Swells,  wildly  murmuring  o'er  the  far,  far  main  ! 
Down  time's  long  lessening  vale  the  notes  decay. 
And  lost  in  distant  ages  roll  away." 

Timothy  Dwight's  Propheoj  of  America,  written  1771-1774. 


PART   11. 


THE  .EAELY  DISCOVEEIES   OF  AMEEICA,   AND  THE  FIEST 
BANNERS   PLANTED   ON  ITS   SHOEES, 

A.D.  860-1636. 

"  And  then  the  bhie-eyed  Norseman  told 
A  saga  of  the  days  of  old. 
'  There  is/  said  he,  '  a  wondrous  book 
Of  legends  in  the  old  Norse  tongue, 
Of  the  dead  kings  of  NoiToway,  — 
Legends  that  once  were  told  or  sung 
In  many  a  smoky  fire-side  nook. 

And  he  who  looks  may  find  therein 

The  story  that  I  now  begin.'  "  —  Longfellow. 


A  Nullhiuau  Vessel,  a.u.  bOO-1014. 


ino  nijiciN  AND  im;(h;i;i:ss  of  thk 

ExrKDiTiONS  to  the  shores  of  North  America  are  said  to  have  gone 
fortli  I'rom  the  liritish  Isles  even  iu  advance  of  the  Nortlimen.  Only 
vague  traditionary  accounts  of  these  expeditions  have  come  down  to  us, 
but  records  of  early  voyages  from  CIreenland  liave  been  found,  w  hi(  h 
afford  strong  circumstantial  evidence  tluit  the  Xew  England  coast  \v;is 
visited,  and  that  settlements  were  attempted  thereon,  by  Scandinavian 
navigators,  five  hundred  years  before  the  first  voyage  of  Columbus. 

The  fact  that  the  Northmen  knew  of  the  existence  of  this  conti- 
nent prior  to  the  age  of  Columbus  was  prominently  brought  before  the 
people  of  this  country  in  1837,  when  the  Eoyal  Society  of  Northern 
Antiquaries,  at  Copenhagen,  published  their  work  on  the  antiquities  of 
North  America,  under  the  editorial  supervision  of  that  great  Icelandic 
scholar,  Professor  Eafn.  It  had  always  been  known  that  the  histories 
of  certain  early  voyages  to  America  by  the  Northmen  were  preserved 
in  the  libraries  of  Denmark  and  Iceland.  Adam  of  Bremen,  who 
wrote  about  a.d.  1074,  had  heard  of  the  exploits  of  the  Northmen  in 
Vineland,  and  made  mention  of  that  country  in  his  work. 

Naddod,  a  Scandinavian  pirate  or  viking,  in  the  year  860,  and  Gardar, 
a  Dane,  soon  after,  are  said  to  be  the  first  Northmen  who,  driven  by 
storms,  came  in  sight  of  and  reconnoitered  Iceland.  The  news  they 
carried  home  induced  others  to  follow  in  their  track,  and  Northman 
Ingolf,  A.D.  874,  was  the  first  who  settled  there.  He  and  his  men  found 
there  Christian  Irishmen,  the  Papas  or  Papar,  who  soon  left  the  island. 

In  876,  a  northeast  storm  drove  one  of  these  Icelandic  settlers, 
named  Gunnbjorn,  to  some  rock  near  Greenland,  which  he  appears 
only  to  have  seen  in  the  distance.  It  was  more  than  fifty  years  before 
any  other  adventurer  followed  in  his  track,  until,  iu  928,  Are  Marson 
was  driven  by  a  storm  from  Iceland  to  America.^  At  last,  in  the  spring 
of  984-985,  Eric  the  Red,  having  been  banished,  for  manslaughter, 
from  Iceland,  sailed  with  the  intention  of  seeking  the  country  seen  by 
Gunnl)jorn.  Having  found  it,  he  established  a  settlement,  which  he 
called  Brattalid,  in  a  bay  on  the  west  coast  of  Greenland,  which,  after 
him,  was  called  Eric's  Fiord.  He  found  the  country  pleasant,  full  of 
meadows,  and  of  a  milder  climate  than  the  more  northern  Iceland. 
He  gave  it  the  name  of  Greenland,^  saying  that  this  would  be  an  in- 
viting name,  which  would  attract  other  people  from  Iceland.  Another 
adventurer,  Heriulf,  soon  followed  Jiim,  and  established  himself  on  the 
west  coast,  north  of  our  present  Cape  Farewell,  at  a  place  which,  after 
him,  was  called  Heriulfsness. 

1  De  Costa's  Pre.  Col.  Dis.  p.  86. 

2  De  Costa  lioUs  tliat  Eric  did  not  originate  the  name. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  161 

Heriulf  had  a  son,  Biarne,  who,  when  his  father  went  to  Greenland, 
was  on  a  trading  voyage  to  Norway.  Eeturning  to  Iceland  in  986, 
and,  finding  that  his  father  had  gone  to  the  west  with  Eric  the  Eed, 
he  resolved  to  follow  him,  and  to  spend  the  winter  in  Greenland. 

Boldly  setting  sail,  he  encountered  northerly  storms.  After  many 
days  they  lost  their  reckoning  or  course,  and,  when  the  weather  cleared, 
descried  land  entirely  unlike  that  described  to  them  as  Greenland. 
They  saw  it  was  a  more  southern  land,  and  covered  with  forests.  It 
not  being  the  intention  of  Biarne  to  explore  new  countries,  but  to  find 
his  father  in  Greenland,  after  sailing  two  more  days  and  nights,  he 
improved  a  southwest  wind,  turned  to  the  northeast,  and,  after 
several  days'  sailing  by  other  lands  bordered  by  icebergs,  reached 
Heriulfsness.  His  return  occupied  nine  days,  and  he  speaks  of  three 
distinct  tracts  of  land  along  which  he  had  coasted,  one  of  which  he 
supposed  to  be  a  large  island. 

The  results  of  the  expedition  of  Biarne  were  these :  He  was  the 
first  European  Avho  saw,  though  from  a  distance,  and  very  cursorily, 
some  parts  of  the  coasts  of  ISTew  England,  iSTova  Scotia,  and  New- 
foundland. When  he  returned  to  Norway,  he  was  blamed  for  not 
having  examined  the  new-found  countries  more  accurately. 

In  Greenland  there  was  much  talk  about  undertaking  a  voyage  of 
discovery  to  the  west.  Leif,  the  son  of  Eric  the  Red,  the  first  settler 
in  Greenland,  having  bought  Biarne's  ship,  a.d.  1000,  with  a  crew  of 
thirty-five  men,  among  whom  was  Biarne  himself,  went  out  on  Biarne's 
track  to  the  southwest.  They  anchored  and  went  on  shore,  probably 
at  Newfoundland,  and  after  a  brief  delay  pursued  their  voyage,  and 
came  to  a  low,  wooded  coast,  with  shores  of  white  sand,  which  they 
named  Markland  (Woodland),  our  present  Nova  Scotia.^  Continuing 
their  course,  in  two  days  they  again  made  land,  a  promontory  project- 
ing in  a  northeasterly  direction  from  the  main,  corresponding  to  our 
present  Cape  Cod. 

Leif,  rounding  this  cape  to  the  southward,  sailed  westward,  and 

1  About  1659,  Francis  Fuller,  of  Winthrop,  Maine,  stated  that  he  went  as  a  ship  car- 
penter's apprentice  to  the  Kennebec,  and  at  Agrys  Point,  near  the  present  town  of  Pittston, 
three  miles  below  the  city  of  Gardiner,  in  clearing  the  ground  for  a  ship-yard,  tliey  dis- 
covered the  bottom  of  a  brick  chimney.  Furtlier  examination  disclosed  the  remains  of 
thirteen  other  chimneys.  "  Within  the  limits  of  one,"  said  Mr.  Fuller,  "grew  a  tree  three 
feet  in  diameter.  We  had  the  curiosity  to  count  the  rings  of  this  tree,  to  ascertain  its 
age,  and  found  that  they  exceeded  six  hundred,  thereby  indicating  that  it  was  over  six 
hundred  years  old.  We  concluded  a  village  had  existed  there  long  before  Columbus  dis- 
covered America." — Joseph  Williamson,  Esq.,  on  the  Northmen  in  Maine,  in  Historical 
Magazine,  January,  1869. 

11 


1(;2  OKKJIN   AM>   I'I;(h;i;ess  of  TIIH 

entered  a  bay  or  liarbor.  ami  went  on  shore.  Finding  the  country 
very  jileasant,  he  conchidt-d  to  .spend  the  winter  thure,  and  formed  a 
settlenient,  which  was  called  Leilslnidir  (Leifs  l)l(ick-house  or  dwell- 
ing). It  is,  with  a  degree  of  probability,  .supi)o.sed  this  settlcnu'iit  was 
on  the  coast  of  Ifhode  Island,  in  Xarragansett  15ay,  jjcrhaps  not  far 
from  Xewport.  Leif  and  his  men  made  several  exploring  expeditions 
to  the  interior.  On  one  of  these  a  German  named  Tyrker,  who  hud 
long  resided  with  Leif's  father  in  Iceland  and  Greenland,  lost  his  way, 
and  was  missing.  Leif,  with  some  of  his  men,  went  in  search  of  him, 
and  had  not  gone  far  when  they  saw  him  coming  out  from  a  wood, 
holding  something  in  his  hands,  coming  towards  them,  very  much 
excited,  and  speaking  in  German.  At  last  he  told  them,  in  Norse, 
"  I  found  vines  and  grapes,"  showing  what  he  held  in  his  hands.  Leif, 
an  Icelander  and  Greenlander,  probably  had  never  seen  fresh  grapes, 
and  asked,  "  Is  that  true,  my  friend  ? "  and  then  Tyrker  said  that  he 
well  knew  they  were  real  grapes,  having  been  born  and  educated  in  a 
country  in  which  there  were  plenty  of  vines.  The  Northmen  col- 
lected their  boat  fidl  of  grapes,  and  from  this  circumstance  Leif  gave 
this  new  southern  country  the  name  of  Vinland.  During  the  winter, 
Leif  observed  that  the  climate  of  Viulaud  was  so  mild  that  cattle 
could  be  kept  out-doors  unsheltered,  and  that  throughout  the  year  the 
days  and  nights  were  much  more  equal  in  length  than  in  Greenland. 
On  the  shortest  day  in  Vinland  the  sun  was  above  the  horizon  from 
7.30  A.M.  to  4.30  P.M.  This  astronomical  observation  confirms  the 
generally  adopted  view  that  their  settlement  was  in  the  southern  part 
of  New  England.  Filling  their  vessel  with  wood,  they  returned  to 
Greenland  in  the  spring.^ 

Leif's  brother,  Thorwald,  being  of  opinion  the  new  country  had 
not  been  explored  sufficiently,  borrowed  Leif's  ship,  and,  aided  by 
his  advice  and  direction,  commenced  another  voyage  to  this  country 
in  1002.  Sailing  on  the  track  of  his  predecessors,  he  arrived  at 
Leifbudir,  in  Vinland,  and  spent  the  winter  in  fishing  and  cutting 
wood.  In  the  spring  he  sent  out  his  long-boat  to  the  southward 
on  a  voyage  of  discovery,  and  she  did  not  return  until  the  fall  of  the 
year. 

These  events  took  place  about  the  time  of  the  massacre  of  the  Danes 

1  Mr.  "Williamson,  in  his  article  on  the  Nortlunen  in  Maine,  contends  that  the  island 
to  the  eastward  of  the  main  was  Monhegan,  while  the  river  issuing  from  lakes,  &c.,  is 
well  represented  by  the  Kennebec,  which  joins  the  ocean  near  that  island.  De  Monts, 
who  visited  Acadie  in  1607,  speaks  of  grapes  in  several  places,  and  they  were  in  such 
plenty  on  the  Isle  of  Orleans,  in  lat.  47°,  that  it  was  called  the  Island  of  Bacchus. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


163 


in  England,  and  the  revengeful  invasion  of  the  English  coast  by 
Sweyne,  whose  sister  Gunhilda,  with  her  husband  and  son,  had  been 
put  to  death  in  the  presence  and  by  command  of  Edric  Streone,  one 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  chieftains.  He  ravaged  Devonshire,  Dorsetshire, 
and  Wiltshire,  as  also  other  parts,  and  burnt  several  towns,  until 


Etheldred  was  glad  to  purchase  a  two  years'  respite  at  a  cost  of 
£36,000,  equivalent  to  the  worth  of  720,000  acres  of  land  at  that 
time.     He  was  also  compelled  to  feed  his  invaders.^ 

The  Danish  ships  with  which  Sweyne  made  his  descent  upon  the 
English  coast  in  1004  have  been  described  with  minuteness  by  con- 

^  Soutliey's  Naval  History. 


1(;4  OKKJIN    AM»    I'KKCKKSS    OF     Till: 

temporary  chroniclers,  ami  alVonl  us  uu  idea  of  the  vessels  in  which 
T.t'if  and  his  brother  Thorwald  sailed  along  the  American  coast. 

•  i^acli  vessel,"  says  Sir  N.  Harris  Nicolas,'  citing  contemporaneous 
chronicles,  "  had  a  high  deck  and  bore  a  distinctive  emblem  indicating 
its  commander,  similar,  probably,  in  object,  to  the  banners  of  later 
chieftains.  The  i>rows  of  the  ships  yvere  ornamented  with  figures  of 
lions,  V»ulls,  dolphins,  and  of  men,  made  of  copjjcr  gilt,  and  at  the 
mastheads  of  others  were  vanes  shaped  like  birds  with  expanded 
wings,  showing  whence  the  wind  l)lew.  Their  sides  were  i)ainted 
with  various  colors,  and  the  shields  of  the  soldiers,  of  polished  steel, 
were  placed  in  rows  around  the  gunwales.  Sweyne's  own  ship  was 
the  Great  Dragon,  built  in  the  form  of  the  animal  whose  name  it 
bore ;  its  head  forming  the  prow,  and  its  tail  the  stern.  The  mys- 
terious Scandinavian  standard  of  white  silk,  having  in  its  centre  a 
raven,  wdth  extended  wings  and  beak  open,  the  supposed  insurer  of 
victor}'-,  which  had  been  embroidered  by  three  of  Sweyne's  sisters  in 
one  night,  amidst  charms  and  magical  incantations,  was  on  board  his 
ship,  but  it  was  not  displayed  until  he  landed  in  England." 

The  next  year,  1004,  Thorwald  undertook  another  voyage,  and  had 
a  battle  with  the  aborigines,  it  is  conjectured  near  the  harbor  of 
Plymouth.  Of  course  the  victory  was  with  the  Europeans.  After 
the  victory,  Thorwald  asked  his  men  whether  any  had  been  wounded. 
Upon  their  denying  this,  he  said,  "  I  am :  I  have  an  arrow  under  my  arm 
wdiich  will  be  my  death-blow  1 "  Advising  them  to  dejDart  as  soon  as 
possible,  he  requested  them  to  bury  him  on  a  hilly  promontory  over- 
grown with  wood,  which  he  had  previously  selected  as  his  abode, 
saying :  "  I  was  a  prophet,  for  now  I  shall  dwell  there  for  ever.  There 
you  shall  bury  me,  and  plant  two  crosses,  one  at  my  head  and  one  at 
my  feet,  and  call  the  place  '  Krossaness,'  —  the  cape  of  the  crosses, 
—  for  all  time  coming."  Thorwald  upon  this  died,  and  his  men  did 
as  he  had  ordered  them.  Thorwald  was  the  ancestor  of  Thorwaldsen 
the  sculptor,  and  in  an  unpublished  poem  Edward  Everett  expressed 
a  hope  that  the  artist  would  commemorate  in  undying  stone  the  dis- 
coverers to  Europe  of  Xorth  America. 

"  Thonvald  shall  live  for  aye 

In  Thorwaldsen." 

But,  alas  !  the  sculptor  died  with  the  hope  unfulfilled.^ 

Thorwald's  men  returned  to  the  settlement  at  Leifsbudir,  and 
spent  with  them  the  following  winter.     But  in  the  spring  of  1005, 

1  History  of  the  Royal  Navy,  vol.  i. 

2  Boston  Daily  Advertiser,  July  17,  1872. 


FLAG   OF   THE    UNITED    STATES.  165 

having  collected  a  cargo  of  wood,  furs,  and  dried  grapes,  tiiey  sailed 
to  Greenland.  The  results  of  Tliorwald's  expedition  were,  that  he 
and  his  men  stayed  on  the  coast  of  New  England  nearly  two  years, 
principally  occupied  in  explorations.  They  sailed  along  the  south 
coast  of  New  England  towards  and  perhaps  beyond  New  York. 
They  recognized  and  described  more  minutely  the  important  head- 
lands of  Cape  Cod,  and  gave  it  the  name  of  '  Kiarlarness,'  —  Keel 
Cape,  —  because  there  they  experienced  bad  weather  and  broke  their 
keel,  a  piece  of  which,  after  repairing  their  ship,  they  stuck  up  on  the 
reef  They  intended  an  expedition  along  the  coast  toward  the  north, 
which  was  turned  back,  near  the  harbor  of  Boston,  by  the  death  of 
Thorwald. 

The  next  voyager  was  Thorstein,  Eric's  third  son,  who  resolved 
to  proceed  to  Vinland  in  his  brother's  ship,  with  twenty-five  able  and 
strong  men,  to  obtain  his  brother's  body.  His  wife,  Gudrida,  a  woman 
of  energy  and  prudence,  accompanied  him.  They  got  no  farther  tlian 
Greenland,  when  a  sickness  broke  out.  Thorstein  and  others  died, 
and  Gudrida  returned  with  the  ship  to  Eric's  fiord  on  the  southern 
coast  of  Greenland.  In  the  following  summer,  lOOC,  two  ships  arrived 
at  Eric's  fiord  from  Iceland.  Thorfinn,  a  wealthy  and  powerful  man 
of  illustrious  lineage,  who  commanded  one  of  them,  fell  in  love  with 
Gudrida,  the  widow  'of  Thorstein,  and  married  her.  Thorfinn,  urged 
by  his  wife  and  others,  resolved  to  undertake  a  voyage  to  the  south, 
and  in  the  summer  of  1007  prepared  three  ships,  their  united  com- 
panies amounting  in  all  to  one  liundred  and  sixty  men,  and,  with 
the  intention  of  colonizing  in  the  new  and  beautiful  land,  took  all 
kinds  of  live-stock  along.  They  sailed  in  the  spring  of  1008,  and 
were  the  first  European  navigators  that  made  a  coasting  voyage  along 
the  coast  of  Maine,  keeping  in  sight  of  the  laud  until  they  came  to 
Cape  Cod,  which,  from  its  long  sandy  beaches  and  downs,  they  named 
Furderstranclr,  —  beaches  of  wonderful  length.  Their  settlement  was 
formed  near  Leifsbudir,  on  the  other  side  of  the  water,  at  a  place 
which  pleased  Thorfinn  better,  and  which  was  called  Thorfins-budir. 
It  stood  near  a  small  recess  or  bay,  called  by  them  '  hop '  or  '  corner.' 
On  the  low  grounds  around  this  hop  they  found  fields  of  wheat 
growing  wild,  and  on  the  rising  ground  plenty  of  vines.  Here 
Gudrida,  the  wife  of  Thorfinn,  gave  birth  to  a  son,  who  received  the 
name  of  Snorre,  who  must  be  considered  the  first  American  child 
born  on  the  continent,  of  European  parents.  On  a  subsequent  at- 
tempt to  explore  the  coast  of  Maine,  Thorhall,  one  of  Tliorfinn's  men, 
was  driven  over  to  the  coast  of  Ireland.     After  a  while,  discontent 


IGd  (tiJiriiN  AM)  i'iM)(;in:ss  of  tiii: 

and  dissensions  broke  out  among  the  settlers,  and  Thorfinn,  with  his 
wile  Gudrida,  and  his  American  son  Snorre,  tlien  three  years  of  age, 
lel't  the  country  together,  and  with  a  good  soutlierly  wind  returned 
to  Greenland.  It  is  probable  a  party  of  liis  meu  icinained  behind, 
and  continued  the  settlement  of  Vinland.  Thortinn  never  returned, 
but  afterwards  went  to  Xorway,  and  from  thence,  in  1<(14,  to  Iceland, 
where  he  bought  an  estate,  and  resided  for  the  remainder  of  his 
life  with  his  wife  and  son.  After  liis  death  and  the  marriage  of 
Snorre,  his  widow  Gudrida  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Kome,  where  she 
was  received  with  distinction.  Afterwards  she  returned  to  her  son's 
estate  in  Iceland,  where  Snorre  had  built  a  church,  and  where,  after 
aU  her  adventures,  she  long  lived  as  a  religious  recluse.^ 

In  1121,  the  voyage  to  Vinland  of  a  bishop  of  Greenland,  named 
Eric,  is  mentioned  in  '  Icelandic  Annals.'  Eric  was  appointed  bishop 
of  Greenland,  but  performed  no  duties  after  his  consecration,  and 
eventually  resigned  that  See  in  order  to  undertake  the  mission  to 
Vinland.  The  fact  that  such  a  high  ecclesiastical  functionary  should 
go  to  Vinland  appears  good  proof  that,  since  Thorfinn's  time,  North- 
men settlers  or  traders  had  tarried  there.  Of  the  results  of  his  ex- 
pedition we  have  no  particular  information.  After  this  voyage,  we 
hear  no  more  of  Vinland  for  more  than  one  hundred  years,  nor  of 
countries  southwest  of  Greenland.  Then,  in  1285,  two  Icelandic 
clergymen,  Adalbrand  and  Thorwald  Helgason,  visited,  on  the  west 
of  Iceland,  "a  new  land;"  and  in  1288,  Eric,  king  of  Denmark,  sent 
out  a  ship  commanded  by  liolfe,  to  pay  a  visit  to  this  new  land,  sup- 
posed to  have  been  Newfoundland.  In  1290,  Eolfe  travelled  through 
Iceland,  and  called  out  men  for  a  voyage  to  the  new  land. 

Another  hundred  years  after  this  event,  the  '  Icelandic  Annals ' 
has  the  following  remarkable  though  short  report :  "  In  the  year 
13-47,  a  vessel  having  a  crew  of  seventeen  men  sailed  from  Iceland  to 
Markland."  From  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  century  down  to  the 
discovery  of  America  by  Columbus,  Cabot,  and  others,  we  learn  no 

•  The  Dighton  Rock,  six  ami  a  lialf  miles  from  Taunton,  Mass.,  on  the  east  side  of 
Taunton  River,  a  boulder  of  fine  gray  rock,  twelve  feet  long  and  five  feet  high,  has  an  in- 
sciiption  in  the  middle  (surrounded  by  rude  Indian  hieroglyphics  of  a  later  date)  which 
is  supposed  to  be  the  work  of  the  Northmen,  and  to  relate  that  Thorfinn  Karlsefne 
established  himself  there  with  one  hundred  and  fifty-one  men.  A  copy  of  the  inscrip- 
tion was  shown  to  a  !Mohawk  chief,  who  said  it  represented  a  triumph  of  Indians  over 
a  wild  beast.  !Mr.  Schoolcraft  showed  a  copy  to  an  Algonquin,  who  gave  a  similar  in- 
terpretation, but  the  central  figures  he  rejected,  as  having  no  connection  with  the  rest. 
That  two  distinct  parties  were  concerned  in  making  the  inscription  is  clear  from  the 
testimony  of  the  Indians.  See  Antiquitates  Americame,  pp.  355-371.  There  has  been 
recently  a  proposition  to  remove  this  rock  to  Copenhagen. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  167 

more  of  Scandinavian  undertakings  in  this  direction.  The  heroic  age 
of  the  jSTorthmen,  and  their  power  and  spirit  of  enterprise,  had  long 
passed  by/  though  there  is  evidence  tending  to  show  that  communi- 
cation was  never  suspended. 

These  early  voyagers  left  no  traces  of  their  presence  on  the  con- 
tinent, unless  it  shall  be  conceded  that  the  round  tower  or  mill  at 
Newport,  about  the  origin  of  which  history  and  tradition  are  alike 
silent,  was  built  by  them :  it  stood  there  when  the  English  people  first 
visited  Ehode  Island,  and  the  Narragansett  Indians  had  no  traditions  of 
its  origin.^  ]\Iany  have  supposed  that  the  skeleton  in  armor  dug  up  near 
Fall  Eiver  was  a  relic  of  a  Northman  killed  by  the  natives  in  the  battle 
with  Karlsefne.    Longfellow  has  immortalized  this  legend  in  his  verse. 

Information  of  these  voyages  existed  in  Europe.  But  the  dis- 
covery was  chiefly  remembered  in  traditionary  tales  of  the  exploits 
of  these  vikings ;  and  these  new  lands  were  often  considered  a  part 
of  the  European .  continent,  connected  along  the  ice-bound  regions  of 
the  north.  When  Columbus  conceived  the  grand  idea  of  reaching 
Asia  by  sailing  westward,  no  account  of  these  Scandinavian  voyages 
was  current  in  Europe.^ 

It  is  certain  that  the  junks  and  boats  of  the  Asiatic  nations  driven 
by  storms  from  the  islands  and  coasts  of  Asia,  drifting  along  on  the 
kuro-sima,  or  black  current,  which  skirts  the  coast  of  Japan  and 
is  lost  in  Behring's  Straits,  and  which  answers  in  the  Pacific  to 
the  Gulf  stream  of  the  Atlantic,  were  thrown  upon  the  Pacific  coast 
of  America,  and  that  their  shipwrecked  crews  and  passengers  found 
their  way  into  the  interior  of  the  continent.  It  also  seems  probable 
that  other  Asiatics  found  their  way  by  the  Aleutian  Isles  and  Behring's 
Straits  from  the  projecting  capes  of  Asia  to  our  Pacific  shores.  Some 
refer  the  origin  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  America  to  the  Phoenicians, 
others  perceive  evidences  of  their  Egyptian  or  Hindoo  parentage,  and 
others  claim  they  are  the  lost  tribes  of  Israel  "  who  took  counsel  to 
go  forth  into  a  far  country  where  never  mankind  dwelt." 

1  An  account  of  the  Scandinavian  voyagers  is  to  be.  found  in  the  Collections  of  the 
Maine  Historical  Society,  containing  a  History  of  the  Discovery  of  Maine,  by  J.  G.  Kohl, 
published  in  1869,  which,  De  Costa  .say.s,  is  a  mass  of  errors,  and  tliat  he  wrote  his 
*  Northmen  in  Maine '  to  show  we  liave  no  e\'idence  tliat  the  Nortlimen  visited  ^Maine. 
He  .says,  "  they  may  have  done  so,  but  we  do  not  know  it."  His  American  editors  are 
responsible  for  some  of  the  errors. 

■•2  For  an  account  of  the  Old  Mill,  see  'The  "Old  Mill"  at  Newport,  a  New  Study  of 
an  Ohl  Tuzzle,'  by  E.  G.  Hatfield,  illustrated  in  Scribner's  Monthly,  vol.  viii.,  March, 
1879,  pp.  6-32-642. 

8  Columbus  visited  Iceland  in  the  spring  of  1477,  fifteen  years  before  his  first  voyage. 
A  few  years  after  his  voyage  to  Ireland  we  find  him  urging  his  theory  of  reaching  Asia 
by  sailing  to  the  west. 


ins  oT^irnx  A\n  pkocim'.ss  of    iiii; 

Witliin  almost  every  State  and  Territory,  remains  of  human  skill 
and  labor  have  been  found,  which  seem  to  attest  tlie  existiMutu  liere 
of  a  civilized  people  before  the  ancestors  of  the  i»re.sent  Indian  tribes 
Ixjcame  masters  of  the  continent.  Some  of  thuse  appear  to  give  evi- 
dence of  intercourse  between  the  peui)le  of  the  Old  World  and  those 
of  America  centuries,  perhaps,  before  the  birth  of  Christ,  and  at  periods 
soon  afterwards.^  Remains  of  fortifications,  similar  in  Ibrm  to  those 
of  ancient  European  nations,  have  been  discovered,  —  fire-places  of 
regular  structure,  weapons  and  utensils  of  copper,  and  M-alls  of  forts 
and  cities.  There  are  accounts  of  a  Roman  coin  found  in  ^lissouri ; 
a  Persian  coin  in  Ohio ;  a  bit  of  silver  in  Genesee,  N.  Y.,  with  the 
year  of  our  Lord  GOO  engraved  on  it,  &c.  Near  IMontevideo,  South 
America,  a  tomb  is  said  to  have  been  found  in  wliich  were  two 
ancient  swords,  a  helmet,  and  shield,  with  Greek  inscriptions  show- 
ing they  were  made  in  the  time  of  Alexander  the  Great,  330  years 
before  Christ.  A  few  years  since,  an  earthenware  vessel  containing 
Roman  copper  coins,  bearing  the  names  of  jNIaximinus,  Dioclesian, 
and  Constantine,  were  dug  up  near  the  site  of  Old  Panama  on  the 
Isthmus.  The  interesting  question  is,  how  these  coins  of  the  third 
and  fourth  centuries  a.d.  came  there,  though  the  probable  explana- 
tion is  that  they  were  the  collection  of  a  virtuoso  who  buried  them 
for  safety  when  the  city  was  sacked  by  the  buccaneers.^  Recently  a 
stone,  said  to  be  covered  with  Tyrian  inscriptions,  has  been  found  on 
the  Upper  Amazon,  which  Dom  Pedro  II.  lias  caused  to  be  deposited 
in  the  imperial  museum  at  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

The  flags,  banners,  or  standards  which  these  peoples  planted  upon 
the  shores  of  America  in  token  of  occupancy  and  sovereignty  must  ever 
remain  conjectural.     Nothing  concerning  them  has  come  down  to  us. 
Beyond  doubt,  the   first  European   banners   displayed   upon   the 
shores  of  the  New  World,  of  which  there  is  any 
authentic  account,  were  those  unfurled  by  Co- 
lumbus, when  he  landed  upon  the  small  outly- 
ing island  of  St.  Salvador,  Oct.  12,  1492,  which, 
fortunately,  have   been  described  by  his  son: 
"  Columbus,  dressed  in  scarlet,  first  stepped  on 
shore  from  the  little  boat  which  bore  him  from 
his  vessels,  bearing  the  royal  standard  of  Spain 
emblazoned  with  the  arms  of  Castile  and  Leon 
fa  turretted  and  embattled  castle  or,  on  a  field 

The  standard  of  Spain,  1492.  ,        „        ^,      ^.,  ,      ,  ^n 

(J^dm  lor  Castile,  quarterly  on  a  field  argent,  a 
1  Lossing's  History  of  the  United  States.  ^  Panama  Echo. 


FLAG   OF  THE   UNITED   STATES. 


169 


The  Caravel  iii  which  Columbus  di; 
covered  America. 

From  a  drawing  attributed  to  him  in  the    1499 
'  Epistola  Christoforo  Columbi.' 


lion  rampant  gules  for  Leon]  in  his  own  hand,  followed  by  the  Pinzons 
in  their  own  boats,  each  bearing  the  banner  of  the  expedition ;  viz., 

a  white  flag  with  a  green  cross,  having  on 
each  side  the  letters  F  and  Y,  surmounted 
by  golden  crowns."  ^ 

In  1497,  Vespucci,  on  his  first  voyage, 
discovered  the  mainland  at  Yucatan. 

In  1498,  Columbus  discovered  the  con- 
tinent, and  planted  the  Spanish  banners 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Orinoco,  supposing 
it  to  be  an  island  on  the  coast  of  Asia. 
He  lived  and  died  in  ignorance  of  the 
real  grandeur  of  his  discoveries,  while 
Americus  Vespucius,  a  Florentine,  who 
explored  the  eastern  coast  of  South  Amer- 
ica north  of  the  Orinoco,  a  year  later, 
made  the  first  formal  announce- 
ment to  the  world  of  the  great  discovery, 
in  1507,  and  thus  gave  a  name  to  the  new  continent  of  the  west.^ 
At  the  court  of  England,  "  there  was  great  talk  of  the  undertaking 
of  Columbus,  which  was  affirmed  to  be  a  thing  more  divine  than 
human,  and  his  fame  and  report  increased  in 
the  hearts  of  some  of  the  king's  subjects  a  great 
flame  of  desire  to  attempt  something  alike  nota- 
ble." Thus  inspired.  King  Henry  VII.,  of  Eng- 
land, March  5,  1496,  issued  a  patent  to  John 
Cabot  and  his  three  sons,  Lewis,  Sebastian,  and 
Sancius,  to  sail  early  in  May,  1497,  with  five 
ships,  "  under  the  royal  banners  and  ensigns,  to 
all  parts,  countries,  and  seas,  of  the  east,  of  the 
west,  and  of  the  north,  and  to  seek  out  and  dis- 
cover whatsoever  isles,  countries,  renions,  and 
provinces  in  what  part  of  the  world  soever  they  might  be,  which  before 
this  time  had  been  unknown  to  Christians."  The  kins:  save  them 
further  license,  "  to  set  up  the  royal  banners  and  ensigns  in  the  coun- 
tries, places,  or  mainland  newly  found  by  them,"  and  to  conquer, 
occupy,  and  possess  them  as  his  vassals  and  lieutenants.^ 

1  Narrative  of  Don  Fernando  ;  Irving's  Life  of  Columbus. 

2  Vespucius  (lid  not  himself  give  name.  See  Major,  in  Archeologia,  vol.  xl.,  on  Map 
of  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  See  notes  to  De  Costa's  article  on  the  Lenox  Globe,  Magazine  of 
American  History,  1879. 

3  See  patent  in  Latin  in  Hakluyt's  Dion's  Voyages.    London,  1860.    Fcedera,  xii.  1472. 


Expeditionary  Banner  of 
Coliuubus. 


17U  oKKilN    AM)    I'KnCKKSs    (>r     TIH: 

The  patentees  liaving  to  arm  and  furnish  their  vessels,  to  buy 
victuals,  and  to  ijrovide  all  things  necessary  at  their  own  cost,  were  not 
able  to  avail  themselves  of  the  royal  permission  until  more  than  a  year 
after  it  was  issued,  and  did  not  sail  from  Bristol  until  May,  141)7.  It  is 
asscrtcil  that  the  expedition  comprised  four  vessels,  but  we  only  know 
with  certainty  that  the  admiral's  ship  was  called  the  Matthew,  that 
slie  was  the  first  English  vessel  that  touched  our  American  shores, 
and  the  oidy  one  that  returned  in  safety  to  Bristol.  Belative  to  the 
cour.se  which  the  Cabots  followed  on  this  voyage,  we  have  no  definite 
information.  Formerly  it  was  supposed  that  they  made  their  landfall 
near  a  cape  of  the  island  of  Newfoundland,  but  a  more  careful  ex- 
amination of  the  known  facts  has  induced  Baron  Humboldt  and 
recent  writers  to  believe  that  what  they  called  '  Prima  Vista,'  June 
24,  1497,  must  be  found  in  Labrador,  in  56°  or  58°  north  latitude. 

It  is  stated  that  they  sailed  along  the  coast  about  three  hundred 
leagues  to  the  south.  The  short  time  they  were  absent  from  England 
—  about  ninety  days  —  renders  this  doubtful.  Tliey  could  hardly 
have  performed  so  long  a  coasting  voyage  unless  in  the  line  of  their 
return  route  to  the  northward  and  eastward. 

The  Matthew  arrived  at  Bristol  early  in  August,  for  there  is  an 
entry  in  the  privy-purse  accounts  of  Henry  VII.,  dated  "Aug.  10, 
1497,"  in  which  the  king  says,  "  that  he  has  given  a  reward  of  ten 
pounds  to  hym  tlmt  found  the  new  isle ; "  ^  and  Lorenzo  Pasqualigo, 
under  date  "London,  Aug.  23,  1497,"  announces  to  his  brothers  in 
Venice  the  return  of  John  Cabot  from  his  voyage  of  discovery,  and 
that  he  had  found  at  a  distance  of  seven  hundred  leagues  in  the  west  a 
firm  land,  along  which  he  had  coasted  for  the  space  of  three  hundred 
leagues,  not  having  met  a  living  person  at  the  points  where  he  had 
landed,  but  still  having  observed  there  some  traces  of  inhabitants,  — 
trees  notched,  and  nets  for  catching  game.  On  his  return,  he  had 
seen  on  his  right  hand  two  islands,  where  however  he  had  not  wished 
to  go  on  shore,  on  account  of  the  failure  of  his  provisions ;  he  had 
returned  to  Bristol  after  a  voyage  of  three  months,  having  left  in  the 
lands  which  he  had  discovered  a  grand  cross,  with  the  banner  of  Eng- 
land and  that  of  St.  ]\Iark  of  Venice. 

If  this  l)e  true,  then,  under  King  Henry's  patent,  and  orders  "  to 
set  up  his  royal  banners  and  ensigns  in  the  countries,  &c.,  newly 
found,"  it  is  probable  that  the  English  standards  and  ensigns,  with 
the  Venetian  banner  of  St.  Mark,  were  the  first  ever  planted  by  any 
European  nation  upon  the  shores  of  Xorth  America  since  those  of 

1  Exceqtta  Histoiica,  p.  113. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  171 

the  Xortlimen,  and  that  they  were  set  up  a  year  earlier  than  Cohnnbus 
raised  the  castles  and  lions  of  Castile  and  Leon  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Orinoco.  Indeed  Pasqualigo,  in  the  letter  already  quoted,  says,  "  The 
discoverer  of  these  places  planted  on  his  newfoundland  a  large  cross, 
with  one  flag  of  England  and  one  of  St.  Mark,  by  reason  of  his  being 
a  Venetian,  so  that  our  banner  has  floated  very  far  afield." 

The  Cabots  believed  they  had  discovered  portions  of  Asia,  and  so 
proclaimed  it.  But  the  more  extensive  discoveries  of  a  second  voyage 
corrected  this  view,  and  revealed  nothing  but  a  wild  and  barbarous 
coast,  stretching  through  30  degrees  of  latitude,  and  forming  an  im- 
passable barrier  to  the  ricli  possessions  of  China  which  they  hoped  to 
reach.  Doctor  Asher,  a  German  writer,  in  his  work  on  Hudson, 
published  in  London  by  the  Hakluyt  Society  in  1860,  observes,  "  The 
displeasure  of  Cabot  involves  the  scientific  discovery  of  a  new  world. 
He  was  the  first  to  recognize  that  a  new  and  unknown  continent  was 
lying,  as  one  vast  barrier,  between  Western  Europe  and  Eastern  Asia." 

The  voyages  of  these  enterprising  mariners  along  the  entire  At- 
lantic coast  of  the  present  United  States,  and  along  the  whole  extent 
of  a  great  continent,  in  which  at  this  time  the  English  race  and  lan- 
guage prevail  and  flourish,  has  always  been  considered  as  the  true 
beginning,  the  foundation  and  corner-stone,  of  all  the  English  claims 
and  possessions  in  the  northern  half  of  America. 

English  flags  were  the  first  which  were  planted  along  these  shores, 
and  Englishmen  were  the  first  of  modern  Europeans  who  with  their 
own  eyes  surveyed  the  border  of  that  great  assemblage  of  countries 
in  which  they  were  destined  to  become  so  prominent;  and  were  also 
the  first  to  put  their  feet  upon  it.  The  history  of  each  one  of  the 
chain  of  States  stretching  along  the  western  shores  of  the  Atlantic 
begins  with  Sebastian  Cabot  and  his  expedition  of  1498.^ 

On  the  map  of  the  eastern  coast  of  North  America  by  Juan  de  la 
Cosa,  in  the  year  1500,  the  discoveries  of  the  Cabots  are  marked  by 
English  standards,  while  the  Spanish  possessions  of  Cuba  and  other 
West  India  Islands  are  similarly  marked  with  Spanish,  and  the  Azores 
with  the  Portuguese,  standards. 

Verrazano  saw  the  coast  in  1524,  but  the  expedition  commanded 
by  John  Rut,  in  1527,  after  Cabot,  was  the  second  expedition  which 
sailed  along  the  entire  east  coast  of  the  United  States,  as  far  south  as 

1  M.  D'Avezac,  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Woods,  dated  "Paris,  Dec.  15,  1868,"  advocates 
John  Cabot's  discovery  of  North  America  in  1494,  and  that  he  kept  his  discovery  secret, 
to  escape  the  exclusive  pretensions  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  until  he  had  obtained  the  letters- 
patent  from  Henry  VII.,  signed  March  5,  1496,  and  returned  from  his  voyage  in  August, 
1496.     See  Maine  Hist.  Coll.,  vol.  i.,  new  series. 


17-2 


OETOTN    AND    l'i:<  m;KI:ss   OF   THE 


Carolina,  and  was  the  last  oHicial  enteqtrise  of  the  English  in  our 
watt-rs  until  ihc  i-xiietlititm  of  Sir  John  Hawkins  in  I'llio. 


J.a€l»s  Jlcores       •^ 


CVreutc  C*utcro 


Tf)eEast- Coast ofNortfj-ATOcrica&yJuan  dela  Cosamtf)eyear  1500, 


On  the  Verrazano  map  of  1529,  in 
are  three  flags  placed  to  indicate  the 


d^y.  da  fort  una 
^-^  y.  da  lormenlo 

^  Sam  Johan 
<^''  Sam  Pedro 

^^^'^ydosjaves 
'i^,_^   °  O  c.  dasgamas 

"7_---^      c.  de  bottvenlura 
"■  ^■'Wavenlura 


■'"^'"'c.dom 


Q    Ojy.defreyluis 
b.  de  sanla  ciria 
y.dosbocal}ias 
b.dacornc*'ic'i» 
C.da  el^fra 
R.daspatas 
(0  H .  de  Sam  francisquo 
c.Bafo 


^.Tuajohsi 


Nova  Scotia.Newfounblandan^LabraJior 
by  Pe5roRg\nel  ma&cln  about  1505. 


the  Propaganda,  Rome,  there- 
claims  of  Francis  I.  in  North 
America,  and  colored  blue, 
which  about  that  time  was 
made  the  color  of  France,  in 
opposition  to  the  white  flag 
of  England.  These  flags  have 
no  device  whatever.^ 

There  is  preserved  in  the 
Royal  Library  at  jMunich  a 
map  of  Nova  Scotia,  New- 
foundland, &c.,  which  has  on 
it  in  great  letters,  "  Pedro 
Reinel  a  fez;"  that  is,  Pedro 
Reiuel  made  it.  Reinel  was 
a  Portuguese  pilot  of  great 
fame,  who,  like  many  Port- 
uguese, entered  the  Spanish 
service  some  time  after  1522. 
The  language  of  the  map  is 


1  Am.  His.  Mag.,  August,  1878,  Da  Costa  on  Ver.  Map. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  173 

Portuguese,  it  presents  only  Portuguese  discoveries,  and  shows  the  arms 
and  flags  of  Portugal,  but  not  of  Spain.  .From  these  circumstances  it  is 
probable  that  the  map  was  made  by  Eeinel  in  Portugal  before  he  en- 
tered the  service  of  Spain,  and  probably  soon  after  the  voyage  of  the 
Cortereals  and  Cabral.  We  may  therefore  assign  it  to  the  year  1505. 
Peschal  gives  it  the  date  of  1504.  The  cape  which  was  called  on 
the  map  of  1500  '  Cavo  de  Anglaterra,'  or  '  Cape  of  England,'  is  here 
for  the  first  time  named  '  Cavo  Baso '  (the  flat  cape),  a  name  which  is 
of  Portuguese  origin.  The  English,  who  did  not  understand  the 
meaning  of  the  Portuguese  word,  afterwards  changed  it  to  Cape  Pace, 
which  has  no  meaning  in  this  connection. 

During  the  reigns  of  Henry  VII.  and  Henry  VIII.  several  expe- 
ditions were  made  by  the  English  to  the  northeast  of  America.  Their 
leading  motive  in  those  expeditions  was  the  hope  of  finding  a  shorter 
passage  to  the  rich  countries  of  Eastern  Asia.  The  last  English  ex- 
pedition of  this  kind,  in  1536,  ended  with  such  loss  of  life,  and  other 
disasters,  that  a  most  unfavorable  impression  appears  to  have  been 
made  by  it  on  the  nation.  After  this,  for  nearly  fifty  years,  the 
English  entirely  abandoned  the  east  coast  of  America. 

It  was  not  until  the  twentieth  year  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
and  eighty  years  after  the  discoveries  of  Cabot,  that  healthy  efforts 
to  found  colonies  in  the  new  world  were  matured  by  the  English. 
In  June,  1578,  Sir  Humphry  Gilbert,  a  step-brother  of  Sir  Walter 
Ealeigh,  obtained  a  liberal  patent  or  grant  from  the  Queen.  Raleigh 
gave  him  the  aid  of  his  hand  and  fortune;  and,  as  early  as  1579, 
Gilbert  sailed  for  America  with  a  small  squadron,  accompanied  by 
his  step-brother.  Heavy  storms  and  Spanish  war  vessels  compelled 
them  to  return,  and  the  scheme  for  a  time  was  abandoned.  Four 
years  afterwards,  1583,  Gilbert  sailed  with  another  squadron,  and 
after  a  series  of  disasters  reached  the  harbor  of  St.  John,  in  New- 
foundland. There  he  set  up  a  pillar  with  the  English  arms  upon  it, 
and  proclaimed  the  sovereignty  of  the  queen.  Proceeding  to  explore 
the  coast  southward,  after  being  beaten  by  tempests  off  the  shore  of 
Nova  Scotia  and  Maine,  and  losing  his  largest  ship,  he  turned  his 
vessel  toward  England,  and  during  a  September  gale  his  little  bark, 
the  Squirrel,  of  ten  tons,  went  down  with  all  on  board,  and  only  one 
vessel  of  the  expedition  reached  England. 

In  1584,  Ealeigh  obtained  a  patent  for  all  the  lands  in  America 
between  the  Santee  and  the  Delaware  Eivers,  and  sent  Philip  Amidas 
and  Arthur  Barlow  to  explore  the  American  coast.  They  approached 
the  shores  of  Carolina  in  July,  and  took  possession  of  the  islands  in 


174  OKKJIN    AM)    I'HOGRESS   OF   THE 

I'aiulii'o  :ni(l  Allieiiiailc  Sounds  in  the  niuiKj  dI"  (^hiccn  Elizabeth. 
The}'  ix'Uiained  a  lew  weeks  exi)k)rin^  and  tiallickin^,  and  returned 
to  England  with  two  Indians,  named  Manteo  and  Wanehese.  The 
glowing  accounts  of  the  uewly  discovered  country  filled  Raleigh's 
heart  with  joy.  The  Queen  tleclared  the  event  one  of  the  most  glori- 
ous of  her  reign,  and,  in  memorial  of  her  unmarried  state,  she  gave 
the  name  of  '  A'irginia '  to  the  enchanting  region. 

April  r.>,  1585,  Ivaleigh  despatched  a  fleet  of  seven  vessels  under 
the  command  of  Sir  liichard  Grenville,  with  a  governor  and  colonists, 

for  the  purpose  of  making  a  permanent  set- 
tlement of  the  inviting  land.  A  series  of 
disasters  followed,  and,  induced  by  misfor- 
tunes and  fear,  the  emigrants  abandoned 
their  settlement  on  Eoauoke  Island,  and 
were  all  conveyed  to  England  by  Sir  Fran- 
cis Drake,  June,  1586.  Ilaleigh,  undis- 
mayed by  the  result  of  his  first  attempt, 
despatched  a  band  of  agriculturists  and  ar- 

Raleigh's  Ship,  1585.  '^  '^  ^ 

tisans  with  their  families,  April  26,  158/, 
to  found  an  industrial  state  in  Virginia.  This  attempt  at  coloniza- 
tion, like  the  others,  proved  a  failure,  and  a  century  after  the  dis- 
coveries of  Columbus  and  Cabot  there  M-as  no  European  settlement 
upon  the  North  American  continent. 

Twelve  years  after  the  failure  of  Raleigh's  colonization  efforts, 
Bartholomew  Gosnold  sailed  in  a  small  bark  directly  across  the 
Atlantic  for  the  American  coast,  and  after  a  voyage  of  seven  weeks 
discovered  the  continent.  May  14,  1602,  near  Penobscot.  Sailing 
southward,  he  landed  upon  a  sandy  point  which  he  called  '  Cape  Cod,' 
and  afterwards  discovered  Nantucket,  Martha's  Vineyard,  and  the 
gi'oup  of  islands  known  as  Elizabeth's  Islands,  which  he  named  in 
honor  of  his  sovereign.  Upon  an  islet  in  a  tiny  lake  he  built  a  fort 
and  storehouse,  but,  owing  to  dissensions  and  the  want  of  supplies, 
he  returned  to  England  in  June,  and  was  prosecuted  by  Raleigh  upon 
his  return. 

In  1605,  Captain  George  Weymouth  entered  the  Sagadahock,  and 
took  formal  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name  of  King  James ; 
and  the  same  year  De  Monts,  a  wealthy  French  Huguenot,  organized  a 
French  settlement  at  Port  Royal  (now  ^Vnnapolis),  and  called  the  terri- 
tory around  it  'Acadia.'  In  1606,  the  Plymouth  Company  obtained 
their  charter,  and  soon  after  despatched  an  agent  to  examine  North 
Virginia.     In  1607,  Jamestown  was  founded,  and  in  1607,  Popham, 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  175 

with  one  hundred  emigrants,  landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec, 
where  they  erected  a  stockade,  a  storehouse,  and  a  few  huts.  All 
but  forty-five  returned  to  England  in  the  vessels,  those  who  remained 
named  the  settlement  '  St.  George.'  A  terrible  winter  ensued.  Lack- 
ing courage  to  brave  the  perils  of  the  wilderness,  the  emigrants 
abandoned  the  settlement,  and  returned  to  England  in  the  spring 
of  1608.1 

Erom  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  every  attempt  of  English- 
men during  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  to  colonize  the  new  world 
proved  abortive,  and  it  was  not  until  the  accession  of  her  successor, 
James  I.,  and  union  of  the  kingdoms  of  England  and  Scotland,  that 
her  flag  was  permanently  planted  upon  its  shores. 

COLONIAL  AND  PEOVINCIAL  ELAGS. 

1634-1766. 

The  flags  used  by  the  American  colonies  prior  to  their  separation 
from  the  mother  country  would  naturally  be  those  of  England,  though 
such  does  not  appear  to  have  been  invariably  the  case.  Several  flags, 
differing  more  or  less  from  the  standards  and  ensigns  of  that  kingdom, 
seem  to  have  been  at  times  in  use. 

The  ancient  national  flag  of  England,  the  cross  of  St.  George,  a 
white  banner  with  a  red  cross,  was  the  universal  badge  of  the  Eng- 
lish soldiery  as  early  as  the  fourteenth  century,  and  was  worn  by 
them  over  their  armor,  and  blazoned  on  their  shields.  Why  St. 
George  was  constituted  the  patron  saint  of  England  has  been  and 
continues  to  be  a  puzzle  to  antiquarians,  but  "  St.  George  for  Eng- 
land," or  "  Merrie  England,"  was  a  usual  war-cry,  and  his  banner 
above  all  others  was  the  national   banner  of  Englishmen.      What- 

1  The  English  claimed  dominion  over  a  belt  of  territorj''  extending  from  Cape  Fear, 
in  Noi'tli  Carolina,  to  Halifax,  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  indefinitely  westward.  Tliis  was 
divided  into  two  districts.  One  extended  from  the  vicinity  of  New  York  City  northward 
to  the  present  southern  boundary  of  Canada,  including  the  whole  of  New  England,  and 
westward  of  it,  and  was  called  '  North  Virginia.'  This  territory  was  granted  to  a  company 
of  "knights,  gentlemen,  and  merchants"  in  the  west  of  England,  called  the  'Plymoutli 
Company.'  The  other  district  extended  from  the  mouth  of  the  Potomac  southward  to  Cape 
Fear,  and  was  called  'South  Virginia.'  It  was  granted  to  a  company  of  "noblemen, 
gentlemen,  and  merclmnts,"  chiefl}'  residents  of  London,  called  the  '  London  Company.' 
Tlie  intermediate  domain  of  almost  two  hundred  miles  was  a  dividing  line,  so  broad  tliat 
disputes  about  temtory  could  not  occur,  as  neither  company  was  allowed  to  make  settle- 
ments more  than  fifty  miles  beyond  its  own  boundary.  —  Lossbujs  History  of  the  United 
Sillies. 


176 


oRirnx  AND  riJocuKss  or  the 


ST     CtORCES  CSOSS  ST  ANDREWS  CB0S5 


UNION     OR    KIN6S    COLORS    lioi 


ever  other  iKiniicrs  were  carried,  it  was  always  loreinost  in  the  fielil.^ 
Adoitteil  a.s  the  national  standard  and  ensi;;n,  it  continued  such  until 

A.D.  KiOCt,  when  King  James  I.,  hy 
his  royal  proclamation,'*  united 
with  it  the  cross  of  St.  Andrew, 
a  diagonal  wliite  cross  on  a  lilue 
ground  (which  had  been  the  flag 
and  badge  of  tlie  Scots  from  tlie 
time  of  the  Crusades),  as  a  dis- 
tinguishing flag,  for  all  his  sub- 
jects travelling  by  sea. 

This  union,  in  1606,  of  the 
crosses  of  the  two  kingdoms, 
\\hich  had  been  united  by  the 
accession  of  James  in  1603,  was 
called  the  '  king's  colors.'  They 
were  required  to  be  displayed 
from  the  main-top.s  of  all  British  vessels,  —  those  of  South  Britain 
(England),  however,  were  to  carry  the  St.  George's  cross,  and  those 
of  North  Britain  (Scotland),  the  St.  Andrew's  cross,  in  their  fore-tops, 
to  designate  which  section  of  the  United  Kingdom  they  hailed  from  ; 
the  union  flag  taking  precedence  in  the  main-top  and  at  the  after-part 
of  the  vessel.^ 

Eush worth  says  ^  that  "  the  union  flag,  that  is,  the  St.  George's 
and  St.  Andrew's  crosses  joined  together,  was  still  to  be  reserved  as 
an  ornament  proper  to  the  king's  own  ships,  and  ships  in  his  imme- 
diate service  and  pay,  and  none  other.  English  ships  were  to  bear 
the  red  cross,  Scotch  tlie  white." 

The  first  grant  of  the  crown  of  England  under  which  effectual 
settlements  were  made  in  North  America  was  dated  April  10,  1606, 
the  very  year  the  crosses  of  the  two  kingdoms  were  united  by  royal 
proclamation.  By  this  charter  all  the  country  in  America  between 
latitude  34°  and  45°  north,  was  called  Virginia.  Two  companies 
were  constituted,  one  called  the  '  London  Company,'  the  other  the 
'  Plymouth  Company.'  To  the  first  named  M-as  assigned  all  that  por- 
tion of  this  vast  territory  lying  between  the  parallels  of  34°  and  41° 

1  Miss  Strickland,  in  her  'Queens  of  England,'  says  :  "Henry  II.  married  Eleanor 
of  Aquitaine,  and  through  her,  the  ancestress  of  the  royal  line,  may  be  traced  arariorial 
bearings  and  a  war-cry  whose  origin  has  perplexed  the  readers  of  English  history.  The 
pati-on  saint  of  England,  St.  George,  was  adopted  from  the  Dukes  of  Aquitaine,  as  the 
Duke  of  Aquitaine's  war-cry  was  '  St.  George  for  the  puissant  duke.'  His  crest  was  a 
leopard,  and  his  descendants  in  England  bore  leopards  on  their  shields  till  after  the  time 
of  Edward  I." 

2  See  ante.  ^  See  ante,  p.  149.  *  Rushworth,  1634,  vol.  ii.  p.  247. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  177 

north  latitude,  under  the  name  of  '  South  Vh-ginia ; '  to  the  latter,  all 
lying  to  the  north  of  41°,  called  *  Xorth  Virginia.'  Such  was  the  vague 
extent  of  the  old  dominion  of  Virginia.  ^ 

After  the  execution  of  Charles  I.,  the  new  council  of  states,  on  the 
22d  of  February,  16-48-49,  passed  a  resolution,  "that  the  ships  at 
sea  in  the  service  of  the  states  shall  bear  the 
red  cross  in  a  white  flag.     That  the  engraving 
upon  the  sterns  of  the  ships  shall  be  the  arms 
of  England  and  Ireland  in  two  escutcheons, 
as  is  used  in  the  seals."     Soon  after  we  read 
of  vessels  sailing  under  the  Long  Parliament 
flag,  which  bore  on  a  blue  field  the  yellow- 
Irish  harp,  with  the  St.  George's  cross  next 
the  staff  in  a  white  canton.     Under  the  Pro- 
'tectorate  we  find  a  blue  flag  in  use,  bearing 
in  the  field  the  two  shields  of  England  and 
Long  Parliament  Flag.  Ireland  ;  viz.,  arcjcnt,  a  cross  gules  and  azure, 

a,  harp  or.  These  were  joined  together  in  a  horseshoe  shape,  and 
surrounded  by  a  white  label  of  three  folds,  the  motto  in  black  letters, 
"  Floreat  Res  Publica,"  and  outside,  two  golden  branches  of  laurel, 
leaved  green.  A  flag  of  tbis  period,  preserved  as  late  as  1803  in  one 
of  the  storehouses  of  Chatham  Dockyard,  bore  the  same  shields 
slightly  separated  on  a  red  field,  and  surrounded  by  branches  of  palm 
and  laurel.^ 

On  the  fleet  which  restored  Charles  II.  to  the  throne  of  his  father, 
the  royal  cipher  took  the  place  of  the  state's  arms,  and  tlie  harp 
was  removed  from  the  Long  Parliament  flag,  which  they  also  bore,  as 
having  been  instrumental  in  the  restoration  of  that  body  during  the 
previous  year.  Soon  after  this,  under  James,  Duke  of  York,  who  had 
been  appointed  the  lord  high  admiral  of  England,  Ireland,  Wales, 
and  of  the  dominions  of  ISTew  England,  Jamaica,  and  Virginia,  in 
America,  we  find  the  flags  of  the  navy  to  have  been  the  royal  stand- 
ard ;  the  lord  high  admiral's  flag,  then,  as  now,  a  foul  anchor  or,  on  a 
red  field;  the  union  jack  or  flag;  and  the  English  red  ensign,  cantoned 
with  the  St.  George's  cross  on  a  white  field. 

During  the  civil  war,  the  colors  and  ensigns  were  principally  red  for 
the  royalists,  orange  for  the  parliamentarians,  and  blue  for  the  Scotch, 
—  and  all  cantoned  with  a  red  St.  George's  cross  on  a  white  field. 
The  complete  union  of  the  kingdoms  was  not  accomplished  until 

1  See  uote,  ante,  p.  175. 

2  See  p.  17.     Ensigns,  standards,  &e.,  at  the  funeral  of  Cromwell. 

12 


178  OI{I(;iN    AND    I'K'OCIJKSS    OF    THE 

1707,  ii  liniulreil  years  after  this  \inion  of  crosses  in  the  king's  colors, 
avIkmi  niuK'r  Queen  Anne,  tlie  kingdom  of  Great  Britain,  inchuling 
England,  Wales,  and  Scotland,  was  established  by  treaty,  and  the  first 
union  jiarl lament  assembled. 

The  act  of  Parliament  which  ratified  this  nnion  of  the  kingdoms, 
Jan.  16,  1707,  ordained  "  that  the  ensigns  armorial  of  onr  king- 
dom of  Great  Britain"  shall  be  "the  crosses  of  St.  George  and  St. 
.Vndrew  conjoined  (the  same  as  heretofore  described  as  the  king's 
colors),  to  be  used  on  all  flags,  banners,  standards,  and  ensigns  both 
at  sea  and  land,"  "  and  the  ensigns  described  in  the  margent  hereof 
(the  crosses  or  king's  colors  conjoined  in  the  upper  corner  of  a  crimson 
banner,  since  known  as  the  '  meteor  flag  of  England '),  to  be  worn  on 
board  all  ships  or  vessels  belonging  to  any  of  our  subjects  whatso- 
ever." These  flags  were  familiarly  known  as  union  flags,  from  their 
typifying  the  union  of  England  and  Scotland,  and  were  commonly 
used  by  the  American  colonies  in  connection  with  other  devices,  until 
their  rupture  with  the  mother  country.  Thus  early  the  idea  of  a 
union  flag  became  familiar  to  them. 

As  the  king's  colors  had  been  authoritatively  prescribed  for  subjects 
travelling  by  sea  only,  it  is  probable  the  St.  George's  cross  continued 
to  he  very  generally  used  by  the  English  subjects  of  Great  Britain  on 
land  until  the  act  of  1707,  for  the  I'arliament  of  the  Commonwealth 
under  Cromwell  adopted  the  old  standard. 

Ireland  was  conquered  in  1691,  but  was  not  incorporated  into 
the  kingdom  until  Jan.  1,  1801,  long  after  our  revolution,  and  then 
the  cross  of  St.  Patrick,  a  red  diagonal  saltire,  was  fimbriated  on  the 
white  cross  of  St.  Andrew  and  conjoined  to  the  other  two,  and  thus 
and  then  the  union  jack  of  the  United  Kingdom  assumed  its  present 
form.  The  present  ensign  of  Great  Britain  was  never  worn  by  any 
of  the  American  colonies.^ 

The  garrison  flag  of  Great  Britain  is  the  union  jack  or  flag  pre- 
scribed Jan.  1,  1801. 

One  of  the  British  flags  surrendered  at  Yorktown,  and  presented 
to  AVashington  by  Congress,  was  the  same  as  the  king's  colors,  estab- 
lished by  James  I.,  excepting  that  in  the  centre  of  the  cross  there  is 
a  white  square  with  a  crown  above  the  garter.  The  garter  is  inscribed 
w^ith  the  usual  motto,  "  Honi  soit  qvA  mal  y  pense"  and  encloses  a  full- 
blown rose.     This  flag  is  now  in  the  museum  at  Alexandria,  Va.     It 

^  The  proclamation  declaring  what  ensigns,  colors,  &c.,  are  to  be  borne  by  the  sub- 
jects of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  may  be  found  in  full  in  the 
British  Naval  Chronicle,  vol.  v.  1801. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  179 

is  made  of  heavy  twilled  silk,  and  is  six  feet  long  and  five  feet  four 
inches  wide.^ 

The  red  cross  of  St.  George  was,  without  doubt,  hoisted  over  the 
Mayflower  when  she  disembarked  our  Pilgrim  Fathers  at  Plymouth  in 
1620,  as  it  was  the  common  sea-ensign  of  English  ships  of  that  period. 
Belonging  to  South  Britain,  she  may  also  have  displayed  the  king's 
colors  from  her  main-top,  and  a  St.  George's  cross  at  the  fore,  as 
required  by  the  king's  proclamation  of  1606. 

We  learn  from  the  records  of  Massachusetts  that  the  red  cross  of 
St.  George  was  in  use  in  that  colony  in  1634,  if  not  earlier. 

In  November  of  that  year,  complaint  was  entered  "  that  the  en- 
signs at  Salem  had  been  defaced  by  Mr.  Endicott's  cutting  out  one 
part  of  the  red  cross.  Eoger  Williams  is  accused  of  having  agitated 
the  matter,  and  therefore  accountable  for  the  trouble  it  occasioned. 
The  case  was  examined  as  a  high-handed  proceeding  which  might  be 
construed  into  one  of  rebellion  to  England,  on  the  complaint  of  Mr. 
Iiichard  Browne,  ruling  elder  of  the  church  at  Watertown,  and  others, 
before  the  Court  of  Assistants.  The  court  issued  an  attachment  against 
Ensign  Eichard  Davenport,  then  the  ensign-bearer  of  Salem,  whose 
colors  had  been  mutilated,  to  appear  at  the  next  court,  which  was  not 
held  until  a  year  after  his  flag  was  so  mutilated.  It  was  then  shown 
that  the  mutilation  complained  of  was  done,  not  from  disloyalty  to 
the  flag,  but  from  an  entire  conscientious  conviction  that  it  was  idola- 
trous to  allow  it  to  remain,  and  that  having  been  given  to  the  King 
of  England  by  the  Pope,  it  was  a  relic  of  anti-Christ.  Endicott  was 
Judged  to  be  guilty  of  a  great  offence,  inasmuch  as  he  had  '  with  rash 
indiscretion,  and  by  his  sole  authority,  committed  an  act  giving  occa- 
sion to  the  court  of  England  to  think  ill  of  them,'  for  which  he  was 
deemed  worthy  of  admonition,  and  should  be  disabled  from  bearing 
any  public  office  for  one  year."  ^ 

The  provincial  authorities  were,  however,  doubtful  of  the  lawful 
use  of  a  cross  in  the  ensign,  and,  had  there  been  no  fear  of  a  royal 
governor,  little  would  have  been  heard  about  this  mutilation  of  the 
colors  at  Salem  ;  for,  December  19,  all  the  ministers  except  Mr.  Ward, 
of  Ipswich,  were  assembled  at  Boston,  by  request  of  the  governor,  to 
consider,  among  other  things,  "  whether  it  was  lawful  to  carry  a  cross 
in  the  banners."  The  opinion  of  the  meeting  on  that  subject  being 
divided,  the  matter  was  deferred  to  another  meeting,  in  March,  at 
which  Mr.  Endicott  was  called  upon  to  answer.  This  meeting  was 
able  to  agree  no  better  than  the  previous  one ;   and  the  record  con- 

1  Lossing  has  an  engraving  of  it  in  his  Field-Book  of  the  American  Revolution. 

2  Massachusetts  Records. 


180  oK'hiiN   AM>  1'i;(>(;ki;ss  of    riii'; 

tinues,  "Because  tlie  court  could  not  agree  aliout  tlie  tliin<^,  whether 
the  ensiuns  slioukl  be  hud  by  in  that  regard  tliat  many  refused  to 
i'oHow  them,  tlie  whole  case  was  rel'erred  to  the  next  general  court, 
and  the  commissioners  for  military  affairs  gave  orders  in  the  mean 
time  that  all  ensigns  should  be  laid  aside." 

In  the  interim,  a  new  flag,  having  for  an  I'niblcin  the  red  and  while 
roses  in  place  of  the  cross,  was  proposed,  and  letters  in  relation  to  the 
matter  were  written  to  England,  for  the  purj)ose  of  oljtaining  "  the 
judgment  of  the  most  wise  and  godly  there."  Tliis  project  seems  not 
to  have  met  the  approval  of  the  wise  and  godly  in  England,  for  in 
December,  1635,  it  is  recorded  that  the  military  commissioners 
"  appointed  colors  for  every  company,"  leaving  out  the  cross  in  all  of 
them,  and  appointing  that  the  king's  arms  should  be  put  into  them 
and  in  the  colors  of  Castle  Island,  Boston. 

All  ships,  in  passing  the  fort  at  Castle  Island,  were  bound  to  ob- 
serve certain  regulations ;  but  after  these  occurrences,  the  fort,  wearing 
for  a  time  no  flag  to  signify  its  real  character,  presented  the  appear- 
ance of  a  captured  or  deserted  fortress. 

Under  these  circumstances,  in  the  spring  o\'  1(33(3,  the  ship  St.  Pat- 
rick, Captain  Palmer,  was  brought  to  by  Lieutenant  Moms,  the  officer 
in  command  of  the  fort,  and  made  to  strike  her  colors.  Captain 
Palmer  complained  to  the  authorities  of  the  conduct  of  the  com- 
mander of  the  fort  as  a  flagrant  insult  both  to  his  flag  and  country. 
They  therefore  ordered  the  commander  of  the  fort  before  them,  and, 
in  the  presence  of  the  master  of  the  ship,  informed  him  that  he  had 
no  authority  to  do  as  he  had  done ;  and  he  was  ordered  to  make  such 
atonement  as  Captain  Palmer  should  demand.  The  captain  was  very 
lenient,  only  requiring  an  acknowledgment  from  the  lieutenant  of  his 
error  on  board  of  his  ship,  "  that  so  all  the  ship's  company  might  receive 
satisfaction."  This  Lieutenant  Morris  submitted  to,  and  all  parties 
became  quieted  ;  but  within  a  few  days  another  circumstance  occurred 
respecting  the  fort,  with  a  different  result.  The  mate  of  a  ship,  called 
the  Hector,  pronounced  all  the  people  traitors  and  rebels,  because  they 
had  discarded  the  king's  colors,  and  was  brought  before  the  court 
and  made  to  acknowledge  his  offence,  and  sign  a  paper  to  that  effect. 

These  occurrences  troubled  the  authorities  lest  reports  should  be 
carried  to  England  that  they  had  rebelled,^  and  that  their  contempt 
of  the  English  flag  was  proof  of  the  allegation.  To  counteract  such 
representations,  Mr.  Vane,  the  governor,  called  together  the  captains 

1  A  seafaring  man,  approaching  in  his  ship,  having  noticed  tliat  the  flag  displayed 
was  destitute  of  a  cross,  "  spoke  to  some  one  on  board  the  sliip  that  we  liad  not  the 
king's  colors,  but  were  all  traitors  aud  rebels."  —  Smith's  Hist.  Kewharyport. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  181 

of  the  ten  ships  then  remaining  in  harbor,  and  desired  to  know  if 
they  were  offended  at  what  had  happened,  and,  if  so,  what  they  re- 
quired in  satisfaction.  Tliey  frankly  told  him  that  if  questioned  on 
their  return  to  England  "  what  colors  they  saw  here,"  a  statement  of 
the  bare  facts  in  relation  to  it  might  result  to  their  disadvantage. 
Therefore  they  would  recommend  that  the  king's  colors  might  be  set 
up  in  the  fort.  The  governor  and  his  advisers  arrived  at  the  same 
conclusion,  and  directed  to  give  warrant  to  spread  the  king's  colors  at 
Castle  Island,  when  ships  passed  by. 

There  being  no  king's  colors  to  be  found  to  display  at  the  fort, 
the  difficulty  was  met  by  two  of  the  shipmasters  offering  to  present 
a  set ;  but  so  fearful  were  the  authorities  of  tolerating  a  symbol  of 
idolatry,  they  declined  receiving  the  colors  thus  offered  until  they  had 
taken  the  advice  of  Mr.  Cotton  in  regard  to  them.  It  was  finally 
concluded  that,  although  they  were  of  the  decided  opinion  that  the 
cross  in  the  ensign  was  idolatrous,  and  therefore  ought  not  to  be  had 
in  it,  nevertheless,  as  the  fort  was  the  king's,  and  maintained  in  his 
name,  his  colors  might  be  used  there.  In  accordance  with  this 
opinion,  the  governor  accepted  the  colors  of  Captain  Palmer,  sending 
him,  in  requital,  three  beaver-skins,  and  directed  Mr.  Dudley  to  give 
warrant  to  Lieutenant  Morris,  the  commander  of  the  fort,  to  spread 
the  king's  colors  whenever  ships  were  passing.^ 

This  tempest  in  a  tea-pot  having  been  satisfactorily  adjusted,  the 
king's  colors  were  continued  at  the  castle,  but  were  excluded  from 
use  elsewhere  in  the  colony,  through  the  religious  prejudices  of  the 
people,  and  the  flag  bearing  the  king's  arms  continued  in  use  until 
the  establishment  of  the  Commonwealth. 

In  1638,  the  subject  of  forming  a  confederacy  of  the  New  England 
colonies  was  discussed ;  but,  owing  to  divers  differences,  the  matter 
was  delayed. 

Twenty-three  years  after  the  planting  of  Plymouth,  in  1643,  the 
colonies  of  Plymouth,  Massachusetts,  and  Connecticut  were  united  in 
a  league  called  "  The  United  Colonies  of  New  England."  The  de- 
clared object  was  defence  against  the  French,  Dutch,  and  Swedes,  and 
in  all  relations  with  foreigners  the  confederation  acted,  each  colony 
managing  its  domestic  affairs.  This  was  the  first  union  on  this  conti- 
nent. The  union  was  declared  to  be  perpetual,  and  the  will  of  six  of 
the  eight  commissioners  chosen  (two  for  each  colony)  was  to  be  bind- 
ing on  all.  "\Vc  d(_)  not,  however,  learn  that  any  common  flag  was 
adopted  until  several  years  later  (1686),  when  Governor  Andros  re- 
ceived one  from  the  king.      In   1645,  the  people  of  Massachusetts, 

1  See  Wiutlirop'.s  Journal,  vol.  i.  pp.  141,  154,  156  ;  vol.  ii.  p.  344. 


182 


ORIGIN    AM>    l'lJ(Miin:ss    OF     IIIK 


tlirouj^'h  its  legislature,  demanded  thai  a  negro  brought  from  Africa 
should  be  surrendered  and  sent  to  his  native  country. 

In  IT).")!,  tlie  English  Parliament  revived  and  adnjjted  the  old  stand- 
ard of  tlic  cross  of  St.  George  as  the  colors  of  England,  and  the  (len- 

eral  Court  of  jMassachusetts  ordcrcil, 
"  as  the  Court  conceive  the  old  Eng- 
lish colors  now  used  by  the  Parlia- 
ment to  be  a  necessary  badge  of 
distinction  betwixt  the  English  and 
other  nations  in  all  jihiccs  of  tlie 
world,  till  the  state  of  England  alter 
the  same,  which  we  very  much  desire, 
we,  being  of  the  same  nation,  have 
therefore  ordered  that  the  captain  of 
the  Castle  shall  advance  the  aforesaid 
colors  of  England  upon  all  necessary 
occasions." 

In  the  'New  England  Historical 
and  Genealogical  Pegister'  for  1871 
there  is  an  interesting  account  of  a 
local  company  of  cavalry  raised  in 
1659,  just  before  the  restoration  of 
Charles  IT.,  by  the  counties  of  Essex, 
Suffolk,  ]\Iiddlesex,  Mass.,  and  hence 
called  '  Tlic  Three  County  Troopl 
which,  according  to  the  records,  con- 
standard  of  the  Three  County  Troop,  1659.      ^-j^^g^    ^^^    existence  until   1677,  and 

possibly  longer.  The  annexed  drawing  of  its  standard,  and  bill  of 
its  cost,  is  from  an  entry  in  a  herald  painter's  book  of  the  time  of 
Charles  I.,  preserved  in  the  British  Museum. 

Worke  don  for  New  England 

For  painting  in  oyle  on  both  sides  a  Cornett  one  rich  crimson 
damask,  with  a  hand  and  sword,  and  invelloped  with  a  scarfe 
about  the  arms  of  gold,  black  and  siUver 

For  a  plaine  cornett  Staffe,  with  belte,  boote  and  swible  at 
first  penny 

For  silke  of  crimson  and  sillver  fring  and  for  a  Cornett  String 

For  crimson  damask 


[£2.   0.  G] 


1.  0. 

0 

1.11. 

0 

11. 

0 

£5.  2. 

6 

(Note.  —  The  first  item,  '£2.  0.  6,'  is  not  given,  but  is  deduced  from  the 
adding.     The  term  '  at  first  penny  '  may  be  the  same  as  '  at  first  cost.') 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  183 

Tlie  existence  of  this  troop  is  clearly  shown  by  the  Massachusetts 
records  of  1659-77,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  the  drawing  repre- 
sents its  standard.  We  may  imagine  it  ordered  from  England  be- 
fore King  Philip's  war,  and  that  under  its  folds  the  best  soldiers  of 
the  three  counties  took  part  in  the  contest.  Two  copies  from  the 
drawing  agree  in  representing  the  inscription  on  the  flag  as  "  thre 
comity  trom,"  which  is  supposed  to  be  a  mistake,  and  tliat  the  flag 
really  bore  the  words  "  Three  County  Troop/'  the  name  of  the  company 
for  which  it  was  ordered. 

The  Hon.  Xathauiel  Saltonstall,  "late  of  Haverhill,"  one  of  the 
council  for  the  colonies,  on  the  31st  of  May,  1684,  wrote  to  Captain 

Thomas   Noyes,   of  Newbury,    Mass.,   con- 
j ) ^  cerning  the  colors  of  a  company  of  foot  com- 

manded by  the  latter,  as  follows  :  — 

"  In  y^  Major  General's  letter,  I  have  or- 
dered also  to  require  you,  which  I  herein  Jo, 
with  all  convenient  speed,  to  provide  a  flight  of 
colors  for  your  foot  company,  ye  ground  field  or 
flight  (fly)  whereof  is  to  be  green,  with  a  red 
cross  with  a  white  field  in  y®  angle,  according  to 
the  antient  customs  of  our  own  English  nation, 
and  the  English  plantations  in  America,  and  our 
Colors  of  Captain  Noyes's  otvn  pyrictise  in  oiir  shijis  and  other  vessels.     The 

number  of  bullets  to  be  put  into  your  colors 
for  distinction  may  be  left  out  at  present  without  damage  in  the  making  of 
them. 

"  So  fails  not, 

"  Your  friend  and  servant, 

"  X  Saltonstall."  ^ 

The  flag  of  New  England,  in  1686,  under  the  administration  of  Sir 
Edmund  Andros,  as  appears  by  a  drawing  of  it  in  the  British  State 
Paper  Office,  was  the  cross  of  St.  George,  the  king's  colors  of  the  time, 
borne  on  a  white  field  occupying  the  whole  flag,  the  centre  of  the  cross 
emblazoned  with  a  yellow  or  gilt  crown  over  the  cipher  of  the  sover- 
eign. King  James  I. 

The  early  colonial  documents  of  New  York  have  several  mentions 
of  flags  in  use  in  that  colony  in  the  latter  half  of  the  seventeenth  and 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

Augustin  Herman,  Sept.  10,  1650,  brought  with  him  from  Holland 
a  flag  for  the  burgher's  corps  of  New  Amsterdam ;  but  Stuy vesant, 
1  Coffin's  History  of  Newbuiy,  credited  to  Robert  Adams's  Manuscript. 


184  ()Ki(;iN  AM)  i'i:oc;uE.s.s  uf  thh 

who,  he  wrote,  was  doing  as  he  pleased,  "  would  not  allow  it  to  be 
carried." 

The  patroon  and  his  codirectors  of  the  "  colonic  of  Rensselaerswyck  " 
complained,  Jan.  IT,  lOSi'i,  that  "their  flag  had  been  hauled  down 
in  opposition  to  the  will  and  protest  of  their  ofticers."  What  that 
obnoxious  flag  was  we  have  now  no  means  of  ascertaining ;  but  the 
directors  of  the  chamber  of  Amsterdam  reply,  "  they  are  ignorant 
where  the  flag  was  doN\Ti." 

An  English  flag  was  displayed  with  considerable  Ijravado,  Jan. 
11,  1664,  by  one  John  Schott,  in  sight  of  tlie  astonished  burghers  of 
New  Amsterdam.  "  Captain  Jolm  Schott,"  says  the  record,  "  came  to 
the  ferry  in  the  town  of  Breucklin  [Brooklyn]  with  a  troop  of  English- 
men mounted  on  horseback,  with  great  noise,  marching  with  sounding 
trumpets,"  &c.,  and  hoisted  the  English  flag ;  and,  as  soon  as  John 
Schott  arrived,  they  uncovered  their  heads  and  spoke  in  English. 
Secretary  Van  Euyven  asked  the  captain  to  cross  over,  to  which 
John  Schott  answered,  "  No  !  Let  Stuyvesant  come  over  with  a  hun- 
dred soldiers.     I  shall  wait  for  him  here." 

In  September  of  that  year  the  red  cross  of  St.  George  floated  in. 
triumph  over  the  fort,  and  the  name  of  '  New  Amsterdam '  was  changed 
to  'New  York.'  Early  in  October,  1664,  New  Netherland  was  ac- 
knowledged a  part  of  the  British  realm,  and  Colonel  liichard  Nicolls, 
its  conqueror,  became  governor. 

The  journal  of  a  voyage  to  New  York  in  1679-80,  by  Jasper  Dan- 
kers  and  Peter  Sluyter,  translated  from  the  original  Dutch  manuscript 
and  published  by  the  Long  Island  Historical  So- 
ciety in  1867,  has  several  fac-simile  engravings 
from  the  original  drawings.  One  of  these,  a  curi- 
ous picture  of  New  York  in  1679,  has  the  union 
flag  or  king's  colors  flying  over  the  fort,  and  an- 
other, a  view  of  New  York  from  the  north,  has  a 
rude  drawing  of  a  sloop  sailing  along  with  flags 
at  the  masthead,  bowsprit  end,  and  stern,  all  bear- 
ing the  St.  George  cross  in  a  white  canton. 

Tlie  same  writers,  under  date  Boston,  Thursday, 
"FortSew YirtinTerl^'  ^^^^^  ^3,  1680,  givc  us  a  precise  description  of 
the  flag  then  in  use  in  that  colony,  by  which  it 
seems  those  colonists'  objection  to  the  cross  as  an  idolatrous  symbol, 
nearly  half  a  century  earlier,  still  existed.  Our  voyagers  say :  "  New 
England  is  now  described  as  extending  from  tlie  Fresh  [Connecticut] 
River  to  Cape  Cod  and  thence  to  Kennebec,  comprising  three  provinces 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


185 


St.  George's  Cross,  1679. 


or  colonies,  —  Fresh  River,  or  Connecticut,  Rhode  Island  and  the  other 
islands  to  Cape  Cod,  and  Boston,  which  stretches  from  thence  north. 

They  are  subject  to  no  one,  but  ac- 
knowledge the  king  of  England  for 
their  honeer  [probably  hecr,  that  is, 
lord,  is  intended],  and  therefore  no 
ships  enter  unless  tliey  have  Eng- 
lish passports  or  commissions.  .  .  . 
Each  province  chooses  its  own  gov- 
ernor from  the  magistracy,  and  the 
magistrates  are  chosen  from  the 
principal  inhabitants,  merchants,  or 
planters.  They  are  all  Independent  in  matters  of  religion,  if  it  can 
be  called  religion;  many  of  them  perhaps  more  for  the  purpose  of 
enjoying  the  benefit  of  its  privileges  than  for  any  regard  to  truth 
and  godliness.  I  observed  that  while  the  English  flag  or  color  has  a 
red  ground  with  a  small  white  field  in  the  uppermost  corner  where 
there  is  a  red  cross,  they  have  dispensed  with  this  cross  in  their  color, 
and  preserved  the  rest."  The  diary  gives  a  poor  and  perhaps  preju- 
diced account  of  the  morality  of  the  community,  which  it  would  be 
out  of  place  to  copy  here. 

Messrs.  Brooke  and  NicoU,  Nov.  13,  1696,  in  a  paper  addressed  to 
his  Majesty's  Commissioners  for  Trade  and  Plantations,  relating  to  the 
requisites  for  the  defence  of  New  York,  ask  to  be  furnished  with  "  six 
large  union  flags,  for  his  ma*>'®^  several  forts  "  in  that  colony ;  and, 
Feb.  1,  1696-97,  the  lords  of  trade  write  Governor  Fletcher,  his 
Majesty  has  ordered,  with  other  stores  that  had  been  asked  for,  "  six 
union  flags,  which  we  doubt  not  the  agents  wiU  accordingly  take  care 
to  see  shipt." 

It  was  soon  seen  that  a  special  flag  to  designate  the  merchant  ships 
of  the  colonies,  and  to  distinguish  them  from  the  king's  ships,  was 
desirable ;  accordingly  we  find,  at  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  the  following  report  issuing  from  the  Admiralty  office,  with  a 
drawino:  of  the  flatr :  — 


"Admiralty  Office,  July  29,  1701. 

"  COUN'CIL  ChAMDER,  "VVlIITEIIALL,  31  Julv,  1701. 

"  Their  Excellencies  the  Lords  Justices  in  Council. 

"  Report  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  :  —  Merchant  ships 
to  wear  no  other  Jack  than  that  hereafter  mentioned,  viz.  that  worn  by  his 
Majesty's  ships,  with  the  distinction  of  a  white  escutcheon  in  the  middle 


186  ()KI(;iX    AND    IMIOCIJKSS   nV   THE 

thereof,  and  that  said  nuirk  of  distinction  may  extend  itself  to  one-half  the 

depth  of  tlie  -lack,  and  one-third  part  of  tlie  lly  thereof,  according  to  the 

sample  [drawiny]  liurounto  annexed. 

(Signed)  "  ri:Mi!i{i)KE. 

llAVKnsnAM. 

LX  Mitchell. 

"The  Lords  Justices  in  Council  order  tliat  the 
(lovernoui-s  of  his  Majesty's  Plantations  do  oblige 
the  Connuanders  of  such  merchant  ships  to  which 
they  grant  Commissions  to  wear  no  other  Jack 
than  according  to  wliat  is  proposed  by  said  rejMjrt : 
And  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  Trade  anil  I'lan- 
Fiag  ordered  for  the  Merchant     tations  are  to  write  to  the  Governours  of  his  ]\laj- 

Serviee  in  1701.  >      t-.i  -  .       .„   .  .      , 

esty  s  Plantations,  signifying  to  them  respectively 
their  Excellencies'  pleasure  herein,  wdth  notice  that  they  have  been  further 
pleased  to  order  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  to  give  neces- 
sary directions  on  their  part  obliging  the  said  ships  to  comply  witli  their 
Excellencies'  pleasure  in  this  matter. 

"JOHX    POVEV. 

"  A  true  copy  :  W.  Popple."  ^ 

This  flag  was  undoubtedly  worn  by  the  American  colonial  vessels 
for  many  years,  though  we  have  no  more  than  official  mention  of  it, 
and  it  is  never  depicted  in  the  engravings  of  the  time.  All  the  pic- 
tures of  New  England  flags  from  1700  to  1750  show  a  red  or  l)lue 
ensign  cantoned  white,  with  a  red  St.  George's  cross,  and  having  a 
tree  or  globe  in  upper  corner  of  the  canton. 

Lieutenant-Governor  John  Nanfan  writes  from  New  York,  Dec.  29, 
1701,  to  the  Lords  Commissioners  for  Trade  and  Plantations  :  "  Since 
my  last  to  your  Lordships  of  the  20th  October,  by  ]\Ir.  Penu,  I  have 
the  honor  of  your  Lordships'  letter  of  the  14th  August,  with  their  Ex- 
cellencies tlie  Lords  Justices'  order  on  the  reading  the  report  from  the 
lords  of  the  admiralty  relating  to  a  flag  of  distinction  from  his  Majesty's 
ships  of  war  to  be  worn  by  all  ships  that  shall  be  commissionated  by 
the  governors  of  his  Majesty's  Plantations,  which  I  shall  punctually 
observe."  J.  Burchett  writes  to  Mr.  Popple  from  the  admiralty  office, 
April  19,  1708,  that  the  Lords,  &c.,  instruct  Lord  Lovelace,  the  gov- 
ernor of  New  York,  "  they  have  no  objections  to  certain  colors  pro- 
posed for  privateers." 

Among  the  instructions  furnished  to  Eobert  Hunter,  governor  of 

1  The  originals  of  tliese  papers  are  in  the  records  at  the  Massachusetts  State  House, 
Boston,  vol.  Ixii.,  Maritime  Affairs,  p.  390. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  187 

New  York,  dated  Dec.  29,  1709,  is  the  following :  "  Whereas  great 
inconveniences  do  happen  by  merchant  ships  and  other  vessels  in  the 
plantations  wearing  colors  borne  by  our  ships  of  w^ar,  nnder  pretence 
of  commissions  granted  to  them  by  the  governors  of  the  said  planta- 
tions, and  that  by  trading  under  those  colors  not  only  amongst  our 
own  subjects  but  also  those  of  other  princes  and  states,  and  commit- 
ting divers  irregularities,  they  do  very  much  dishonor  our  service,  for 
prevention  whereof  you  are  to  oblige  the  commanders  of  all  such  ships 
to  which  you  shall  grant  commission  to  wear  no  other  jack  than  accord- 
ing to  the  sample  here  described ;  that  is  to  say,  such  as  is  worn  by 
our  ships  of  war,  with  the  distinction  of  a  white  escutcheon  in  the 
middle  thereof,  and  that  the  said  mark  of  distinction  may  extend  it- 
self one-half  of  the  depth  of  the  jack,  and  one-third  of  the  fly  thereof"  ^ 
A  similar  order  was  included  in  the  instructions  of  Francis  Nichols, 
the  first  royal  governor  of  South  Carolina,  in  1720,  and  was  undoubt- 
edly forwarded  to  the  governors  of  the  other  colonies. 

The  Lords  of  Trade  to  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  under  date  Aug.  20, 
1741,  forwarded  instructions  to  the  Hon.  George  Clinton,  governor  of 
New  York,  one  of  which  orders  colonial  [war]  vessels  "  to  wear  the  same 
ensign  as  merchant  ships,  and  a  red  jack,^  with  the  union  jack  in  a 
canton  at  the  upper  corner  next  the  staff." 

Governor  Clinton  wrote  the  Duke  of  Bedford  from  New  York,  June 
17,  1750,  that  the  Greyhound  man-of-war  had  fired  on  a  vessel  with 
an  intention  of  bringing  her  to,  "  she  having  a  Birdgee  flag  hoisted  ; " 
a  shot  struck  a  young  woman,  Elizabeth  Stibben  by  name,  in  the  ves- 
sel, so  that  she  expired  a  few  hours  afterward.  The  vessel  belonged  to 
"  Colonel  Eichetts,  of  the  Jerseys,  a  liot-headed,  rash  young  man,  who 
declared  before  he  put  off  from  the  wharf  he  would  wear  that  pendant 
in  defiance  of  the  man-of-war."  This  affair  caused  no  little  excitement, 
and  was  the  occasion  of  considerable  correspondence  between  the  gov- 
ernor, the  commander  of  the  Greyhound,  and  the  magistrates,  &c. 

Tlie  cross  of*  St.  George,  from  its  establishment,  in  1651,  by  the 
Commonwealth  of  England,  continued  in  general  use  in  the  American 
colonies  with  occasional  variations  throughout  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, and  until  tlie  union  flag  of  James  I.,  devised  for  his  English 
and  Scotch  subjects  in  1606,  was  prescribed  by  act  of  Parliament  for 
general  use  throughout  the  British  dominions  in  1707.^ 

1  Instructions  to  Governor  Hunter,  New  York  Colonial  History,  vol.  v.  p.  137. 

2  See  Account  of  Landing  of  British  Troops  at  Boston,  1768. 

3  The  proverb,  "  Those  that  live  in  glass  houses  should  not  throw  stones,"  is  said 
to  have  originated  at  the  union  of  England  and  Scotland  in  1606.     Great  numbers  of 


188 


()KI<;iN    AND    I'KoiJRESS   OF    TllK 


A  crimson  flag,  tlie  jack  of  which  was  a  red  St.  George  cross  on  a 
white  iiekl,  was  the  ensign  most  generally  in  use  in  New  England. 
Sometimes  a  tree,  at  other  times  a  hemisphere,  was  represented  in  the 
upper  canton  next  the  stafl'  formed  liy  the  cross,  and  occasionally  the 
fly  or  field  of  the  flag  was  Llue. 

In  a  little  book,  something  of  the  character  of  the  Gotha  Almanac, 
entitled  'The  Present  State  of  the  Universe,'  by  John  lieauniont,  Jr., 
printed  at  Luiidon  by  Benjamin  IMotte,  1704,  there  is  a  picture  of  a 
New  England  ensign,  with  a  tree,  like  the  one  above  described.  An- 
other book,  entitled  'A  General  Treati-se  of  the  Dominion  and  Laws 
of  the  Sea,'  &c.,  by  Alexander  Justice,  Gent.,  printed  at  London  for 
S.  &  J.  Sprint  and  J.  Nicholson  &  Ed.  Smith,  1705,  has  a  folding  plate 
of  national  flags,  among  which  there  is  a  New  England  ensign  of  the 
same  character,  a  tracing  of  which  is  annexed.     This  plate  calls  the 


English  Ensign. 


East  India  Company. 


Scotfli  Ensign. 


Scotch  Union  Flag.  Irish  Ensign.  New  England  Ensign. 

From  a  Plate  of  National  Flags  in  the  '  Dominion  of  the  Sea,'  1705. 

English  red  ensign  '  the  Budge  flag,'  the  meaning  of  \j-hich  is  not  obvi- 
ous ;  perhaps  a  burgee  flag. 

Another  work,  published  in   1701,  has  a  representation  of  this 
New  England  ensign ;  and  in  yet  another  work  there  i.s  a  representa- 

Scotsmen  flocked  to  London.  Buckingham  hated  the  Scotcli  bitterly,  and  encouraged 
marauders  to  break  the  windows  occupied  by  them.  Some  of  the  sufferers  retaliated  by 
breaking  the  \\indows  of  the  Duke's  house,  which  had  so  many,  it  was  called  '  the  glass 
house.'  The  Duke  of  Buckingham  complained  to  the  king,  and  the  monarch  replied, 
"Ah,  Steenie  !  Steenie  !  those  wha  live  in  glass  housen  should  be  carefu'  how  they  fling 
stanes  ! " 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


189 


tiou  of  the  flag  of  the  New  England  colonies,  having  a  dark  blue  field, 
with  a  red  St.  George  cross  on  a  white  canton,  while  in  the  place 
of  the  tree  a  half  globe  is  represented.  Lossing,  in  his  '  Field-Book 
of  the  American  Eevolution,'  gives  a  picture  of  a  New  England  flag, 
with  the  tree,  copied  from  an  old  Dutch  work  representing  the  flags 
of  all  nations,  which  is  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  New  York 
Historical  Society. 

I  have  a  French  work  on  flags,  published  in  a  La  Haye,  1737, 
which  describes  a  Pavilion  cle  Nouvelle  AngleUrre  en  Amerique,  "  as 

azure,  on  a  canton  argent,  quartered 
with  the  red  cross  of  St.  George,  hav- 
ing a  globe  in  the  first  quarter,"  in 
allusion  to  America,  commonly  called 
the  'New  World.'  The  illustration  is 
a  fac-simile,  reduced  in  size,  of  one 
in  this  book.i 

The  earliest  notice  of  a  New  Encr- 
land  flag  emblematic  of  the  union  of 
inore  than  one  colony  I  have  found 
is  that  of  1686,  heretofore  described.^ 
The  departure  from  the  authorized 
English  flag,  and  assuming  standards 
of  their  own,  evinces  a  feelincr  of  in- 
^'"''  dependence  among  the  colonies,  while 

the  absence  of  a  desire  for  separation  is  evident  in  the  allegiance  im- 
plied by  representing  on  them  the  colors  of  England,  or,  when  from 
tenderness  of  conscience  they  were  left  out,  the  substitution  of  the 
arms  of  the  king. 

A  green  tree  was  the  favorite  emblem  of  Massachusetts,  and  ap- 
peared on  the  coins  of  that  colony  as  early  as  1652. 

By  an  order  of  the  General  Court  in  that  year,  a  mint  was  estab- 
lished, and  it  was  ordered  that  all  pieces  of  money  should  have  a 
double  ring,  with  this  inscription,  "  Massachusetts,"  and  a  tree  in  the 
centre  on  one  side,  and  "  New  England  "  and  the  year  of  our  Lord  on 
the  other.  This  was  strictly  adhered  to  by  the  mint-master,  and 
for  thirty  years  all  the  coins  now"  known  as  pine-tree  shillings,  six- 
pences, &c.,  bore  the  date  1652.  The  rudeness  of  the  impressions  on 
these  early  coins  may  render  it  uncertain  whether  a  pine-tree  was 

1  La  Coniioissance  des  Pavilli)iis  on  Bannieres  que  la  plupart  des  Nations  arborent 
en  Mer,  &c.     A  La  Haye,  chez  Jaques  Van  den  Kiebooni.     1737. 

2  See  ante,  p.  183. 


NOTA  £LI,J&  ANGiETiliatEen  AjIEEiqiJE 


i;)()  OIJICIN    AM)    IMMXiUKSS    (>F     I'lli: 

intended  to  be  represented,  or  some  other  tree,  though  at  Iciiutli  it 
received  tlie  name  ul"  one  of  the  commonest  tiihes  of  trees  in  New 
Enghmd.  Mr.  Drake,  in  his  '  History  of  lid.ston,'  says,  the  tree  on 
the  New  Enghand  flag,  of  whicli  lie  ;j,ives  an  ilhisiralion,  "no  more 
resembles  a  pine-tree  than  a  cabbage."  The  Ibllowing  story  con- 
firms the  idea  that  a  pine-tree  may  not  have  been  the;  original 
design :  — 

When  Charles  II.  learned  the  colonies'  assumption  of  one  of  his  pre- 
rogatives to  coin  money,  he  was  very  angry ;  his  wratli  was,  however, 
appeased  by  Sir  Charles  Temple,  a  friend  of  the  colony,  who  told  him 
they  thought  it  no  crime  to  coin  money  for  their  own  use  ;  and,  taking 
some  of  the  money  from  his  pocket,  handed  it  to  the  king,  who  asked 
him  what  tree  that  was  upon  it.  "  That,"  replied  Sir  Charles,  "  is  the 
royal  oak  which  jn-eserved  your  Majesty's  life."  His  remark  ])ut 
the  king  in  a  good  humor,  and  he  lieard  what  Sir  Charles  had  to  say 
in  tlieir  favor,  calling  them  "  a  parcel  of  honest  dogs."  ^ 

This  New  England  flag  was  undoulitcdly  tlie  earliest  symbol  of  a 
union  of  the  colonies,  and  it  probaljly  went  out  of  use  after  the  adop- 
tion of  the  union  flag  of  King  James,  by  the  act  of  Parliament  in 
1707,  for  all  the  subjects  of  the  British  realm.  That  flag,  with  the 
addition  of  a  white  sliield  at  the  union  of  the  crosses,  was  ordered 
(see  ante),  in  1701,  to  be  worn  by  all  merchant  vessels  commissioned 
by  the  colonial  authorities  of  New  England  and  New  York,  and,  in 
1720,  by  the  merchant  vessels  of  South  Carolina;  and  tlie  order  was 
doubtless  extended  to  all  the  American  colonies. 

On  Will  Burgess's  map  of  Boston,  engraved  in  1728,  there  are  \nc- 
tured  four  ships  at  anchor  and  a  sloop  under  sail,  all  wearing  ensigns 
bearing  the  union  jack  of  King  James  on  a  staff  at  the  stern.  One 
of  the  ships  is  dressed  with  flags,  and  firing  a  salute ;  another  flies  a 
long  coach-whip  pennant  at  her  main. 

Sir  William  Pepperrell,  commander  of  the  expedition  against 
Louisbourg,  in  1745,  furnished  the  motto  for  the  expeditionary  flag; 
viz.,  "Nil  desperandum,  Christo  duce,"  —  "Never  despair,  Christ  leads 
us,"  —  which  gave  the  enterprise  the  air  of  a  crusade.  Among  those 
engaged  against  Louisbourg  was  William  Yaughan,  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  Univer.sity,  holding  the  honorary  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel. 
He  conducted  the  first  column  through  the  woods,  within  sight  of  the 
city,  and  saluted  it  with  three  cheers.     He  headed  a  detachment  con- 

1  Curvrin's  Journal.  Valentine'.s  New  York  Manual,  1863,  contains  an  account  of 
the  flags  which  have  waved  over  New  York  City,  from  a  memoir  prepared  by  Doct.  A.  K. 
Gardner,  for  the  Xew  York  Historical  Society. 


FLAG    OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  191 

sisting  chiefly  of  New  Hampshire  troops,  and  marched  to  the  northeast 
part  of  the  harbor  in  the  night,  where  they  burned  the  warehouses 
containing  the  naval  stores,  and  staved  a  large  quantity  of  wine  and 
brandy. 

The  smoke  of  this  fire,  being  driven  by  the  wind  into  the  grand  bat- 
tery, so  terrified  the  French  that  they  abandoned  it,  and  retired  to  the 
city,  having  spiked  the  guns  and  cut  the  halyards  of  the  flag-staff. 
The  next  morning.  May  2,  1745,  as  Vaughan  was  returning  with  thir- 
teen men  only,  he  crept  up  the  hill  which  overlooked  the  battery, 
and  observed  that  the  chimneys  of  the  barrack  were  without  smoke 
and  the  staff"  without  a  flag.  With  a  bottle  of  brandy  which  he  had  in 
his  pocket  he  hired  one  of  his  party,  an  Indian,  to  crawl  in  at  an  em- 
brasure and  open  the  gate.  He  then  wrote  to  the  general :  "  May  it 
please  your  honor  to  be  informed  that,  by  the  grace  of  God  and  the 
courage  of  thirteen  men,  I  entered  the  royal  battery  about  nine  o'clock, 
and  am  awaiting  for  a  reinforcement  and  a  flag."  Before  either  could 
arrive,  one  of  the  men  climbed  up  the  staff  with  a  red  coat  in  his 
teeth,  which  he  fastened  by  a  nail  to  the  top.  This  piece  of  trium- 
phant vanity  alarmed  the  city,  and  immediately  an  hundred  men  were 
despatched  in  boats  to  retake  the  battery.  But  Vaughan,  with  his 
small  party  on  the  naked  bank  and  in  the  face  of  a  smart  fire  from 
the  city  and  the  boats,  kept  them  from  landing  till  reinforcements 
arrived.^ 

The  name  of  the  man  who  hoisted  this  impromptu  flag  with  such 
rash  daring  is  given  in  an  obituary  notice  containing  the  following 
exaggerated  version  of  his  feat,  printed  in  the  '  Boston  Gazette '  of  June 
3,  1771 :  "Medford,  May  25,  1771.  This  day  died  here  Mr.  William 
Tufts,  Jr.,  aged  about  44  years.  .  .  .  When  about  18  years  of  age  he 
enlisted  a  volunteer  into  the  service  of  his  king  and  country  in  the 
expedition  against  Cape  Britain  [Breton],  under  the  command  of  Lieut.- 
General  Pepperrell,  in  the  year  1745,  where  he  signalized  his  courage 
in  a  remarkable  manner  at  the  Island  Battery,  when  an  unsuccessfid 
attempt  was  made  by  a  detachment  from  the  army  to  take  it  by  storm. 
He  got  into  the  battery,  notwithstanding  the  lieavy  fire  of  the  French 
artillery  and  small  arms,  climbed  up  the  flag-staff^  struck  the  French 
colors,  pulled  off  his  red  great- coat,  and  hoisted  it  on  the  staff  as  Eng- 
lish colors,  all  which  time  there  was  a  continued  fire  at  him  from  the 
small  arms  of  the  French,  and  got  down  untouched,  tho'  many  bullets 
went  thro'  his  trowsers  and  cloathes."  ^ 

1  Belknap's  History  of  New  Hampshire. 

2  J.  L.  Sibley,  New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Register,  1871. 


192  OKICIN    AM)    I'KOCJKHSS    (»F    'IIIH 

(Jovcnior  Tlioiims  I'uwnall,  in  his  .louniiil  oi"  'A  A'uyage  I'loiii 
Boston  to  Punobscot  Iviver,'  May,  175'.l,  luentions  calling  the  Indi- 
ans together  and  giving  tlieni  a  union  ilag,  proliably  the  union  jack 
Avith  a  red  field  or  liag,  for  their  protection  and  ]>assport.  He  also 
furnislied  tlieni  with  a  red  and  also  a  wliile  Hag,  as  cnihleins  of  war 
and  amity.  After\vards,  he  mentions  hoisting  the  king's  cohjrs  on  a 
liag-stafl'  at  Fort  Point,  with  the  usual  ceremonies,  and  saluting  them.^ 
On  the  21st  of  August,  1760,  an  engagement  took  place  between 
the  English  under  Lord  Amherst  and  tlie  French  forces  under  Pou- 
chet,  which  resulted  in  the  capture  of  Fort  Levis  on  the  St.  LaA\'rence, 
a  little  below  the  present  city  of  Ogdensburg,  N.  Y.  During  this  en- 
gagement the  English  vessel  Seneca,  of  22  guns  and  350  men,  grounded, 
and  was  compelled  to  strike  her  flag.  There  were  two  other  vessels 
—  the  Ontaonaise  and  Oneida  —  on  the  English  side.  "  One  thing," 
says  Pouchet,  "which  amused  the  garrison  at  the  most  serious  mo- 
ments of  the  battle  was  that  the  Indians,  who  "vvere  perched  upon  the 
trenches  and  batteries,  to  watch  the  contest  with  the  vessels,  which 
they  regarded  on  their  side  on  account  of  the  names  tliat  had  been 
given  them,  made  furious  cries  at  seeing  them  so  maltreated,  because 
they  carried  an  Indian  painted  upon  their  flags."  ^ 

FLAGS   OF   THE   PRE-REVOLUTIONARY  AND   EEVO- 
LUTIONARY   PERIODS. 

17GG-1777. 

In  contemporary  newspapers  for  ten  years  preceding  the  commence- 
ment of  our  revolutionary  struggle,  liberty  poles,  trees,  and  flags  of 
various  devices  are  frequently  mentioned. 

On  the  9tli  of  January,  176G,  the  people  of  Portsmouth,  N.  H.,  de- 
manded from  Governor  Meserve,  agent  for  the  distribution  of  stamps 
in  Xew  Hampshire,  his  commission  and  instructions,  and,  notwith- 
standing his  resignation,  required  him  to  take  oath  that  he  would  not 
directly  or  indirectly  attempt  to  execute  the  oflice.  They  afterwards 
marched  through  the  streets,  carrying  the  commission  in  triumpli  on 
the  point  of  a  sword,  and  bearing  aloft  a  flag  on  which  was  inscribed 
"  Liberty,  Property,  and  no  Stamps  ; "  and,  to  perpetuate  the  mem- 
orable event,  they  erected  this  standard  at  Swing  Bridge,  which  thence- 
forth was  called  '  Liberty  Bridge.' 

1  Maine  Historical  Collections,  vol.  v. 

2  L.  B.  Hough's  Trans.  Poucliet's  Jlemoirs,  vol.  ii.  p.  32. 


DiVji  - 


^ 


PL.V 


FLAGS    OF    \llb-17 


AN  APPEALTO  HEAVEN 


-  iAii 


TIN 


111  I  111 


Y  A  UNION 


'dont  tread  on  Mt 


|LIBERTY^3|0R  DEATH 


DONT  TREAD    ON    ME 


LIBERTY    TREE 


AN  APPEAL'**!»^0    GOD 


AN  APPEAL  TO  GOD 


DONT  TREAD    ON    ME 


T)ONT  TREAD  ON.  ML 


"^^'     ^^^-':.^ 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  193 

When  the  Stamp  Act  reached  Boston,  intense  excitement  ensued, 
and  it  was  denounced  as  a  violation  of  the  British  Constitution,  and 
as  destructive  of  the  first  principles  of  liberty ;  a  coffin  was  prepared, 
inscribed  "Liberty,  born  at  Plymouth,  in  1620;  died,  1765,  aged  145 
years ; "  an  oration  was  delivered  at  the  grave,  a  long  procession  hav- 
ing followed,  with  minute  guns  firing ;  but,  just  as  the  oration  was 
concluded,  the  figure  of  Liberty  showed  symptoms  of  returning  life, 
whereupon  "  Liberty  revived  "  was  substituted  on  the  coffin,  amid  the 
joyful  ringing  of  bells. 

The  obnoxious  Stamp  Act  was  passed  March  22,  1765,  but  did  not 
go  into  effect  until  November.  It  was  such  a  source  of  disaffection, 
rebellious  utterances  and  acts,  that  it  was  repealed  the  18th  of  ]\Iarch, 
1766,  after  having  been  in  operation  only  four  months.  When  the 
glad  tidings  reached  America,  the  colonists  saw  in  its  repeal  a  promise 
of  justice  for  the  future,  and  went  into  frenzies  of  rapture.  They  had 
celebrations  and  bonfires,  and  were  ready  to  purchase  all  the  goods 
England  had  to  sell.  At  New  York,  they  put  up  a  liberty  pole  in 
The  Fields,  with  a  splendid  flag,  inscribed  "  The  King,  Pitt,  and  Lib- 
erty.'' They  ordered  a  statue  of  Pitt,  who  had  insisted  on  the  repeal, 
for  Wall  Street,  and  another  of  George  III.,  for  tlie  Bowling  Green. 

The  repeal  of  the  obnoxious  act  was  soon  found  to  be  only  a  snare 
of  their  rulers,  under  cover  of  which  advantage  was  taken  of  their 
grateful  mood  to  wring  concessions.  Citizens  were  seized  by  the  Brit- 
ish men-of-war  in  the  harbor,  and  pressed  to  serve  in  the  crews.  Fresh 
taxes  were  levied.  The  soldiers  openly  insulted  the  people,  and  in  a 
few  weeks  cut  down  their  liberty  pole.  The  angry  but  patient  people 
raised  a  new  pole,  still  with  the  loyal  motto.  The  next  spring  the 
soldiers  cut  it  down  again.  Next  day  came  the  Sons  of  Liberty,  a 
society  grown  up  with  the  peril  of  the  times,  composed  of  brave,  loyal, 
and  intelligent  men,  and  set  down '  a  new  pole  sheathed  with  iron 
around  its  base,  —  still  with  the  old  loyal  motto  :  "  To  his  most  gra- 
cious Majesty  George  III.,  Mr.  Pitt,  and  liberty."  For  almost  three 
years  this  stanch  liberty  pole  stood,  though  the  soldiers  attacked  it 
once  or  twice.  Finally,  one  January  day  in  1770,  a  squad  of  red- 
coats mustered  at  its  base,  and  the  gallant  pole  came  down.  The 
Liberty  Boys  were  ready  with  another  pole,  but  the  timid  corporation 
forbade  them  to  raise  it  on  public  ground.  So  the  Liberty  Boys  bought 
a  strip  of  private  ground  close  by  the  old  stand,  eleven  feet  wide  and 
a  hundred  feet  deep  ;  and  from  the  ship-yard,  where  it  had  been  formed, 
they  escorted  their  new  mast,  six  horses,  gay  with  ribbons,  drawing  it, 
a  full  band  going  before,  and  three  flags  flying  free,  inscribed  "Liberty 

13 


194 


()HI(;1N    AND    l'i;<»(;i{KSS    OF    'IMIK 


aiul  Pi'opcrt}/."  ^  They  took  tlii;  iimsl  lo  the  fu'ld,  and  thi;j,  ;i  Imle  twelve 
feet  (leejs  in  which  they  stej)ped  the  liberty  pule,  alter  girding  it  with 
iron  two-thirds  of  its  lenj^^th  from  the  ground,  defying  the  red-coats  to 
cut  it  down.  On  it  tliey  shipped  a  topmast  twenty-two  feet  long,  on 
"which  was  inscribed  tlie  word  Lihcrf//.  This  }»ule  the  15ritish  cut 
down  in  177G. 

At  Charleston,  S.  C,  under  a  wide-spreading  live  oak-tree  a  little 
north  of  the  residence  of  Christopher  Gadsden,  within  the  square 
now  bounded  by  Charlotte,  Washington,  Brundy,  and  Alexander 
Streets,  the  patriots  of  1765  were  accustomed  to  assemlile  to  dis- 
cuss the  political  questions  of  the  day ;  and  from  this  circumstance, 
that  oak,  like  the  great  elm  in  Boston,  obtained  the  name  of  'liberty 
tree,'  and  it  is  claimed,  and  generally  believed  in  South  Carolina,  that 
under  it  Gadsden,  as  early  as  1764,  first  spoke  of  American  indepen- 
dence. In  1765,  when  the  stamp  paper  reached  Charleston,  it  was 
deposited  at  Fort  Johnson.  A  volunteer  force  took  the  fort  and  cap- 
tured the  paper.  Whilst  they  held  the  fort,  they  displayed  a  flag 
showing  a  blue  field  with  three  white  crescents,  which  seems  to  have 
been  improvised  by  tlie  volunteers,  of  whom  there  were  three  com- 
panies. Underneath  it,  on  the  8th  of  August,  1776,  the  Declaration 
of  Independence  was  proclaimed  to  the  people.     In  1766,  the  Sons  of 

Liberty  met  under  it,  and  with  linked  hands 
}»ledged  themselves  to  resist,  when  the  hour 
fur  resistance  came.  Its  history  and  asso- 
ciations were  hateful  to  the  officers  of  the 
crown,  and  after  the  city  surrendered,  in 
1780,  Sir  Henry  Clinton  ordered  it  cut 
down,  and  a  fire  was  lighted  over  the  stump 
by  piling  its  branches  around  it.  Many 
cane-heads  were  made  from  its  stump  in 
after  years,  and  a  part  of  it  was  sawed  into 
thin  boards,  and  made  into  a  neat  ballot- 
box  and  presented  to  the  '76  Association. 
The  box  was  destroyed  by  fire,  at  the  room 
of  the  association,  during  the  great  confla- 
gration of  1838.2 

The  old  liberty  tree  in  Boston  was  the 
largest  of  a  grove  of  beautiful  elms  tliat  stood  in  Hanover  Square,  at 
the  corner  of  Orange  (now  Washington)  and  Essex  Streets,  opposite 
the  present  Boylston  Market.    The  exact  site  is  marked  by  a  building, 

1  Valentine's  Manual  of  the  City  Councils  of  Xew  York.  ^  Lossing. 


MMi 


SONS   OF    LIBE  RTY  17  66, 

I  N  D  E  P  E  N  Q  E  N C E  of  i.u,^ CO U NT Rr 

ij|i;i:;M.il'l|til,'::7u7l_<S|!ilvli|;il,l.lSill 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  195 

erected  by  the  late  Hon.  David  Sears,  in  whose  front  is  a  bass-relief 
of  the  tree,  with  an  appropriate  inscription.^  It  received  the  name 
of  '  liberty  tree '  from  the  association  called  the  '  Sons  of  Liberty ' 
holding  their  meetings  under  it  during  the  summer  of  1765.  The 
ground  under  it  was  called  '  liberty  hall.'  A  pole  fastened  to  its 
trunk  rose  far  above  its  branching  top,  and  when  a  red  flag  was 
thrown  to  the  breeze,  the  signal  was  understood  by  the  people.  Here 
the  Sons  of  Liberty  held  many  a  notable  meeting,  and  placards  and 
banners  were  often  suspended  from  the  limbs  or  affixed  to  the  body  of 
the  tree,  and  the  following  inscription  was  placed  upon  it :  "  This  tree 
was  planted  in  the  year  1614,  and  pruned,  by  order  of  the  Sons  of 
Liberty,  Feb.  14,  1766."  2  Nov.  20,  1767,  the  day  on  which  the  new 
revenue  law  went  into  effect,  there  was  a  seditious  handbill  posted  on 
it.  It  contained  an  exhortation  to  the  Sons  of  Liberty  to  rise  on  that 
day  and  fight  for  their  rights,  stating,  that  if  they  assembled,  they 
would  be  joined  by  legions ;  that  if  they  neglected  this  opportunity,, 
they  would  be  cursed  by  all  posterity.  In  June,  1768,  a  red  flag  was 
hoisted  over  it,  and  a  paper  posted  upon  it  inviting  the  people  to  rise 
and  clear  the  country  of  the  commissioners  and  their  officers. 

In  1768,  Paul  Revere  published  a  view  of  a  part  of  the  town  of 
Boston,  in  New  England,  and  British  ships  of  war  landing  their 
troops,  Friday,  Sept.  30,  1768. 

All  the  ships  in  front  of  the  town,  viz.  the  Beaver,  Donegal,  Martin, 
Glasgow,  Mermaid,  Eomney,  Lavmceston,  and  Bonetta,  with  several 
smaller  vessels,  carry  the  English  red  union  ensign  of  the  time  on  a 
staff  at  the  stern,  a  union  jack  on  the  bowsprit,  and  a  red  pennant 
with  a  union  at  the  main,  except  the  Glasgow,  which  has  a  red  broad 
pennant  at  her  main.  The  Glasgow,  seven  years  later,  played  an  im- 
portant part  at  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill.  The  troops  are  landed 
and  being  landed  on  Long  Wharf,  and  have  two  pairs  of  colors,  one  of 
each  pair  is  the  ordinary  union  jack,  the  other  a  red  flag  with  a  union 
jack  in  the  centre  of  it.  This  is  probably  the  red  union  jack  else- 
where mentioned.^ 

July  31, 1769,  on  Governor  Bernard's  being  ordered  to  England,  the 
general  joy  was  manifested  by  congratulations  among  the  people,  salutes 
from  Hancock's  wharf,  the  union  flag  flying  above  the  liberty  tree,  and 
bonfires  on  the  liills.      The  flag  was  kept  flying  for  several  days. 

1  The  illustration  represents  the  bass-relief.  ^  Tudor's  Ijfe  of  Otis. 

^  A  fac-simile  of  this  engraving  was  printed  by  the  publisher  of  the  '  Little  Corporal,' 
Chicago,  111.,  in  1870.  An  engraving  of  Boston,  by  William  Price,  dedicated  to  Peter 
Fanenil,  and  probably  of  earlier  date,  as  Faneuil  died  in  1742,  represents  numerous  sliips 
wearing  the  Englisli  union  ensign,  while  the  union  flag  or  king's  colors  fly  over  the  forts. 


l!)f;  (iKKiiN  AM)  i'i;(i(;in:ss  of  the 

Tlie  anniversary  of  the  uprising  against  tlie  Stamp  Act,  Aug.  14, 1773, 
^vas  celel)iateil  with  great  spirit,  and  a  'union  flag'  Hnated  over  the  tent 
in  which  the  company  had  their  entertainment.  Nov.  3,  1773,  a  large 
flag  was  raised  above  the  liberty  tree,  and  the  town-crier  summoned 
the  people  to  assemble.  Tlie  destruction  of  the  tea  followed  this 
meetinc:.  In  the  winter  of  1775-76,  the  British  soldiers  cut  down 
this  noble  tree,  which  from  these  associations  had  become  odious  to 
them.  It  furnished  fourteen  cords  of  wood,  and  jirobably  went  to 
ashes  in  the  stove  set  up  in  the  Old  South  Meeting-house,  when  the 
soldiers  occupied  that  building  for  a  riding-school,  and  kindled  fires 
with  books  and  pamphlets  from  Prince's  valuable  library,  the  remnant 
of  which  is  now  preserved  in  the  Boston  Public  Library.  The  destruc- 
tion of  the  liberty  tree  was  bitterly  resented. 

The  '  New  England  Chronicle,'  reporting  the  act,  says :  "  The  ene- 
mies of  liberty  and  America,  headed  by  Torn  Gage,  lately  gave  a 
notable  specimen  of  their  hatred  to  the  very  name  of  liberty.  A 
party,  of  whom  was  one  Job  Williams,  was  the  ringleader,  a  few  days 
since  repaired  to  a  tree  at  the  south  end  of  Boston,  known  by  the 
name  of  '  Liberty  Tree,'  and,  armed  with  axes,  &c.,  made  a  furious  at- 
tack upon  it.  After  a  long  spell  of  groaning,  swearing,  and  foaming, 
with  malice  diabolical  they  cut  down  a  tree  because  it  bore  the  name 
of  '  Liberty.'  "  ^ 

At  Taunton,  Mass.,  in  October,  1774,  a  '  union  flag '  was  raised  on  the 
top  of  a  liberty  pole,  with  the  words  '  Liberty  and  Union '  thereon. 

In  January,  1775,  the  sleds  containing  wood  for  the  inhabitants  of 
Boston  bore  a  '  union  flag.'  The  colonists  had  long  been  familiar  with 
union  flags  ;  they  now  began  to  associate  liberty  with  them. 

March  21, 1775,  the  friends  of  liberty  at  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  erected 
a  fla"  bearing  on  one  side  "  The  King,"  and  on  the  other  "  The  Con- 
GRESS  AND  LIBERTY,"  which  was  cut  down  by  the  authorities  as  a 
public  nuisance.^ 

In  the  earliest  days  of  the  Pievolution  each  State  seems  to  have  set 
up  its  own  particular  banner.  There  were  probably  no  colors  M-orn 
by  the  handful  of  Americans  hastily  called  together  at  the  battle  of 
Lexington  or  at  Bunker's  Hill,  but  immediately  after,  the  Connecticut 
troops  had  standards,  bearing  on  them  the  arms  of  that  colony,  with  the 
motto,  "  Qui  transtulit  sustinet"  in  letters  of  gold,  which  was  freely 
translated  "  God,  who  transported  us  hither,  will  support  us."  In  April, 
1775,  six  regiments  were  ordered  by  the  General  Assembly  of  Connecti- 

1  The  New  England  Chronicle  for  August  24-31,  1775. 
*  Holt's  Journal,  April  6,  1775. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


197 


cut  to  be  raised  for  the  defence  of  the  colony.  In  May,  standards  were 
ordered  for  these  regiments.  For  the  1st,  the  color  was  to  be  ydlovj  ; 
for  the  2d,  hhte  ;  for  the  3d,  scarlet ;  for  the  4th,  crimson  ;  for  the  5th, 
white;  for  the  6th,  azure.  In  July,  1775,  two  additional  regiments 
were  ordered,  and  the  colors  for  these  were,  for  the  7th,  Uue ;  for  the 
8th,  orange.  These  regiments  were  enlisted  for  a  few  months  only,  and 
were  not  in  the  field  at  the  formation  of  the  Connecticut  line,  in  1777. 
There  is  now  deposited  with  the  Connecticut  Historical  Society  an 
old  red  silk  flag,  about  a  yard  square,  on  which  is  a  tracing  of  the 
arms  of  Connecticut,  in  a  darker  red  paint,  and  over  them,  in  gilt  let- 
ters, this  inscription :  — 

II  BAT 

IT.   REGT. 
CONNECTICUT. 

Eaisetl  1640 


This  flag  w^as  presented  to  the  State  by  the  Hon.  John  Mix,  who 
was  an  ensign,  and  adjutant  of  the  2d  regiment  of  the  line  in  1777, 
and  is  supposed  to  be  of  that  or  earlier  date.  The  "Eaised  1640"  is 
supposed  to  allude  to  the  great  English  rebellion,  as  a  presage  of  what 
might  be  hoped  for  in  the  rebellion  just  begun.^ 

In  March,  1775,  a  union  flag  with  a  red  field,  having  on  one  side 
this  inscription,  "Geo.  Rex  and  the  Liberties  of  America,"  and  on 
the  other  "  No  Popery,"  was  hoisted  at  New  York. 
The  armed  ships  of  New  York  of  that  time  are  said 
to  have  had  a  black  beaver  for  their  device  on  their 
flag.  This  was  the  device  of  the  colonial  seal  of 
New  Netherland,  and  is  still  seen  on  the  seal  of  the 
city  of  New  York. 

No  description  of  the  union  flags  of  these  times 
has  been  preserved.  Aged  people,  living  a  few 
years  since,  who  well  remembered  the  processions  and  the  great  flags, 
could  not  recall  their  devices,  nor  has  any  particular  description  of 
them  been  found  in  the  contemporaneous  private  diaries  or  public 
newspapers ;  nevertheless,  it  is  more  than  probable,  and  almost  cer- 
tain, that  these  flags  were  the  familiar  flags  of  the  English  and  Scotch 
union,  established  in  1707,  and  long  known  as  union  flags,  inscribed 
with  various  popular  and  patriotic  mottoes. 

The  Historical  Chronicle  of  the  'Gentleman's  Magazine,'  under 
date  April  17,  1775,  records  "by  a  ship  just  arrived  at  Bristol  from 

1  Connecticut  Quartemiaster-General's  Report,  1839  ;  Hartford  Courant,  1839  ;  Army 
and  Navy  Chronicle,  1839  ;  Letters  of  C.  J.  Hoadley  to  G.  H.  P.,  1873. 


Colonial  Seal  of  New 
Netherland. 


108  OKICIN    AND    TKOnRESS    OV    THK 

America,  it  is  reported  that  tlu'  Americans  have  liuisted  their  stand- 
ard of  liberty  at  Salem." 

Neither  contemporary  accounts  noi-  the  recollections  of"  old  soldiers 
are  satisfactory  respecting  the  flags  used  by  the  continentals  at  the 
battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  on  the  17th  of  June,  1775.  The  liritish  used 
the  following  signals :  "  Signals  for  boats  in  divisions,  moving  to  the 
attack  on  the  rebels  on-  the  Heights  of  Charleston,  June  17, 1775  ;  viz., 
1.  Blue  flag,  to  advance.  Yellow  ditto,  to  lay  on  oars.  Ked  ditto, 
to  land."  ^  It  is  not  positively  ascertained  that  any  were  used  by  the 
Americans ;  certainly,  none  were  captured  from  them  by  the  British. 

A  eulogy  on  Warren,  however,  written  soon  after  the  battle,  de- 
scribing the  astonishment  of  the  British  on  tlie  morning  of  the  1  tattle, 

says : — 

"  Colunil)i;i's  troops  are  soi'ii  in  dreail  array, 
Aud  waving  streamers  in  the  air  display." 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  poet  has  not  described  these  fanciful 
waving  streamers ;  probably,  says  another  writer,  but  without  stating 
his  authority,  "  they  were  as  various  as  the  troops  were  motley." 

At  a  patriotic  celebration  in  1825,  a  flag  was  borne  wdiich  was 
said  to  have  been  unfurled  at  Bunker  Hill ;  and  tradition  states  that 
one  was  hoisted  at  the  redoubt,  and  that  Gage  and  his  officers  were 
puzzled  to  read  by  their  glasses  its  motto.  A  whig  told  them  it  was 
"  Come,  if  you  dare."  Trumbull,  in  his  celebrated  picture  of  the  battle, 
now  in  the  rotunda  of  the  Capitol  at  Washington,  has  represented  a 
red  flag  having  a  white  canton  and  red  cross  and  a  green  pine-tree.^ 

1  Orderly  Book  of  Major-Gcneral  Howe. 

2  This  cannot  be  considered  authoritative.  Painters  frequently  take  a  poet's  license,, 
and  are  not  always  particular  in  the  accuracy  of  the  accessories  of  their  paintings.  Thus 
Leutze,  in  his  'Washington  crossing  the  Delaware,'  Dec.  25,  1776,  conspicuously  displays 
the  American  flag  with  the  blue  field  and  union  of  white  stars,  althougli  the  flag  had 
no  existence  before  the  14th  of  June,  1777,  and  was  not  published  until  September,  1777. 
Yet  this  inaccurate  historical  tableau  has  been  selected  to  embellish  tlie  face  of  the  fifty- 
dollar  notes  of  our  national  banks.  In  Powell's  *  Battle  of  Lake  Erie,'  at  the  Capitol, 
the  flag  in  Perry's  boat  lias  only  thirteen  stripes  and  thirteen  stars,  although  fifteen  of 
each  had  been  the  legal  number  for  twenty  years,  or  since  1794. 

The  gold  medal  awarded  to  General  Daniel  Morgan  for  the  '  Battle  of  Cowpens,'  which 
occurred  Jail.  17,  1781,  has  on  its  reverse  a  mounted  officer  at  the  head  of  his  troops 
charging  a  flying  foe,  while  behind  and  over  the  officer  are  two  large  and  prominent 
banners  simply  striped  with  thirteen  stripes,  alternate  red  and  white  without  the  stars, 
though  the  stars  had  been  for  more  than  three  years  blazoned  on  the  American  ensigns. 
The  medal  was  probably  struck  in  France. 

Bacon,  in  his  picture  of  the  'Boston  Boys  and  General  Gage,'  hangs  out  over  the 
porch  of  the  Province  House  an  English  ensign  showing  tlie  union  jack  of  1801,  adopted 
a  quarter  of  a  century  later  than  the  scene  represented.     But  tliis  is  excusable,  since,  in 


FLAG    OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  199 

In  a  manuscript  plan  of  the  battle,  colors  are  represented  in  the 
centre  of  each  British  regiment. 

Botta  1  says  that  Doctor  Warren,  finding  the  corps  he  commanded 
pursued  by  the  enemy,  despising  all  danger,  stood  alone  before  the 
ranks,  endeavoring  to  rally  his  men  and  to  encourage  them  by  his 
example.  He  reminded  them  of  the  motto  inscribed  on  their  ensigns, 
on  the  one  side  of  which  were  these  words,  "  An  appeal  to  Heaven," 
and  on  the  other,  "  Qui  transtidit  sustinct,"  meaning  that  the  same 
Providence  which  brought  their  ancestors  through  so  many  perils  to 
a  place  of  refuge  would  also  deign  to  support  their  descendants. 

Mrs.  Manning,  an  intelligent  old  lady,  informed  Mr.  Lossing  ^  that 
her  father,  who  was  in  the  battle,  assisted  in  hoisting  the  standard, 

and  she  had  heard  him  speak  of  it  as  a 
noble  flag ;  the  ground  of  which  was  blue, 
with  one  corner  quartered  by  the  red  cross 
of  St.  George,  in  one  section  of  which  was 
a  pine-tree. 

Washington  arrived  in  Cambridge,  Sun- 
day, July  2,  accompanied  by  Major-Gen- 
eral Charles  Luce,  and  the  '  New  England 
Chronicle '  says  :  — 
„    ,     „.„  ^,  "  None  of  the  men  who  have  been  raised 

Buuker  Hill  Flag. 

by  this  and  several  other  colonies  are  in 
future  to  be  distinguished  as  the  troops  of  any  particular  colony,  but 
as  the  forces  of  "The  United  Colonies  of  Nokth  America,"  into 
whose  joint  service  they  have  been  taken  by  the  Continental  Congress, 
and  are  to  be  paid  and  supported  accordingly."  ^ 

On  the  18th  of  July,  a  month  after  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill, 
Major- General  Putnam  assembled  his  division  on  the  height  of  Pros- 
pect Hill,  to  have  read  to  it  the  manifesto  of  Congress,  signed  by 
John  Hancock,  its  president,  and  countersigned  by  Charles  Thom- 
son, secretary.  The  reading  was  followed  by  a  prayer  suited  to  tlie 
occasion,  and  at  the  close  of  the  prayer,  at  signal  from  the  general, 
the  troops  cried  '  Amen,'  and  at  the  same  instant  the  artillery  of  the 
fort  thundered  a  general  salute,  and  the  scarlet  standard  of  the  Third 
Connecticut  Regiment  recently  sent  to  General  Putnam,  bearing  on 

a  fresco  on  the  walls  of  tlie  new  Houses  of  Parliament  or  Palace  of  "Westminster,  the 
artist  represents  Charles  II.  landing  under  this  union  jack  of  1801,  which  has  the  saltire 
gules  for  Ireland. 

1  History  of  American  Revolution. 

2  Field- Book  of  the  American  Revolution,  vol.  i.  p.  541. 

3  The  New  England  Chronicle,  and  the  Essex  Gazette,  from  Thursday,  June  29,  to 
Thursday,  July  6,  1775. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


201 


the  one  side  the  Connecticut  motto,  "  Qui  transtulit  sustinet,"  and 
on  the  other  the  recognized  motto  of  Massachusetts,  "  An  appeal  to 
Heaven"  were  unfurled.  The  same  ceremony  was  observed  in  the 
other  divisions.^ 

Lieutenant  Paul  Lunt,  in  his  Diary,  which  has  been  printed,  says : 
"  May  10,  1775,  marched  from  Xewburyport  with  sixty  men.  Captain 
Ezra  Lunt,  commander,  and  May  12,  at  11  o'clock,  arrived  at  Cambridge. 
.  .  .  June  16,  our  men  went  to  Charlestown  and  entrenched  on  a  hill 
beyond  Bunker's  Hill.  .  .  .  June  17,  the  regulars  landed  a  number  of 
troops,  and  we  engaged  them.  They  drove  us  off  the  hill  and  burned 
Charlestown.  July  2,  General  Washington  came  into  the  camp.  .  .  , 
July  18th.  This  morning  a  manifesto  from  the  grand  Continental 
Congress  was  read  by  the  Eev.  Mr.  Leonard,  chaplain  of  the  Con- 
necticut forces  upon  Prospect  Hill  in  Charlestown.  Our  standard 
W'as  presented  in  the  midst  of  the  regiments,  with  this  inscription 
upon  it,  "  Appeal  to  Heaven"  after  which  ]\lr.  Leonard  made  a  short 
prayer,  and  then  we  were  dismissed,  by  the  discharge  of  a  cannon, 
three  cheers,  and  a  war-whoop  by  the  Indians." 

The  'New  England  Chronicle'  for  July  21,  1775,  says:  "Cam- 
bridge, July  21.  On  Tuesday  morning  the  standard  lately  sent  to 
General  Putnam  was  exhibited  flourishing  in  the  air,  bearing  on  one 
side  this  motto,  'An  appeal  to  Heaven,'  and  on  the  other,  'Qui 
TRANSTULIT  SUSTINET.'  The  whole  was  conducted  with  the  utmost 
decency,  good  order,  and  regularity,  and  to  the  universal  acceptance  of 
all  present.  And  the  Philistines  on  Bunker's 
Hill  heard  the  shout  of  the  Israelites,  and,  be- 
ing very  fearful,  paraded  themselves  in  battle 
array." 

June  19,  1775,  two  days  after  the  battle  of 
Bunker  Hill,  and  before  the  news  had  reached 
Georgia,  there  was  a  meeting  of  a  committee  of 
the  leading  men  of  Savannah,  to  enforce  the 
requirements  of  the  American  Association. 
After  the  meeting,  a  dinner  was  had  at  Ton- 
dee's  tavern,  where  a  '  union  flag '  was  hoisted 
The  Pine  Tree  Flag.         upon  a  liberty  polo,  and  two  pieces  of  artillery 

From  a  map  published  in  Paris,    plaCCd  UudCT  it. 

^'^^'  Aug.  1,  1775,  there  was  raised  at  Prospect 

Hill,  Charlestown,  for  a  flag-staff,  a  mast  seventy-six  feet  high,  wliich 
came  out  of  a  schooner  that  was  burnt  at  Chelsea. 

1  Bancroft's  History  of  the  United  States  ;  Frothingham's  Siege  of  Boston  ;  I.  J. 
Greenwood. 


*J02  (>ui(;iN   AM>  1'i;<>(;ki;ss  ok    iiii: 

In  September,  1775,  Avnolil  made  liis  lumous  expedition  through 
Maine  to  Canada,  ami,  when  ch'il'ting  down  the  gentle  eurrent  of  the 
Dead  lliver,  came  suddenly  in  sight  of  a  hjf'ty  mountain  covered  with 
snow,  at  the  foot  ol"  which  he  encamped  three  da}s,  raising  the  conti- 
nental Hag  over  his  tent.  What  its  color  was,  or  the  devices  upon  it, 
we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining.  The  mountain  is  now  known  as 
*  Mount  liigelow."  —  tradition  asserting  that  Major  Bigelow,  of  Arnold's 
little  army,  ascended  to  its  summit,  ho])ing  to  see  tlie  spires  of  Quel)ec. 

])uring  September,  1775,  two  strong  lloating  batteries  were  launched 
on  the  Charles  River,  and  opened  a  fire,  in  October,  upon  Boston,  that 
caused  gi'eat  alarm  and  damaged  several  houses.  They  a])pear  to  have 
been  scows  made  of  strong  planks,  pierced  near  the  water-line  for  oars, 

_,  and  along  the  sides  higher  up  for  light,  and 

\ '  ^^^^^t      musketry.      A  heavy  gun  was  placed  at  each 

-^^^=-=si^^^^^^^^  end,  and  upon  the  top  were  four  swivels. 
American  Fioatin-  B.itteiy,  used  at  Their  cusigu  was  a  pinc-trce  flag.^     The  six 

the  Siege  of  Boston.  -i  r>      ^  •      •  i     i         itlt     i  • 

schooners  first  commissioned   by  Washing- 

From  an  English  Manuscript.  .      . 

ton  and  the  first  vessels  commissioned  by  the 
United  Colonies  sailed  under  the  pine-tree  flag.^      Colonel  Reed,  in  a 

1  Lossing's  Field-Book  of  the  Revolution. 

-  Captain  John  Selman  ami  Nicholas  Broughton  were  commissioned  by  General 
Washington  (according  to  tlie  statement  of  Selman  to  Elbridge  Gerry),  in  the  fall  of 
1775,  both  living  at  Marblehead.  "  Tlie  latter  as  commodore  of  two  small  schooners,  one 
the  Lynch,  mounting  six  4-pounders  and  ten  swivels,  and  manned  by  seventy  seamen, 
and  the  other  the  Franklin,  of  less  force,  having  sixty-five.  Tlie  commodore  hoisted  his 
broad  pendant  on  board  the  Lynch,  and  Selman  commanded  the  latter. 

"These  vessels  were  ordered  to  the  river  St.  LawTcnce,  to  intercept  an  ammunition 
vessel  bound  to  Quebec,  but  missing  her,  they  took  ten  other  vessels,  and  Governor 
Wriglit,  of  St.  Johns,  all  of  which  were  released,  as  we  had  waged  a  ministerial  war,  and 
not  one  against  our  most  gracious  sovereign."  —  Letter  of  E.  Gerry  to  John  Adams,  dated 
Feb.  9,  1813. 

The  forai  of  commission  issued  by  General  Washington  to  tlie  officers  of  the  vessels 
fitted  out  by  liim,  under  authority  of  the  Continental  Congress,  and  the  officers  so  com- 
missioned, were  as  follows  :  — 

By  his  Excellency  George  Washixgtox,  Esq.,  Commander-in-chief  of  th£  Army  of  the 

United  Colonics. 
To  William  Buuke,  Esq. 

By  virtue  of  the  powers  and  authorities  to  me  given  by  the  honorable  Continental 

Congress,  I  do  hereby  constitute  and  appoint  you  captain  and  commander  of  the  schooner 

JFarren,  now  lying  at  Beverly   port,  in  the  service  of  the  United   Colonies  of  North 

America,  to  have,  hold,  exercise,  and  enjoy  the  said  ofKce  of  captain  and  commander  of 

the  said  vessel,  and  to  perform  and  execute  all  matters  and  things  which  to  your  said 

office  do,  or  may  of  right  belong  or  appertain,  until  further  order  shall  be  given  herein 

by  the  honorable  Continental   Congiess,  myself,  or   any  future   commander-in-chief  of 

said  army,  willing   and  commanding  all  officers,  soldiers,  and  persons  whatsoever  any 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


203 


letter  from  Cambridge  to  Colonels  Glover  and  Moylan,  under  date  Oct. 
20,  1775,  says  :  "  Please  fix  upon  some  particular  color  for  a  flag,  and  a 
signal  by  which  our  vessels  may  know  one  another.  What  do  you 
think  of  a  flag  with  a  white  ground  and  a  tree  in  the  middle,  the  motto, 
'An  appeal  to  Heaven,' —  this  is  the  flag  of  our  floating  batteries." 
Colonels  Moylan  and  Glover  replied  the  next  day,  that,  as  Broughton 
and  Selman,  who  had  sailed  that  morning,  had  none  but  their  old 
colors  (probably  the  old  English  union  ensign),  they  had  appointed 
as  the  signal  by  which  they  could  be  known  to  their  friends  the  ensign 
at  the  main  topping  lift.  In  January,  the  Franklin  was  wearing  the 
pine-tree  flag.^ 

The  suggestion  of  Colonel  Eeed  seems  to  have  been  soon  adopted. 
The  'London  Chronicle,'  for  January,  1776,  describing  the  flag  of  a 
captured  cruiser,  says :  "  There  is  in  the  admiralty  office  the  flag  of 
a  provincial  privateer.  The  field  is  white  bunting.  On  the  middle  is 
a  green  pine-tree,  and  upon  the  opposite  side  is  the  motto,  'An  appeal 
to  Heaven.'  "     April,  1776,  the  Massachusetts  council  passed  a  series 

way  concerned,  to  be  obedient  and  assisting  to  you  in  the  due  execution  of  this  commis- 
sion. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal,  at  Cambridge,  this  1st  day  of  February,  Annoqice 

Domini,  1776. 

George  Washington. 
By  His  Excellency's  command. 
To  Captain  William  Burke,  of  the  Warren. 

Officers  of  the  Armed  Vessels  fitted  out  by  Order  of  General  Washington,  on  the  1st  day  of 

February,  1776. 

1  January,  1776. 

1  January,  1776. 

1  January,  1776. 
20  January,  1777. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
,  20  January,  1776. 
,  20  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
.  23  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
.  20  January,  1776. 
,  20  January,   1776. 

1  February,  1776. 


Hancock   .     . 


Lee. 


Franklin , 


Harrison 


Lynch .     . 


Warren 


John  Manley  .     . 
Richard  Stiles 
Nicholas  Ogilby  . 
Daniel  Waters     . 
William  Kissick 
John  Gill  .     .     . 
John  Desmond    . 
Samuel  Tucker    . 
Edward  Phittiplace 
Francis  Salter 
Charles  Dyar .     . 
Thomas  Dote  .     . 
John  Wigglcsworth 
John  Ayres     .     . 
John  Roche    . 
John  Tiley      .     . 
William  Burke    . 


American 


Captain  and  Com. 
1st  Lieutenant 
2d  Lieutenant 
Captain  .  . 
1st  Lieutenant 
2d  Lieutenant 
Master  .  .  . 
Captain  .  . 
1st  Lieutenant 
2d  Lieutenant 
Captain  .  . 
1st  Lieutenant 
2d  Lieutenant 
Cajitain 
l.st  Lieutenant 
2d  Lieutenant 
Captain      .     . 

Archives,  4th  series, 


vol.  iv.  pp.  909,  910. 


1  See  next  page. 


204  oKiruN  Axn  imjohress  of  tiii: 

of  resolutiiiiis  for  tlu'  regulation  of  the  sea  service,  among  wliicli  was 
the  foHowing :  — 

"  licsolird,  That  the  unifona  of  tlie  officers  l)e  green  and  wliite,  and 
that  they  furnish  themselves  accordingly ;  and  that  the  colors  be  a  white 
flag,  with  a  green  pine-tree,  and  tlie  inscription,  '  yi7i  appeal  to  Heaven.'  " 

According  to  the  English  newspapei's,  privateers,  throughout  this 
year,  wearing  a  flag  of  this  description  were  captured  and  carried  into 
l>ritish  ports.  "Jan.  6,  1776,  the  Tartar,  Captain  Meadows,  arrived  at 
I'ortsmouth,  England,  from  Boston,  with  over  seventy  men,  the  crew 
of  an  American  privateer  that  mounted  ten  guns,  taken  by  the  Fowry, 
man-of-war.  Captain  Meadows  likewise  brought  her  colors,  which  are 
a  pale  green  palm-tree  upon  a  white  field,  with  this  motto,  '  We  appeal 
to  Heaven.'  "  She  was  taken  on  the  Massachusetts  coast  cruising  for 
transports,  and  was  sent  out  by  the  council  of  that  province. 

Commodore  Samuel  Tucker,  writing  to  the  Hon.  John  Holmes, 
March  G,  1818,^  says :  "The  first  cruise  I  made  was  in  January,  1776, 
in  the  schooner  Franklin,  of  seventy  tons,  equipped  by  order  of  Gen- 
eral Washington,  and  I  had  to  purchase  the  small  arms  to  encounter 
the  enemy  with  money  from  my  own  pocket,  or  go  without ;  and  my 
wife  made  the  banner  I  fought  under,  the  field  of  which  was  white, 
and  the  union  green,  made  therein  in  the  figure  of  a  pine-tree,  made 
of  cloth  of  her  own  purchasing,  at  her  own  expense." 

Under  these  colors  he  captured  the  ship  George  and  brig  Ara- 
bella, transports,  having  on  board  about  two  hundred  and  eighty 
Highland  troops  of  General  Eraser's  corps. 

"  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  June  10,  1776,  on  Sunday,  arrived  from 
off  Boston  a  privateer  brig,  called  the  Yankee  Hero,  Captain  Tracy. 
She  was  taken  by  the  Miltbrd  frigate,  28  guns,  Captain  Burr,  after  an 
obstinate  engagement,  in  which  the  captain  of  the  privateer  received 
a  ball  through  his  thigh,  soon  after  which  she  struck.  She  is  a  fine 
vessel,  and  mounts  twelve  carriage  guns  and  six  swivels.  Her  colors 
were  a  pine-tree  on  a  white  field." 

Instances  of  the  use  of  this  pine-tree  flag,  from  October,  1775,  to 
July,  1776,  could  be  multiplied. 

In  the  museum  collected  in  Independence  Hall,  Philadelphia,  in 
1876,  was  exhibited  a  green  silk  military  flag,  said  to  have  belonged 
to  a  Newburyport  company  during  the  Eevolution.  The  flag  has  a 
white  canton,  on  which  is  painted  a  green  pine-tree  in  a  blue  field, 
surrounded  by  a  chain  circle  of  thirteen  links,  each  link  grasped  by 
a  mailed  hand  coming  out  of  a  cloud. 

1  Shepard's  Life  of  Commodore  Tucker, 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


205 


In  the  same  museum  was  a  regimental  flag  of  yellow  silk,  which 
once  belonged  to  Colonel  D.  B.  Webb,  aid  to  General  Putnam,  and 
afterwards  an  aid  and  the  private  secretary  of  Washington.  It  was 
so  mutilated  that  its  general  device  could  not  be  traced,  but  a  female 
figure  holds  in  her  hand  a  staff,  the  top  crowned  or  covered  with  a 
low-crowned  and  broad-brimmed  hat,  while  from  the  staff  streams  a 
pennant  of  thirteen  red  and  white  stripes. 

Among  the  curious  relics  of  the  American  Kevolution  in  the  collec- 
tions of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society  there  is  a  silk  flag,  which 
was  presented  by  Governor  Hancock  to  a  colored  company  called  the 
"  Bucks  of  America."  It  has  for  a  device  a  pine-tree  and  buck,  above 
which  are  the  initials  "  J.  H."  and  "  G.  W.,"  for  Hancock  and  Wash- 
ington. 

Mrs.  Margaret  C.  Craig,  the  daughter  of  General  Craig,  an  officer 
of  the  Eevolution,  and  now  living  in  New  Alexandria,  Penn.,  has  a 

rattlesnake  flag,  which  was  carried 
l)y  Colonel  John  Procter's  regiment 
all  through  the  war,  and  was  at  the 
battles  of  Trenton,  Princeton,  Ash 
Swamp,  &c. 

The  flag  is  composed  of  heavy 

^^,^^ ^.y-^-  crimson    watered     silk,    somewhat 

'^J^f^'^'^U^^ ■^^  faded,  and,  where  painted,  cracked 

and  broken,  and  the  covering  and 
fringe  of  the  two  tassels  have  been 
worn  almost  away ;  otherwise,  the 
flag  is  in  good  condition.  The  paint- 
ing is  alike  on  botli  sides  of  the  flag. 
It  is  six  feet  four  inches  long  by  five  feet  ten  inches  wide,  and  is 
cantoned  with  the  English  union  jack  of  1707 ;  that  is,  with  a  St. 
George's  red  and  St.  Andrew's  white  cross  on  a  blue  field.  In  the 
centre  of  the  red  field  of  the  flag  there  is  painted  a  rattlesnake  of  the 
natural  color,  coiled  up,  and  in  the  attitude  of  striking,  and  having 
thirteen  rattles  erect,  representing  the  thirteen  colonies.  It  will  be 
noticed  that  the  head  of  the  snake  is  significantly  erected,  as  if  in 
defiance,  towards  the  English  union.  Below  the  snake,  on  a  yel- 
low scroll,  in  large  black  letters,  is  the  motto,  "  Don't  tread  on 
me."  Above  the  snake  are  the  letters  "  J.  P.,"  and  just  below  them  are 
the   letters  "  I.   B.  W.  C.  P."      These   letters,  General   Craig   said, 


FlaK  of  First  Hn-ail 


tiiiiurlaiHl  Luuiilv, 


Penn.,  1775.i 


1  The  illustration  is  from  a  drawing  ol'  the  flag  by  Mrs.  Campbell,  furnished  by  Jlrs. 


Craifi 


20G  oiJir:iN  am>  imjocukss  or  'imik 

meaut  "  Juhii  Procter's  First  Brigade,  Westmorulaud  County,  Pennsyl- 
vania." 

The  Hag  l)elonged  to  Colonel  Procter's  regiment,  ol  whicli  Gonei-al 
Craig  was  a  junior  otticer.  On  Colonel  Procter's  death,  the  flag  was 
presented  to  the  next  senior  officer,  and  thus  lianded  down  to  General 
Craig,  who  was  the  last  surviving  ollicer,  and  was  sent  to  him  by 
mail,  but,  unfortunately,  the  accompanying  letter,  detailing  its  history, 
has  been  lost.  Mrs.  Craig,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  a  painting  of 
this  interesting  relic,  from  which  the  illustration  is  taken,  informs  me 
the  Hag  has  been  in  the  possession  of  her  family  for  more  than  seventy 
years.  It  is  the  only  flag  of  the  time  bearing  the  rattlesnake  device 
that  I  know  of  in  existence  at  this  time. 

Mrs.  Craig  values  the  flag  very  highly,  and  says,  Avhen  the  rebels 
invaded  Pennsylvania,  from  the  front  yard  of  her  house  she  heard 
distinctly  the  cannonading  at  Gettysburg,  and  resolved,  should  the 
rebels  raid  through  her  neighborhood,  that  she  would  secure  it  from 
them,  as  also  her  father's  sword.  The  flag  was  last  displayed  in 
public  at  the  centennial  celebration  at  Greensburg,  Penn. 

Another  standard  exhibited  in  Independence  Hall,  in  187G,  and 
now  deposited  with  the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society,  was  that  of 
the  First  Piifle  Eegiment  of  Pennsylvania,  1775-83,  which  is  thus 
described  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hand,  in  a  letter  to  Jasper  Yeates, 
under  date,  "  Prospect  Hill,  March  8, 1776  : "  "I  am  stationed  on  Cob- 
bles Hill,  with  four  companies  of  our  regiment.  Two  companies  — 
Cluggage's  and  Chambers's  —  were  ordered  to  Dorchester  on  Monday. 
Boss's  and  Lowden's  relieved  them  yesterday.  Every  regiment  -is  to 
have  a  standard  and  colors.  Our  standard  is  to  be  a  deep  green 
ground,  the  device  a  tiger,  partly  enclosed  by  toils,  attempting  the 
pass,  defended  by  a  hunter  armed  with  a  spear  (in  white),  on  a  crim- 
son field.     The  motto,  '  Donari  nolo.'  " 

In  its  services  the  regiment  traversed  every  one  of  the  thirteen 
States,  and  this  standard  was  borne  by  it  in  all  its  skirmishes  in  front 
of  Boston ;  at  White  Plains,  Trenton,  Princeton,  Brandywine,  German- 
town,  Monmouth,  Green  Springs,  Yorktown,  and  was  with  Wayne 
when  he  fought  the  last  battle  of  the  war,  at  Sharon,  Ga.,  May  24, 
1782 ;  entered  Savannah  in  triumph,  July  11,  and  Charleston,  S.  C, 
Dec.  14, 1782  ;  was  in  camp  on  James  Island,  S.  C,  May  11,  1783,  and 
only  when  the  news  of  the  cessation  of  hostilities  reached  that  point 
M'as  embarked  for  Philadelphia.^ 

1  Annals  of  Buffalo  Valley,  by  John  Blair  Linn,  Esq.,  p.  85  ;  also  his  letter  to 
Philadelphia  Times,  April  6,  1877. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


207 


The  battle-flag  of  Colonel  AVilliam  Washington's  cavalry  troop, 
known  as  the  '  Eutaw  Standard,'  was  placed  in  the  custody  of  the  Wash- 
ington Light  Infantry  Corps,  of 
Charleston,  S.  C,  on  the  19th 
of  April,  1827,  by  the  Colonel's 
widow,  Mrs.  Jane  Washington, 
and  is  now  preserved  in  their 
armory.  It  is  of  heavy  crim- 
son silk,  and  is  in  good  condi- 
tion. This  little  crimson  flag 
first  waved  in  victory  at  the 
battle  of  Cowpens,  Jan.  17, 
1781 ;  and  under  its  folds  at 
Eutaw  Springs,  Sept.  8,  1781, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Wade 
Hampton  and  many  officers 
were  wounded,  and  Colonel 
William  AVashington  being- 
disabled  by  the  killing  of  his 
horse  while  charging  the  ene- 

Eutaw  Flag.  ,  .  -, 

my,  was  made  a  prisoner.^ 
The  tradition  of  the  origin  of  the  flag  is  interesting.  Colonel  Wash- 
ington came  from  Virginia  to  South  Carolina  at  the  head  of  a  cavalry 
force,  and  met  Miss  Jane  EUiott  at  her  father's  house  on  the  family 
estate,  known  as  Sandy  HiU,  near  Eautowle's  Bridge,  ten  miles  west  of 
Charleston ;  a  mutual  attachment  was  formed,  and  Miss  Elliott,  sharing 
the  sentiments  of  all  her  family,  was  an  intense  friend  of  the  rebel 
cause.  In  the  fall  of  1780,  Colonel  Washington  paid  a  hurried  visit 
to  his  fiancee,  and  when  about  to  leave,  in  reply  to  her  playful  remark 
that  she  would  look  out  for  news  of  his  flag  and  fortunes,  he  replied, 
that  his  corps  carried  no  flag.  With  a  woman's  ready  resource  she 
seized  her  scissors,  and,  cutting  a  sc[uare  of  crimson  damask  that  em- 
bellished the  back  of  a  stately  drawing-room  chair,  said,  "  Colonel, 
make  this  your  standard ! "  and  gave  it  to  her  gallant  lover,  at  the 
head  of  whose  cavalry  it  was  borne,  mounted  on  a  small  hickory  pole, 
during  the  remainder  of  the  war.  Never  were  knights  of  the  old  days 
of  chivalry  more  deeply  inspired  by  maidenly  guerdons  than  were 
Washington  and  his  brave  cavaliers  as  they  charged  under  that  little 
square  of  crimson  silk. 


1  Coustitutiou  and  Rules  and  Relics  belonging  to  the  Washington  Light  Infantry, 


1879. 


208  ORIGIN    AND    PKOGRESS    OF    THE 

This  flag  was  known  as  "Tailetou's  Terror,"  alter  their  last-named 
battle.  It  was  presented  to  the  Washington  Light  Infantry  of  (.'harles- 
ton,  by  Mrs.  Jane  Elliott  "Washington  in  person,  in  18:^7,  on  the  anni- 
versary of  the  battle  of  Lexington.  The  i>resentation  took  i)lace  in 
front  of  the  then  Washington  mansion,  southwest  corner  of  ►South 
Battery  and  Church  Streets,  Charleston,  S.  C,  and  the  house  is  still 
standing.  Sergeant  H.  S.  Tew,  the  color-sergeant,  who  received  and 
bore  the  flag  on  that  parade,  still  survives.  This  standard  is  always 
di.splayed  on  the  Washington  birthday  parade,  and  other  imjiortant 
military  occasions.  It  was  carried  to  the  Bunker  Hill  centennial,  and 
everywhere  received  with  great  enthusiasm.  It  was  also  earned  as 
the  colors  of  the  Centennial  Legion  at  Philadelphia,  4th  July,  187G, 
which  command  was  composed  of  one  representative  military  corps 
from  each  of  the  old  thirteen  States.  It  will  be  a  conspicuous  feature 
at  the  grand  celebration  of  the  centennial  of  Cowpens,  17th  January, 
1881,  at  which  time  a  memorial  column  to  the  victors  of  that  field 
will  be  dedicated,  with  imposing  ceremonies,  under  the  auspices  of 
the  Washington  Light  Infantry  of  Charleston,  S.  C. 

At  the  semi-centennial  celebration  by  the  corps  of  Jane  Washington 
day,  or  of  the  presentation  of  the  flag,  in  1877,  Captain  Courtenay,  in 
an  eloquent  and  patriotic  speech,  thus  alluded  to  this  valued  relic :  — 

"Fifty  years  ago  to-day  tlie  Washington  Light  Infantry  were  in 
martial  array  in  front  of  a  well-known  Carolina  home.  In  the  ample 
portal  stood  a  venerated  matron,  whose  brow  had  been  frosted  by 
time.  Supported  by  an  only  son,  she  was  discharging  the  last  jjuldic 
duty  of  an  eventful  life.  In  her  hand  was  that  banner,  originally  im- 
provised by  her  for  the  service  of  her  country,  and  presented  to  that 
soldier  of  Virginia  who  under  its  crimson  folds  achieved  a  flashing 
fame,  which  filled  the  new-born  States  with  patriotic  enthusiasm,  and 
still  casts  a  reflected  splendor  on  his  times.  Grouped  around  her 
were  a  trio  of  our  own  worthies,  chosen  sponsors  of  this  corps,  to  make 
its  solemn  pledges  and  to  assume  the  custody  of  this  relic.  The  bril- 
liant assemblage  of  spectators  has  receded  from  view,  the  long  line  of 
enthusiastic  soldiers  now  answer  a  short  roll-call.  The  chief  actors 
have  passed  from  time  to  eternity,  l^ut  the  spirit  of  the  day  we  cele- 
brate survives.  .  .  .  The  world  is  largely  impressed  by  symbols.  We 
have  our  symbol !  There  it  stands,  the  flag  of  Eutaw,  Guilford,  and 
tlie  Cowpens !  It  has  been  intrusted  to  our  keeping,  but  it  is  the 
heritage  of  all  our  people,  a  constant  reminder  to  the  youth  of  Caro- 
lina of  every  thing  that  is  noble  in  citizenship  and  the  martial  virtues. 
May  that  standard  in  its  progressing  life  ever  command  the  rever- 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES.  209 

ence  due  age,  and  combine  the  privileges  of  ardent  youth !  and  as  is 
the  breadth  of  its  widening  fame,  so  shall  also  be  the  responsibilities 
imposed  upon  this  community,  for  whom  it  stands  in  solemn  pledge, 
ever  recalling  the  wisdom,  fortitude,  and  self-sacrificing  spirit  of  our 
heroic  past."  ^ 

On  the  22d  of  February  following,  a  day  which  is  always  remem- 
bered by  the  corps  as  its  chosen  anniversary,  the  orator  of  the  day, 
the  Eev.  E.  C.  Edgerton,  a  member  of  the  company,  said,  alluding  to 
the  flag  :  "  There  is  meaning  in  our  words  when  we  gather  beneath  the 
crimson  folds  of  the  Eutaw  banner,  illumined  by  the  stars  and  stripes, 
and  shout :  — 

'' '  Unfurl  the  glorious  banner 

Which  at  Eutaw  shone  so  bright, 
And,  like  a  dazzling  meteor,  swept 

Through  the  Cowpens  deadly  fight. 
Sound,  sound  your  lively  bugles. 

Let  thein  pour  their  loudest  blast, 
While  we  pledge  both  life  and  honor 
To  stand  by  it  to  the  last.' "  ^ 

In  the  orderly  book  of  the  army,  at  Williamsburg,  Ya.,  under  date, 
"  Head-quarters,  April  8,  1776,"  is  found  this  entry :  "  The  colonels 
are  desired  to  provide  themselves  with  some  colors  and  standards,  if 
they  are  to  be  procured :  it  doth  not  signify  of  what  sort  they  are." 

In  the  American  Archives  there  is  a  description  of  the  standard  of 
the  Thirteenth  Eegiment,  under  date  Sept.  8,  1776 ;  viz.,  "Ground, 
light  buff;  device,  a  pine-tree  and  field  of  Indian  corn  (emblematical 
€f  New  England  corn-fields).  Two  oflicers  in  the  uniform  of  the  regi- 
ment, one  of  them  wounded  in  the  breast,  the  blood  streaming  from 
the  wound.  Under  the  pine,  several  children.  One  of  the  officers 
pointing  to  them,  with  the  motto,  '  For  jJosterity  ive  UcecV  "^ 

On  the  13th  of  September,  1775,  Colonel  Moultrie  received  an 
order  from  the  Council  of  Safety  for  taking  Fort  Johnson,  on  James 
Island,  S.  C. ;  *  and,  a  flag  being  thought  necessary,  Colonel  IMoultrie  was 
requested  to  procure  one  by  the  council,  and  had  a  large  blue  flag 
made,  with  a  crescent  in  the  dexter  corner,  to  be  uniform  M'ith  the 
troops  of  the  garrison,  who  were  clothed  in  blue,  and  wore  silver  cres- 

1  Jane  "Washington  Day,  &c.,  Charleston,  S.  C,  1877,  p.  10. 

'^  Annual  Observance  of  Washington's  Birthday  by  the  Washington  Light  Infantry  of 
Charleston,  S.  C,  1878,  p.  12,  and  Banner  Song  of  the  Washington  Light  Infantry,  by 
Theo.  L.  Smith,  Esq. 

^  American  Archives,  5th  series,  vol.  ii.  p.  244.  *  Holmes's  Annals. 

14 


210  (IKICIX    AM)    TKOCKKSS   (»F   THK 

cents  in  front  of  their  caps,^  inscribed  "  Liberty  or  Death."  He  said, 
"/7/w  vx(S  tlic  first  American  Jf a g  dii^iilaycd  in  the  South."  When 
^luultrie  hoisted  this  llaif,  the  timid  people  said  it  had  the  appearance 
of  a  dechiration  of  war,  and  tliat  the  captain  of  the  Tamar,  then  nil" 
Charleston,  would  look  upon  it  as  an  insult  and  Hag  of  defiance.  A 
"  union  Hag "  had  been  disi)layed  at  Savannah  the  preceding  June.^ 
June  28,  1776,  the  standard  adv'anced  by  Colonel  Moultrie  on  the 
southeast  bastion  of  Fort  Sullivan  —  or  j\Ioultrie,  as  it  was  afterwards 
named,  on  account  of  his  gallant  defence  of  it  —  was  the  same  cres- 
cent flag,  with  the  word  Liberty  emblazoned  upon  it.^ 

At  the  commencement  of  the  action,  the  crescent  flag  which  waved 
opposite  the  union  flag  upon  the  western  bastion  fell  outside  upon 
the  beach.  Sergeant  AVilliara  Jasper,  an  Irishman  by  parentage,  see- 
ing this,  cried  out  to  Colonel  Moultrie,  "  Don't  let  us  fight  without  a 
flag,  Colonel,"  and  leaped  the  parapet,  w-alked  the  whole  length  of  the 
fort,  picked  up  the  flag,  fastened  it  on  a  sponge  staff,  and  in  the  midst 
of  the  iron  hail  pouring  upon  the  fortress,  and  in  sight  of  the  whole 
British  fleet,  fixed  the  flag  firmly  upon  the  bastion.  Three  cheers 
greeted  him  as  he  leaped  within  the  fort.  On  the  day  after  the  battle, 
Governor  Rutledge  visited  the  fort,  and  rewarded  Jasper  for  his  valor 
by  presenting  him  with  his  own  small  sword,  which  he  was  then 
wearing,  and  thanked  him,  in  the  name  of  his  country.  He  offered 
him  a  lieutenant's  commission ;  but  Jasper,  who  could  neither  read  nor 
write,  declined  it,  saying,  "  I  am  not  fit  to  keep  officers'  company :  I 
am  but  a  sergeant." 

On  the  day  after  the  battle,  the  British  fleet  left  Charleston  Har- 
bor. The  joy  of  the  Americans  was  unbounded,  and  the  following 
day  (June  30),  the  wife  of  Major  Bernard  Elliot  presented  Colonel 
Moultrie's  regiment  with  a  pair  of  elegant  colors ;  one  of  theni  was  of 
fine  blue  silk,  the  other  of  fine  red  silk,  both  richly  embroidered. 
In  the  assault  on  Savannah,  Oct.  9,  1779,  they  were  planted  on  the 
walls  of  the  city,  beside  the  lilies  of  France.  Lieutenants  Hume 
and  Buck,  who  carried  them,  having  fallen,  Lieutenant  Gray,  of 
the  South  Carolina  regiment,  seized  their  standards,  and  kept  them 
erect  until  he  was  stricken  by  a  bullet,  when  brave  Sergeant  Jasper 
sprang  forward,  and  had  just  fastened  them  on  the  parapet  of  the 
Spring  Hill  redoubt  when  a  rifle-ball  pierced  him,  and  he  fell  into  the 
ditch.  Just  then  a  retreat  was  sounded,  and  Jasper,  wounded  and 
dying  as  he  was,  seized  the  colors,  and  succeeded  in  saving  them  from 

1  Colonel  Moultrie's  Memoirs  of  the  Revolution,  vol.  i.  p.  90.  ^  ggg  ante. 

'  Bancroft's  History  of  the  United  States  ;  Dawson's  Battles  by  Sea  and  Land. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  211 

falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  He  was  earned  to  camp,  and 
soon  after  expired.  Just  before  he  died,  he  said  to  Major  Harry, 
"  Tell  Mrs.  Elliot  I  lost  my  life  supporting  the  colors  she  gave  to  our 
regiment."  ^ 

The  Declaration  of  Independence  was  read  by  Major  Elliot  at 
Charleston,  on  the  5th  of  August,  1776,  to  the  people,  young  and  old, 
and  of  both  sexes,  assembled  around  the  liberty  pole,  with  all  the  mili- 
tary of  the  city  and  vicinity,  flags  flying  and  drums  beating.  Among 
the  flags  were,  without  doubt,  these  standards  presented  by  his  wife. 
They  were  captured  when  Charleston  surrendered,  May  12,  1780, 
and  were  among  the  British  trophies  preserved  in  the  Tower  of 
London. 

The  General  Congress,  having  previously  appointed  a  committee  to 
prepare  a  plan,  on  the  13th  of  October,  1775,  after  some  debate,  "Re- 
solved, That  a  swift  sailing-vessel,  to  carry  the  carriage-guns  and  a 
proportionable  number  of  swivels,  with  eighty  men,  be  fitted  with 
all  possible  despatch,  for  a  cruise  of  three  months."  It  was  also  "  Re- 
solved, That  another  vessel  be  fitted  for  the  same  purposes,"  and 
"  that  a  marine  committee,  consisting  of  JMessrs.  Dean,  Langdon,  and 
Gadsden,  report  their  opinion  of  a  proper  vessel,  and  also  an  estimate 
of  the  expense."  On  the  17th  of  October,  the  committee  brought  in 
their  estimate  and  report,  which,  after  debate,  was  recommitted.  On 
the  30th,  the  committee  recommended  that  the  second  vessel  be  of  a 
size  to  carry  fourteen  guns  and  a  proportionate  number  of  swivels  and 
men ;  it  was  further  resolved  that  two  more  vessels  be  fitted  out  with 
all  expedition,  the  one  to  carry  not  exceeding  twenty  guns,  and  the 
other  not  exceeding  thirty-six  guns,  with  a  proportionate  number  of 
swivels  and  men,  to  be  employed  for  the  protection  and  defence  of  the 
United  Colonies,  as  Congress  shall  direct.  Four  new  members  were 
added  to  the  committee ;  viz.,  Mr.  Hopkins,  Mr.  Hewes,  Mr.  E.  H. 
Lee,  and  Mr.  John  Adams.^ 

Nov.  9,  1775,  it  was  ''Resolved,  That  two  battalions  of  marines  be 
raised,  to  be  enlisted  and  commissioned  to  serve  for  and  during  the 
present  war  between  Great  Britain  and  the  colonies,  and  to  be  con- 
sidered as  a  part  of  the  continental  army  of  Boston,  particular  care  to 
be  taken  that  no  persons  be  appointed  or  enlisted  into  said  battalions 

1  Lossing's  Field-Book  of  the  Revolution,  vol.  ii.  pp.  532,  .551.  Oct.  9,  1879,  there 
was  a  centennial  celebration,  at  Savannah,  of  the  .siege,  when  the  corner-stone  of  a  monu- 
ment to  Jasper  was  laid  over  the  spot  where  he  received  his  death-wound  a  hundred 
years  before.     Savannah  News,  Oct.  9,  1879. 

2  Journal  of  Congress,  vol.  i.  p.  204. 


212  OKKilN    AM)   ri;(»(;Ki;ss  (»F  TIIK 

but  such  as  are  good  seamen,  or  so  acquainted  with  inuiitime  affaii-s 
as  to  be  able  to  serve  to  advantage  l)y  sea  when  reciuired."  liy  a  reso- 
hition  of  the  3(>th,  they  were  ordered  to  be  raised  iridei)endent  ol  the 
army  ortk^red  for  service  in  Massachusetts. 

November  23,  the  Marine  Committee  reported  rules  for  the  govern- 
ment of  the  navy,  which  were  adDpled  on  the  28th.  On  the  2d  (»f 
December,  the  committee  were  directed  to  prepare  a  proper  co'.nmis- 
sion  for  the  captains  and  conunanders  of  the  shi})S  of  war  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  United  Colonies,^  and  reported  one,  which  was  adopted  the 
same  day.  December  9,  Congress  established  the  pay  of  the  navy, 
and  on  December  11  it  was  resolved  that  a  committee  be  appointed 
to  devise  ways  and  means  for  furnishing  these  colonies  with  a  naval 
armament,  and  report  with  convenient  speed,  and  that  this  committee 
consist  of  a  member  from  each  colony ;  viz.,  Mr.  Bartlett,  Mr.  S. 
Adams,  Mr.  Hopkins,*  Mr.  Deane,  Mr.  Lewis,  Mr.  Crane,  Mr.  Morris, 
Mr.  Eead,  Mr.  Paca,  Mr.  R.  A.  Lee,  Mr.  Hewes,  and  ]\Ir.  Gadsden. 

On  the  13th,  this  committee  reported  that  fixe  sliips  of  thirty-two 
guns,  five  of  twenty-eight  guns,  three  of  twenty-four  guns,  can  be 
fitted  for  sea  probably  by  the  last  of  March  next;  viz.,  in  New 
Hampshire,  one ;  in  Massachusetts,  two ;  in  Connecticut,  one ;  in 
Rhode  Island,  two ;  in  New  York,  two ;  in  Pennsylvania,  four ;  in 
Maryland,  one,"  —  the  probable  cost  of  these  vessels  being  estimated  at 
S866,666f.  The  next  day,  the  same  committee,  Mr.  Chase  being  sub- 
stituted for  Mr.  Paca,  was  appointed  to  carry  out  the  report. 

These  provisions  for  a  continental  navy  were  prior  to  the  resolu' 
tions  of  the  Massachusetts  Council,  April,  1776,  providing  a  green 
uniform  and  the  pine-tree  flag  for  her  State  marine ;  but  they  make 
no  provision  for  a  national  flag  for  this  navy  of  the  Ignited  Colonies. 

John  Jay,  in  a  letter  dated  July,  1776,  three  months  later,  ex- 
pressly states  Congress  had  made  no  order,  at  that  date,  "  concerning 
continental  colors,  and  that  captains  of  the  armed  vessels  had  followed 
their  own  fancies."  He  names  as  one  device  a  rattlesnake  rearing  its 
crest  and  shaking  its  rattles,  and  having  the  motto,  "  Don't  tread  on 
me." 

De  Benvouloir,  the  discreet  emissary  of  Vergennes,  who  arrived  in 
Philadelphia  the  latter  part  of  1775,  just  after  Congress  had  ordered 
the  thirteen  ships  of  war,  reports  to  the  French  minister :  "  They  have 
given  up  the  English  flag,  and  have  taken  for  their  devices  a  rattle- 
snake with  thirteen  rattles,  and  a  mailed  arm  holding  thirteen  arrows." 

'The  London  Chronicle,'  July  27,  1776,  says:  "The  colors  of  the 

1  Journal  of  Congi-ess,  vol.  i.  j).  255. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  213 

American  fleet  have  a  snake  with  thirteen  rattles,  the  fourteenth  bud- 
ding, described  in  the  attitude  of  going  to  strike,  with  this  motto, 
'  Don't  tread  on  me.' " 

T]^e  number  thirteen,  representative  of  the  number  of  colonies, 
seems  to  have  been  constantly  in  mind;  thus,  thirteen  vessels  are 
ordered  to  be  built,  thirteen  stripes  are  placed  on  the  flag,  thirteen 
arrows  are  grasped  in  a  mailed  hand,  thirteen  rattles  on  the  rattle- 
snake, and,  later,  thirteen  arrows  in  the  talons  of  the  eagle,  and  thir- 
teen mailed  hands  grasping  an  endless  chain  of  thii'teen  links. 

The  rattlesnake  was  a  favorite  device  with  the  colonists,  and  its 
origin  as  an  American  emblem  deserves  investigation  as  a  curious 
feature  in  our  national  history.^ 

The  choice  of  this  reptile  as  a  representative  of  the  colonies  had  at- 
tained a  firm  position  in  the  regard  of  the  colonists  long  before  diffi- 
culties with  Great  Britain  were  anticipated.  As  early  as  April,  1751, 
an  account  of  the  trial  of  Samuel  Sanders,  an  English  transported 
convict,  for  the  murder  of  Simon  Gerty,  occasioned  the  following 
reflections,  which  were  published  in  Franklin's  paper,  the  '  Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette : '  — 

"  '  When  we  see  our  papers  filled  continually  with  accounts  of  the 
most  audacious  robberies,  the  most  cruel  murders,  and  an  infinity  of 
other  villanies  perpetrated  by  convicts  transported  from  Europe,  what 
melancholy,  what  terrible  reflections,  must  it  occasion !  What  will 
become  our  position  ?  These  are  some  of  thy  favors,  Britain,  and  thou 
art  called  the  mother  country  ?  But  what  good  mother  ever  sent  thieves 
and  villains  to  accompany  her  children,  to  corrupt  some  with  infec- 
tious vices  and  murder  the  rest  ?  What  father  ever  endeavors  to 
spread  plague  in  his  own  family  ?  We  don't  ask  fish,  but  thou  givest 
us  serpents,  and  worse  than  serpents,  in  which  Britain  shows  a  more 
sovereign  contempt  for  us  than  by  emptying  her  jails  into  our  settle- 
ments. What  must  we  think  of  that  board  which  has  advocated  the 
repeal  of  every  law  that  we  have  hitherto  made  to  prevent  this  deluge 
of  wickedness  from  overwhelming  us  ?  and  witli  this  cruel  sarcasm : 
that  those  laws  were  against  the  public  utility,  for  they  tended  to  pre- 
vent the  improvement  and  well-peopling  of  the  colonies.  And  what 
must  we  think  of  those  merchants  who,  for  the  sake  of  a  little  paltry 
gain,  will  be  concerned  in  im]iorting  and  disposing  of  such  cargoes  ? ' 

"  This  remonstrance,  a  bold  one  for  the  time,  was  commented  upon 
in  a  succeeding  number  of  the  'Gazette,'  by  a  writer  who  proposed 

^  The  account  following  is  derived  in  jiart  from  an  article  printed  in  the  '  Philadeliiliia 
Sunday  Dispatch,'  1871. 


214  OKirnx  and  tijockkss  of  'iiii: 

the  colonists  sho\ikl  send  to  England  in  return  '  a  cargo  of  rattlesnakcn, 
wliicli  should  he  distributed  in  St.  James's  I'ark,  Spring  Clarden,  and 
other  places  of  pleasure,  and  particularly  in  nol)leinen's  gardens.'  lie 
adds : — 

"'Let  no  private  interests  ol)struct  })ul)lic  utility.  Our  mother 
knows  what  is  best  for  us.  What  is  a  little  house-breaking,  sho])- 
lifting,  or  liighway  robbery  ?  What  is  a  son  now  and  then  corrupted 
and  hanged,  a  daughter  debauched,  a  wife  stabbed,  a  husband's  throat 
cut,  or  a  child's  brains  beat  out  with  an  axe,  compared  with  "the  im- 
provement and  well-peopling  of  the  colonies  "  ? ' 

"  This  idea  of  rendering  the  rattlesnake  a  means  of  retribution  for 
the  wrongs  of  America  could  scarcely  have  been  forgotten,  and  re- 
ceived a  new  value  three  years  afterwards,  when,  to  stimulate  the 
colonies  to  a  concert  of  measures  against  the  Indians,  the  device  of  a 
snake  cut  into  eight  parts,  representing  the  colonies  then  engaged  in 
the  war  against  the  French  and  Indians,  was  published  at  the  head  of 
the  '  Gazette,'  with  the  motto,  '  Join  or  die.'  This  device  was  adopted 
by  other  newspapers  in  the  colonies,  and  in 
1775  it  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  '  Pennsyl- 
vania Journal,'  the  head  representing  New  Eng- 
land, and  the  other  disjointed  portions  being 
marked  with  the  initials,  '  K  Y.,'  '  N.  J.,'  '  P.,' 

Snake  Device.  ,  ^   ,  ,  y  ,   ,  ^    ^,   ,  ^^  ^   ,  ^^^  ,  ^  ,       rpj^^  ^^^^^^ 

then  was,  '  Unite  or  die.'  These  matters  kept  the  rattlesnake  in  the 
memory  of  the  provincials,  and  may  have  led  to  its  early  adoption. 

"Bradford's  'Pennsylvania  Journal'  of  Dec.  27,  1775,  contains  the 
following  speculations  upon  the  reasons  for  the  adoption  of  this  em- 
blem. This  composition  has  been  ascribed  to  Dr.  Franklin,  without 
any  very  good  cause.  The  journal  which  published  it  was  one  with 
which  Dr.  Franklin  was  not  friendly.  He  would  have  been  more 
likely  to  have  sent  his  communication  to  the  '  Gazette,'  which  was 
partly  owned  by  his  old  partner,  David  Hall. 

"  '  Messrs.  Printers :  —  I  observed  on  one  of  the  drums  l)elonging  to 
the  marines,  now  raising,  there  was  painted  a  rattlesnake,  with  this 
modest  motto  under  it,  "  Don't  tread  on  me ! "  As  I  know  it  is  the 
custom  to  have  some  device  on  the  arms  of  every  country,  I  supposed 
this  might  be  intended  for  the  arms  of  North  America.  As  I  have 
nothing  to  do  with  public  affairs,  and  as  my  time  is  perfectly  my  o-vvn, 
in  order  to  divert  an  idle  hour  1  sat  down  to  guess  what  might  have 
been  intended  by  this  uncommon  device.  I  took  care,  however,  to 
consult  on  this  occasion  a  person  acf|uainted  with  heraldry,  from  whom 


.j^AG   or   THE   UNITED   STATES.  215 

I  learned  that  it  is  a  rule  among  the  learned  in  that  science  that  the 
worthy  properties  of  an  animal  in  a  crest  shall  be  considered,  and  that 
the  base  ones  cannot  have  been  intended.  He  likewise  informed  me 
that  the  ancients  considered  the  serpent  as  an  emblem  of  wisdom,  and, 
in  a  certain  attitude,  of  endless  duration ;  both  which  circumstances, 
I  suppose,  may  have  been  in  view.  Having  gained  this  intelligence, 
and  recollecting  that  countries  are  sometimes  represented  by  animals 
peculiar  to  them,  it  occurred  to  me  that  the  rattlesnake  is  found  in  no 
other  quarter  of  the  globe  than  America,  and  it  may  therefore  have 
been  chosen  on  that  account  to  represent  her.  But  then  the  worthy 
properties  of  a  snake,  I  judged,  would  be  hard  to  point  out.  This 
rather  raised  than  suppressed  my  curiosity,  and  having  frequently 
seen  the  rattlesnake,  I  ran  over  in  my  mind  every  property  for  which 
she  was  distinguished,  not  only  from  other  animals,  but  from  those 
of  the  same  genus  or  class,  endeavoring  to  fix  some  meaning  to  each 
not  wholly  inconsistent  with  common  sense.  I  recollected  that  her 
eye  exceeded  in  brightness  that  of  any  other  animal,  and  that  she  had 
no  eyelids.  She  may  therefore  be  esteemed  an  emblem  of  vigilance. 
She  never  begins  an  attack,  nor,  when  once  engaged,  ever  surrenders. 
She  is  therefore  an  emblem  of  magnanimity  and  true  courage.  As  if 
anxious  to  prevent  all  pretensions  of  quarrelling  with  the  weapons  with 
which  nature  favored  her,  she  conceals  them  in  the  roof  of  her  mouth, 
so  that,  to  those  who  are  unacquainted  with  her,  she  appears  most 
defenceless  ;  and  even  when  those  wea]Dons  are  shown  and  extended  for 
defence,  they  appear  weak  and  contemptible ;  but  their  wounds,  how- 
ever small,  are  decisive  and  fatal.  Conscious  of  this,  she  never  wounds 
until  she  has  generously  given  notice  even  to  her  enemy,  and  cautioned 
him  against  the  danger  of  treading  on  her.  Was  I  wrong,  sirs,  in  think- 
ing this  a  strong  picture  of  the  temper  and  conduct  of  America  ? 

"  '  The  poison  of  her  teeth  is  the  necessary  means  of  digesting  her 
food,  and,  at  the  same  time,  is  the  certain  destruction  of  her  enemies. 
This  may  be  understood  to  intimate  that  those  things  which  are  de- 
structive to  our  enemies  may  be  to  us  not  only  harmless,  but  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  our  existence.  I  confess  I  was  totally  at  a  loss 
what  to  make  of  the  rattles  until  I  went  back  and  counted  them,  and 
found  them  just  thirteen,  —  exactly  the  number  of  colonies  united  in 
America ;  and  I  recollected,  too,  that  this  was  the  only  part  of  the 
snake  which  increased  in  numbers.  Perhaps  it  may  have  only  been 
my  fancy,  but  I  conceited  the  painter  had  shown  a  half-formed  addi- 
tional rattle,  which  I  suppose  may  have  been  intended  to  represent 
the  province  of  Canada.     'Tis  curious'  and  amazing  to  observe  how 


2in  oKKJiN  ANi>  i'K(t(;i{i:ss  OK    riii; 

distinct  aiul  iiulependent  of  eacli  other  the  rattles  of  this  animal  are, 
anil  yet  how  firmly  they  are  united  together  so  as  to  he  never  sepa- 
rated except  by  bivaking  them  to  pieces.  One  of  these  rattles,  singly, 
is  incapable  of  producing  sound  ;  but  the  ringing  of  thirteen  together 
is  suflicient  to  alarm  the  boldest  man  living.  The  rattlesnake  is  soli- 
tary, and  a,ss(»ciates  with  her  kind  only  when  it  is  necessary  for  her 
preservation,  lu  winter,  the  warmth  of  a  number  together  will  pre- 
serve their  lives,  whilst  singly  they  would  probal)ly  perish.  The 
power  of  fascination  attributed  to  her  by  a  generous  construction  may 
be  understood  to  mean  that  those  who  consider  the  liberty  and  bless- 
inss  which  America  affords,  and  once  come  over  to  her,  never  after- 
wards  leave  her,  but  spend  their  lives  with  her.  She  strongly  resem- 
bles America  in  this :  that  she  is  beautiful  in  youth,  and  her  beauty 
increases  with  age ;  her  tongue  also  is  blue,  and  forked  as  lightning, 
and  her  abode  is  among  impenetrable  rocks. 

" '  Having  pleased  myself  with  reflections  of  this  kind,  I  communi- 
cated my  sentiments  to  a  neighbor  of  mine,  who  has  a  surprising 
readiness  at  guessing  any  thing  which  relates  to  public  affairs ;  and, 
indeed,  I  should  be  jealous  of  his  reputation  in  that  way,  were  it  not 
that  the  event  constantly  shows  that  he  has  guessed  wrong.  He  in- 
stantly declared  it  his  sentiment  that  Congress  meant  to  allude  to 
Lord  North's  declaration  in  the  House  of  Commons,  that  he  never 
would  relax  his  measures  until  he  had  brought  America  to  his  feet,  and 
to  intimate  to  his  lordship  that  if  she  was  brought  to  his  feet,  it  would 
be  dangerous  treading  on  her.  But  I  am  positive  he  has  guessed  wrong  ; 
for  I  am  sure  Congress  would  not,  at  this  time  of  day,  condescend  to 
take  the  least  notice  of  his  lordship  in  that  or  any  other  way.  In 
which  opinion  I  am  determined  to  remain  your  humble  servant.' " 

Colonel  Gadsden  of  South  Carolina,  a  member  of  the  Marine  Com- 
mittee, presented  Congress,  on  the  8th  of  February,  1776,  "an  elegant 
standard,  such  as  is  to  be  used  by  the  commander-in-chief  of  the 
American  navy ;  being  a  yellow  flag,  with  a  lively  representation  of 
a  rattlesnake  in  the  middle  in  the  attitude  of  going  to  strike,  and 
•these  words  underneath,  '  Don't  tread  on  inc.'' "  Congress  ordered  that 
the  said  standard  be  carefidly  preserved  and  suspended  in  the  Con- 
gress-room ;  and  from  that  tiine  it  was  placed  in  the  southwest  corner 
of  that  room,  at  the  left  hand  of  the  President's  chair.^ 

It  would  be  interesting  to  know  the  further  history  of  this  flag, 
and  what  became  of  it.  Such  an  historical  flag  would  not  be  pur- 
posely destroyed. 

1  Drayton's  Alemoirs  American  Revolution,  vol.  ii.  p.  172. 


FLAG   OF   THE  UNITED   STATES.  217 

The  first  legislation  of  Congress  on  the  subject  of  a  Federal  navy 
was  in  October,  1775,  and  after  that,  national  cruisers  were  equipped 
and  sent  to  sea  on  a  three  months'  cruise ;  but,  so  far  as  we  can  learn, 
witliout  any  provision  for  a  national  ensign,  and  probably  wearing 
the  colors  of  the  State  they  sailed  from.  Before  the  close  of  the  year, 
and  before  the  grand  union  flag  raising  at  Cambridge,  Congress  had 
authorized  a  regular  navy  of  seventeen  vessels,  varying  in  force  from 
ten  to  thirty-two  guns ;  had  established  a  general  prize  law,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  burning  of  Falmouth  by  Mowatt ;  had  regulated  the 
relative  rank  of  military  and  naval  officers ;  had  established  the  pay 
of  the  navy,  and  appointed  (Dec.  22, 1775)  Esek  Hopkins  commander- 
in-chief  of  the  naval  forces  of  the  embryo  republic,  fixing  his  pay  at 
one  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars  a  month.  At  the  same  time, 
captains  were  commissioned  to  the  Alfred,  Columbus,  Andrea  Doria, 
Cabot,  and  Providence,  and  first,  second,  and  third  lieutenants  were 
appointed  to  each  of  those  vessels. 

John  Adams,  a  member  of  the  Marine  Committee,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing reasons  for  the  choice  of  these  names  :  "  The  first  was  named 
Alfred,  in  honor  of  the  founder  of  the  greatest  navy  that  ever  existed  ; 
the  second,  Columbus,  after  the  discoverer  of  this  quarter  of  the  globe  ; 
the  third,  Cabot,  for  the  discoverer  of  the  northern  part  of  this  con- 
tinent; the  fourth,  Andrea  Doria,  in  honor  of  the  great  Genoese 
admiral ;  and  the  fifth.  Providence,  the  name  of  the  town  where  she 
was  purchased,  and  the  residence  of  Governor  Hopkins  and  his  brother 
Esek,  whom  we  appointed  the  first  captain." 

The  Alfred  was  a  stout  merchant  ship,  originally  called  the  Black 
Prince,  and  commanded  by  John  Barry.  She  arrived  at  Philadelphia 
on  the  13th  of  October,  and  was  purchased  and  armed  by  the  com- 
mittee. The  Columbus,  originally  the  Sally,  was  first  purchased  by 
the  Committee  of  Safety  of  Pennsylvania,  and  ten  days  after  sold  to 
the  naval  committee  of  Congress.  The  merchant  names  of  the  other 
ships  I  have  been  unable  to  ascertain.  Notwithstanding  the  equip- 
ping of  this  fleet,  the  necessity  of  a  common  national  flag  seems  not 
to  have  been  thought  of,  until  Doctor  Franklin,  Mr.  Lynch,  and  Mr? 
Harrison  were  appointed  to  consider  the  subject,  and  assembled  at  the 
camp  at  Cambridge.  The  result  of  their  conference  was  the  retention 
of  the  king's  colors  or  union  jack,  representing  the  still-recognized 
sovereignty  of  England,  but  coupled  to  thirteen  stripes,  alternate  red 
and  white,  emblematic  of  the  union  of  the  thirteen  colonies  against  its 
tyranny  and  oppression,  in  place  of  the  loyal  red  ensign. 

The  new  striped  flag  was  hoisted  for  the  first  time  on  the  2d  of 


218  OKKJIN    AND    I'lJOCKKSS    (iF     IlIE 

January,  1770,  ovur  the  camp  at  Cambridge.  (leneral  "Washing- 
ton, writing  to  .lu.seph  JJeed  on  the  4th  ol"  January,  .says:  "We  are 
at  length  favored  with  the  sight  of  his  Majesty's  most  gracious  sj)eecl», 
breathing  sentiments  of  tenderness  and  compassion  for  liis  dehided 
American  subjects  ;  the  speech  I  send  you  (a  volume  of  them  was  sent 
out  by  the  Boston  gentry),  and,  farcical  enough,  we  gave  great  joy  to 
them  M'ithout  knowing  or  intending  it,  for  on  that  day  (the  2d)  which 
ga^'e  being  to  our  new  army,  but  before  the  proclamation  came  to 
hand,  we  hoisted  the  union  flag  in  compliment  to  the  United  Colonies. 
But,  behold !  it  was  received  at  Boston  as  a  token  of  the  deep  impres- 
sion the  speech  had  made  upon  us,  and  as  a  signal  of  submission. 

"  By  this  time  I  presume  they  begin  to  think  it  strange  that  we 
have  not  luade  a  formal  surrender  of  our  lines." 

An  anonymous  letter,  written  Jan.  2, 1776,  says  :  "  The  grand  union 
flag  of  thirteen  stripes  was  raised  on  a  height  near  Boston.  The  regu- 
lars did  not  understand  it ;  and  as  the  king's  speech  had  just  been 
read,  as  they  supposed,  they  thought  the  new  flag  was  a  token  of  sub- 
mission." 

The  captain  of  a  British  transport,  writing  from  Boston  to  his  own- 
ers in  London,  Jan.  17,  1776,  says :  "  I  can  see  the  rebels'  camp  very 
I)lain,  wdiose  colors,  a  little  while  ago,  were  entirely  red ;  but  on  the 
receipt  of  the  king's  speech,  which  they  burnt,  they  hoisted  the  union 
flag,  which  is  here  supposed  to  intimate  the  union  of  the  provinces." 

The  '  British  Annual  Eegister '  says,  "  They  burnt  the  king's  speech, 
and  changed  their  colors  from  a  plain  red  ground,  which  they  had 
hitherto  used,  to  a  flag  with  thirteen  strij)es,  as  a  symbol  of  the  union 
and  number  of  the  colonies." 

A  letter  from  Boston,  in  the  '  Pennsylvania  Gazette,'  says :  "  The 
grand  union  flag  was  raised  on  the  2d,  in  compliment  to  the  United 
Colonies."  A  British  lieutenant,  writing  from  Charlestown  Heights, 
Jan.  25,  1776,  mentions  the  same  fact,  and  adds:  "It  was  saluted 
with  thirteen  guns  and  thirteen  cheers." 

Botta,  in  his  '  History  of  the  American  Revolution,'  derived  from 
tjontemporary  documents,  writes  :  "  The  hostile  speech  of  the  king  at 
the  meeting  of  Parliament  had  arrived  in  America,  and  copies  of  it 
were  circulated  in  the  camp.  It  was  announced  there,  also,  that  the 
first  petition  of  Congress  had  been  rejected.  The  whole  army  mani- 
fested the  utmost  indignation  at  this  intelligence ;  the  royal  speech 
was  burnt  in  public  by  the  infuriated  soldiers.  They  changed  at  this 
time  the  red  ground  of  their  banners,  and  striped  them  with  thirteen 
lists,  as  an  emblem  of  their  number,  and  the  union  of  the  colonies." 


FLAG   OF   THE    UNITED   STATES. 


219 


Two  and  a  half  months  after  this  grand  union  flag  raising  at  Cam- 
bridge, the  flag  was  displayed  for  the  first  time  in  the  streets  of  Boston. 
The  occupation  of  Dorchester  Heights  compelled  the  evacuation  of 
Eoxbury,  and  on  the  afternoon  of  March  17,  1776,  a  detachment  of 
Americans,  under  Colonel  Ebenezer  Learned,  pushed  its  way  through 
the  crow's-feet  and  other  obstacles  thickly  strewn  in  its  path,  and 
unbarred  the  gates  of  the  deserted  stronghold.  The  flag  was  borne  by 
Ensign  Eichards,  and  the  troops  were  accompanied  by  General  Ward.^ 
We  have  contemporary  evidence  enough  as  to  the  time  and  place 
when  "  the  grand  union  striped  flag  "  was  first  unfurled  ;  but  it  will  be 
observed  there  is  no  mention  of  the  color  of  the  stripes  placed  on  the 
previously  red  flag,  or  the  character  of  its  union,  or  other  than  pre- 
sumptive evidence  that  it  had  a  union. 

Hinman  states,  in  his  '  Connecticut  in  the  Eevolution,'  that  "  the 
red  ground  of  the  American  flag  was  altered  to  thirteen  bbie  and  white 
stripes,  as  an  emblem  of  the  thirteen  colonies  in  war  for  liberty,"  Ijut 
does  not  give  his  authority  for  the  statement. 

Bancroft,  in  his  '  History  of  the  United  States,'  describes  this  flag 
as  "  the  tricolored  American  banner,  not  yet  spangled  with  stars,  but 
showing  thirteen  stripes,  alternate  red  and  white,  in  the  field,  and 
the  united  crosses  of  St.  George  and  St.  Andrew  on  a  blue  ground  in 
the  corner." 

I  am  informed  by  Benson  J.  Lossing,  the  eminent  American  histo- 
rian, that  he  furnished  Mr.  Bancroft  with  the  statement,  having  found 
among  the  papers  of  Major-General  Pliilip  Schuyler,  and  having  in  his 

possession,  a  water-color 
sketch  of  the  Eoyal  Sav- 
age, one  of  the  little  fleet 
on  Lake  Champlain,  in  the 
summer  and  winter  of 
1776,  commanded  by  Ben- 
edict Arnold.  This  draw- 
ing is  known  to  be  the 
Eoyal  Savage,  being  in- 
dorsed, in  the  handwrit- 
ing of  General  Schuyler, 
as  Captain  Wynkoop's 
schooner,  and  Captain,  or  rather  Colonel,  Wynkoop  is  known  to  have 
commanded  her  at  that  time.  There  is  no  date  on  the  drawing,  but  it 
may  be  considered  as  settling  what  were  the  characteristic  features  of 


Flag  of  the  Royal  Savage,  1776. 


1  Drake's  Histoiy  of  Roxbury,  1878. 


220  olJKilN    A\D    ri]f)f:Kl>S    n|-     IllK 

the  now  fla,u'-  At  the  head  (»f  the  maintop-mast  of  tlie  schooner  there 
is  a  Hag  pieci.sely  like  tlie  one  described  by  I'ancnd't,  ;ind  it  is  tlie  nnly 
known  eontenipdianeous  ih'awing  of  it  extant.  Through  the  kindness 
of  Mr.  Lossing,  I  am  alile  to  give  a  fac-simile,  in  size  and  shape,  of  tliis 
interesting  drawing. 

In  September,  177G,  the  coutinenLal  Itrig  Reprisal,  IG  guns,  com- 
manded by  Captain  Lambert  Wickes,  while  lying  at  Martini(j[ue,  wore 
a  ilag  of  thirteen  stripes,  whose  field  was  white  and  yellow. 

In  General  Arnold's  sailing  orders  for  the  fleet,  he  prescribes  hoist- 
ing the  ensign  at  the  main  topmast  head  as  the  signal  for  speaking 
with  the  whole  fleet,  and  the  same  at  the  fore,  for  chasing  a  sail. 

The  red  union  ensign  had  been  familiarly  known  for  nearly  seventy 
years,  and  nothing  would  more  naturally  suggest  itself  to  a  people 
not  yet  prepared  to  entirely  sever  their  connection  with  the  parent 
government  than  to  utilize  the  old  flag,  and  distinguish  their  emblem 
of  the  new  union  from  the  old  in  this  simple  manner,  rather  than  seek 
further  for  new  devices. 

The  flag  adopted  resembled,  if  it  was  not  exactly  the  counterpart 
of,  the  flag  of  the  English  East  India  Company  then  in  use,  and  which 
continued  the  flag  of  that  company,  with  trifling  variations,  until  its 
sovereign  sway  and  empire  in  the  East  for  over  two  hundred  years 
was,  in  1834,  merged  in  that  of  Great  Britain.^ 

^  T/tc  East  India  Company's  Ensigns.  —  This  company,  whose  fii"st  charter  was  granted 
Dec.  31,  1600,  by  Queen  Elizabeth  to  "  George,  Earl  of  Cumberland,  and  two  hundred 
and  fifteen  knights,  aldermen,  and  merchants,  that  at  their  own  costs  and  charges  might 
set  forth  one  or  more  voyages  to  the  East  Indies,"  &c.,  bore  as  a  crest  to  their  armorial 
ensigns  a  sphere  without  a  frame,  bound  with  a  zodiac  in  bend  or,  between  two  sj)lit 
florant  argents,  each  charged  with  a  cross  gules ;  on  the  sphere  the  words  "  Dcus  indicet;  " 
on  the  shield  with  other  devices  were  three  ships  rigged  under  full  sail,  pennants  and 
ensign  being  argent,  and  each  charged  with  the  same  cross  gules.  The  pennants  were 
long,  tapering,  and  split  at  the  end,  while  the  ensigns  were  perfectly  square. 

It  is  not  probable  that  the  East  India  Company  were  entitled  to  bear  on  their  ships 
any  particular  distinguishing  flag  in  the  early  years  of  its  history,  since  the  royal  procla- 
mation of  James  I.,  issued  April  12,  1606,  ordered  "all  subjects 
i)  of  the  isle  and  kingdom  of  Great  Britain,  and  the  members 

T     r~l       f  1     thereof,  to  bear^n  their  maintop  the  union  flag,  being  the  red 

I  ross  of  St.  George  and  the  white  cross  (saltire)  of  St.  Andrew, 
joined  upon  a  blue  ground." 

At  what  date  a  striped  flag  was  ado])ti'd  by  the  East  India 
'  'ompany  is  not  evident.     A  contemporary  print,  presei-veil  in 
'  the  British  Museum,  representing  the  Puritans  in  1644,  under 

Flag  destruyed^t  Cheap-       gjj.  p^^^j.^  Harlow,  or  Hariey,  destroying  the  cross  in  Cheap- 
side,  exhibits  several  flags,  one  of  which  bears  two  red  stripes 
on  a  white  field,  and  the  St.  George's  cross  on  a  white  canton,  which  extends  over  the,  first 
two  stripes. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


221 


jliiniiiiritiiMiiBiiimaiWliPlllliiMM^^ 


East  India  Company's  Ensign, 
1704. 


In  1681,  the  renewal  of  the  charter  of  the  company  by  Charles  II.  vested  in  it  the 
power  and  authority  to  make  peace  or  war  with  any  nation  not  being  Christians,  and 
six  years  later  it  was  ordered  the  king's  union  flag  should 
ki  be  always  used  at  the  Fort  St.  George. 

T     — ■ ■ nil].! M.jiiiiT^iiiiiiiimillllHIIIIIIrttltiiiK^ini  " 

In  1698,  a  new  company  was  established  by  act  of 
Parliament,  which  soon,  however,  became  incoi-porated 
with  the  former.  Its  arms  were  argent,  a  cross  guZes  in 
the  dexter  chief  quarter,  an  escutcheon  of  the  arms  of 
France  and  England  quarterly,  crest,  two  lions  rampant, 
gardant  or,  each  supporting  a  banner  crest  argent  charged 
with  a  cross  gules. 

'The  Present  State  of  the  Universe,'  fourth  edition, 
London,  1704,  by  J.  Beaumont,  Jr.,  gives  as  the  East 
India  Company's  ensign  a  flag  with  thirteen  horizontal 
stripes,  alternate  red  and  white,  with  a  St.  George's  cross 
on  a  white  canton,  which  rests  upon  the  fourth  red  stripe. 
In  the  '  Dominion  and  Laws  of  the  Sea,'  published  in  London  in  1705,  the  East  India 
Company's  flag  is  pictm-ed  with  but  ten  stripes. 

In  a  Dutch  work  on  ship-buUding  by  Carl  Allard,  published  in  Amsterdam  the  same 
year,  the  East  India  Company's  flag  has  but  nine  stripes. 

In  '  La  Connoissance  des  Pavilions  ou  Bannieres  que  la  plupart  des  Nations,'  pub- 
lished a  La  Haye,  1737,  there  are  represented  many  striped  flags,  among  them  :  — 

Pavilion  d'escadre,  de  Division  des  Vaisseaux  Ecossois, 
which  has  eleven  stripes,  alternate  red  and  white,  with  the 
white  canton  and  red  cross  resting  on  the  third  red  stripe. 

Pavilion  de  Rotterdam,  which  has  eleven  stripes,  alter- 
nate white  and  gi'eeu. 

Pavilion  de  Breriie,  which  has  a  head  of  red  and  wliite 
squares  the  whole  width  of  the  flag,  and  nine  stripes,  alter- 
nate red  and  white. 

Pavilion  d' Enchase  Norte  Hollande,  which  has  thirteen 
stripes,  yellow  and  red. 

Pavilion  de  Rang  ou  de  Division  d'escadre  [English] 
has  thirteen  stripes,  red  and  white,  with  St.  George's  cross 
in  a  canton  argrnt. 

The  East  India  Company's  flag  has  nine  stripes,  red  and  white,  with  the  white  canton 
and  red  cross  resting  on  the  third  red  stripe. 

The  East  India  Company's  flag,  in  1834,  was  cantoned  with  the  union  jack  of  the 
LTnited  Kingdom,  and  its  field  was  composed  of  thirteen  alternate  red  and  white  stripes, 
seven  red  and  six  white  ;  the  central  red  stripe  rather  wider  than  the  others,  and  crossed 
by  a  perpendicular  red  stripe  or  bar,  forming  a  St.  George's  cross.  It  was  the  white 
St.  George  eusigu,  with  the  addition  of  six  red  bars  or  stripes  across  its  field. 


East  India  Company,  1834. 


222 


OKKJIN    AM)    I'K'(K;RKSS    (»!'    'I'llK 


Commodore  I-Iopki^s-s, 


KR  m  CJIIKF  of  t fie  yl MK li  ICAN  FM,Z£iT, 


FLAG   OF  THE   UNITED   STATES. 


223 


ST     CEORCES  CROSS 


ST  AnOSEWS  CROSS 


THE  GEA:N^D   U:NI0X   or   COXXmENTAL  FLAG   OF  THE 
UNITED   COLOXIES. 

1776-1777. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  the  stripes  on  our  flag,  as  a  symbol  of 
union,  were  derived  from  the  national  flag  of  the  Netherlands,  adopted 
as  early  as  1582,  and  which  then,  as  now,  consisted  of  three  equal 

horizontal  stripes,  symbolic  of  the 
rise  of  the  Dutch  republic  from 
the  union  at  Utrecht. 

The  stripes  on  this  flag  were  at 
first  orange,  white,  and  blue,  the 
orange  in  chief.  In  1650,  after 
the  death  of  William  II.,  a  red 
stripe  was  substituted  for  the 
orange,  and  the  flag  remains  with- 
out other  change  to  this  day. 
Hudson,  the  first  to  display  a 
European  flag  on  the  waters  of 
New  York,  and  the  explorer  of 
the  river  bearing  his  name,  sailed 
up  the  river  in  1609,  under  the 
Dutch  East  India  flag,  which  was 
the  same  as  above  described,  with 
the  addition  of  the  letters  'A.  0.  C.,' 
"Algemccne  Oost  Inclise  Convpag- 
nie"  in  the  centre  of  the  Avhite 
stripe.  This  was  the  flag  of  the 
colony  of  Manhattan  established 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Dutch  East  India  Company,  until  1622. 

When  the  government  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Dutch  West 
India  Company,  the  letters  '  G.  W.  C.,'  "  Gcoctroijeerde  Wcst-Indische 
Compagnie"  were  put  in  the  white  stripe  in  place  of  the  letters 
'A.  O.  C  This  was  the  dominant  flag  (with  the  change  of  the  orange 
stripe  for  a  red  one  in  1650)  imtil  1664,  when,  on  the  island's  sur- 
render to  the  English,  the  union  jack  of  England  supplanted  the  tri- 
color of  Holland,  and  the  name  of  '  New  Amsterdam '  was  changed  to. 
'New  York.'  ^  In  July,  1673,  the  Dutch  again  took  possession  of  the 
city,  which  they  occupied  until  Nov.  10,  1674,  when,  by  a  treaty  of 

1  Valentine's  Manual  Coniiiion  Couiicil,  Xew  York,  186.3. 


UNION     OR   KINGS    COLORS    lio^ 


=  i|lp  j*iiiiimi«i[iiiiiiii!i;iiiiiij| 


m 

|Rl[IINIII[l!!l!iilUII1llIIIlllllN 
lllllUIUlilDiUIIUIQIUIIiUllftlllillllUIilll! 


VN)ON  en&it; 


224  ORIGIN   AND   PROGRESS  OF   THE 

peace  between  England  und  Hollaml,  the  cross  of  St.  George  was  re- 
hoisted  over  the  city. 

"  From  HoHand,"  argues  a  writer,  "  came  the  emigrants  wlio  first 
planted  the  seeds  of  civil  and  religious  lib- 
erty and  popular  education  in  the  Emjjire 
State,  and  from  Holland  more  than  any 
other  land  came  the  ideas  of  a  federal 
union,^  which  binds  together  the  Ameri- 
can States.  From  Holland,  whitlier  per- 
secution had  driven  them,  also  embarked 
tlie  Pilgrim  Fathers,  to  land  uijon  our  win- 
ter-swept and  storm  and  rock  Ijouud  coast. 
Dutch  West  India  Flag.  rpj^^  ^^.-^.j^^.^  ^^^,  ^^^j^j^j^  Holland  SO  loug  Strug- 

gled, and  so  ably  portrayed  by  Motley  in  his  '  History  of  the  Eise 
of  the  Dutch  Republic,'  are  identical  with  those  which  the  thirteen 
colonies  so  successfully  maintained.  What  more  likely,  then,"  says  this 
reasoner,  "  that  in  adopting  a  device  for  a  union  flag  our  fathers  should 
derive  the  idea  from  a  country  to  whose  example  they  were  already 
so  much  indebted." 

A  more  commonplace  origin  for  the  stripes  has  been  suggested. 
The  continental  army  of  1775  was  without  uniforms,  and  the  different 
grades  were  distinguished  by  means  of  a  stripe  or  ribbon.  The  daily 
view  of  these,  the  only  distinguishing  marks  of  rank,  would  naturally 
suggest  the  same  device  for  representing  the  United  Colonies.^ 

1  The  United  Provinces  of  the  Netherlands  on  their  independence  devised  for  their 
standard  the  national  lion  of  Flanders  [rampant  gu],  grasping  in  his  paws  a  sheaf  of  seven 
arrows  or,  to  denote  the  seven  provinces,  and  a  naked  sword,  which  had  been  borne  by 
the  counts  from  the  eleventh  century.  The  shield  of  the  arms  was  azure  billetee,  and  the 
whole  acliievement  was  charged  upon  the  white  of  the  flag. 

2  Sarmiento's  History  of  our  Flag,  1864.  The  orders  to  which  he  refers  are  to  be 
found  in  American  Archives,  4th  series,  vol.  ii.  p.  1738,  viz.  :  — 

"Head-quarters,  Cambridge,  July  23,  1775. 

"Parole,  'Brunswick.'     Coitntcrsign,  'Princeton.' 

"  As  the  continental  army  have,  unfortunately,  no  uniforms,  and  consequently  many 

inconveniences  must  arise  from  not  being  able  always  to  distinguish  the  commissioned 

officers  from  the  non-commissioned,  and  the  non-commissioned  from  the  privates,  it  is 

desired  that  some  badges  of  distinction  may  be  immediately  provided ;  for  instance,  the 

field-ofBcers  may  have  red  or  pink  cockades  in  their  hats,  the  captains  yellow  or  buff,  and 

the  subalterns  gi-een.     They  are  to  furnish  themselves  accordingly.     The  sergeants  may 

be  distinguished  by  an  epaulette  or  stripe  of  red  cloth  sewed  upon  the  right  slioulder  ;  the 

corporals,  by  one  of  green. 

"Head-quarters,  Cambridge,  July  24,  1775. 

"Parole,  'Salisbury.'     Countersign,  'Cumberland.' 

"It  being  thought  proper  to  distinguish  the  majors  from  brigadiers  general  by  some 

particular  mark,  for  the  future  major-generals  will  wear  a  b)-oad  purple  ribbon." 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


225 


Without  far  seeking  for  the  origin  of  the  stripes  upon  our  flag,  it 
is  possible  that  the  stripes  on  liis  own  escutcheon  suggested  them 
to  the  mind  of  Washington.  They  were  also  one  of  the  devices  on 
the  flag  of  the  troop  of  light  horse  which  accompanied  Washington 
from  Philadelphia  to  New  York,  when  proceeding  to  assume  com- 
mand of  the  army  at  Cambridge,  where  they  were  first  shown ;  and 
it  may  be  that  these  lists,  as  they  were  sometimes  called,  were  adopted 
as  an  easy  expedient  for  converting  the  red  ensigns  of  the  mother 
country,  by  an  economical  method,  into  a  new  flag,  representing  the 

union  of  the  American  colonies  against 
ministerial  oppression,  when  not  quite 
ready  to  give  up  their  loyalty  to  the 
"king's  colors,"  which  they  retained  on 
the  new  ensign. 

It  required  the  addition  of  the  "  new 
constellation "  to  render  the  stripes  sig- 
nificant, and  give  a  poetic  life  and  na- 
tional character  to  the  flag. 

When  the  Virginia  convention  at 
Williamsburg  instructed  its  delegates  in 
Congress,  May  15,  1776,  three  weeks  be- 
fore the  Declaration  of  Independence, 
"  to  declare  the  United  Colonies  free  and 
independent  States,  absolved  from  all  al- 
legiance to  dependence  upon  the  crown  and  parliament  of  England, 
and  to  propose  a  confederation  of  the  colonies,"  there  was  a  great 
civil  and  military  parade,  when,  according  to  an  eye-witness,  "the 
union  flag  of  the  American  States"  waved  upon  the  Capitol  dur- 
ing the  whole  ceremony.^  This  could  have  been  no  other  than  the 
flag  inaugurated  by  Washington  at  his  camp  at  Cambridge  in  Jan- 
uary. 

In  July,  1776,  a  committee,  consisting  of  Generals  Sullivan  and 
Greene  and  Lord  Stirling,  was  appointed  to  devise  a  system  of  signals 
to  be  hoisted  on  the  Highlands  of  Neversink,  to  give  the  earliest  in- 
telligence of  the  enemy's  approach.  They  proposed  that,  for  any  num- 
ber of  ships  from  one  to  six,  and  from  six  to  twenty-two,  and  for  any 


Reduced  Fac-simile  of  Wasbington's 
Book-plate. 


1  Niles's  American  Revolution,  pp.  251,  252.  The  toasts  at  the  soldiers'  banquet 
were  :  1st,  "  The  American  independent  States  ; "  2d,  "  The  grand  Congress  of  the  United 
States  and  their  respective  legislatures  ; "  3d,  "  General  Washington,  and  victory  to  the 
American  arms. "  These  toasts  were  accompanied  by  salutes  of  artillery  and  fexi  de  joies  of 
small-arms. 

15 


226  OPvTrJIX    AM)    TKonT^ESS   OF   TTTE 

greater  number,  three  large  eusigus  \vitli  Ijruiul  siri])es  of  red  and  white 
shoukl  be  lioisted.^ 

Colonel  liud.  Ititzenia,  adtlressing  the  lueiubers  of  the  New  York 
Congress,  May  31,  1776,  says  that,  the  day  before,  it  was  given  out  in 
general  orders  that  General  Putnani  had  received  a  letter  from  Gen- 
eral Washington,  requesting  all  the  colonels  at  New  York  to  immedi- 
ately provide  colors  for  their  several  regiments ;  and  he  asks  that  Mr. 
Curtinius  may  have  directions  to  provide  a  pair  for  his  regiment,  of 
such  a  color  and  with  such  devices  as  shall  be  deemed  proper  l)y  the 
Congress ;  i.  e..  New  York  Provincial  Congress.^ 

On  the  4th  of  July,  1776,  after  various  amendments,  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence  from  ]\Ir.  Jefferson's  pen  was  adopted.  The 
document  was  authenticated,  like  other  papers  of  Congress,  by  the 
signatures  of  the  President  and  Secretary,  and,  in  addition,  was  signed 
by  the  members  present,  with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Dickenson,  of 
New  York,  who,  as  Mr.  Jefferson  has  testified,  "  refused  to  sign."  It 
did  not  bear  the  names  of  the  members  of  Congress  as  they  finally 
appeared  upon  it.  Some  days  after  the  Declaration  had  thus  passed, 
and  had  been  proclaimed  at  the  head  of  the  army,  it  was  ordered  to  be 
engrossed  on  parchment,  and  signed  by  every  member ;  and  it  was  not 
until  the  2d  of  August  that  these  signatures  were  made.  It  is  this 
copy  or  form  which  has  been  preserved,  as  the  first-signed  paper  does 
not  exist,  and  was  probably  destroyed.^ 

No  person  actually  signed  the  Declaration  on  the  4th  of  July.  Mr. 
Eead,  whose  name  appears  among  the  signers,  w'as  then  actually 
against  it ;  and  Morris,  Push,  Clymer,  Smith,  Taylor,  and  Ross,  whose 
names  also  appear,  were  not  members  on  that  day,  and  were  not  ap- 
pointed delegates  until  the  20th  of  July.  Thornton,  of  New  Hamp- 
shire, who  entered  Congress  in  November,  then  placed  his  name  upon 
it,  and  Judge  McKeen,  who  was  present,  and  voted  for  it,  did  not  sign 
until  after  his  return  from  Washington's  camp.     It  is  said  that,  by  a 

1  Life  of  General  Nathaniel  Greene,  vol.  i. 

2  American  Archives,  4tli  series,  vol.  vi.  p.  634,  and  on  page  637  is  the  order  he  refers 
to,  viz.  :  — 

"After  Orders,  May  31,  1776. 

"  General  Wasliington  has  written  to  General  Putnam  desiring  liiin  in  the  most  press- 
ing terms  to  give  positive  orders  to  all  the  colonels  to  have  colors  immediately  completed 
for  their  respective  regiments." 

In  a  letter  to  General  Putnam,  dated  May  28,  1776,  Washington  adds,  in  a  postscript, 
"  1  desire  you  '11  speak  to  the  several  colonels,  and  hurry  them  to  get  their  colors  done." 
—  Washington  Letters,  B,  vol.  i.  p.  316. 

^  E.  A.  Pollard,  in  Lippincott's  Magazine,  July,  1872. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  227 

secret  resolution,  no  member  of  the  first  year  should  hold  his  seat  in 
Congress  until  he  became  a  subscriber.^ 

The  first  legislation  of  the  Continental  Congress  on  the  subject  of 
a  federal  navy  was  on  the  18th  of  October,  1775,  and  cruisers  were 
about  that  time  equipped  and  sent  to  sea  ou  a  three  months'  cruise, 
under  the  pine-tree  flag,  but  without  any  provision  for  a  national  en- 
sign. Two  days  later,  Oct.  20,  1775,  Washington  writes  to  Colonel 
Glover  and  Stephen  Moylan,  "  Please  fix  upon  some  particular  flag, 
and  a  signal  by  which  our  vessels  may  know  one  another.  What  do 
you  think  of  a  flag  with  a  white  ground,  a  tree  in  the  middle,  the 
motto,  '  Appeal  to  Heaven.'  This  is  the  flag  of  our  floating  batteries. 
We  are  fitting  out  two  vessels  at  Plymouth,  and  when  I  next  hear 
from  you  on  this  subject  I  will  let  them  know  the  flag  and  the  signal, 
that  we  may  distinguish  our  friends  from  our  foes."  ^ 

Mr.  Moylan  replies  :  "  The  schooner  sailed  this  morning.  As  they 
had  none  but  their  old  colors,  we  appointed  them  a  signal  that  they 
may  know  each  other  by,  and  be  known  to  their  friends,  —  as  the  en- 
sign up  the  main  topping  lift."  ^ 

Before  the  close  of  the  year,  and  before  the  grand  union  flag  raising 
at  Cambridge,  a  regular  navy  of  seventeen  vessels,  varying  in  force 
from  ten  to  thirty-two  guns,  was  ordered,  a  general  prize  law  estab- 
lished, the  relative  rank  of  military  and  naval  officers  regulated,  and 
Esek  Hopkins,  Esq.,  appointed  commander-in-chief  of  the  naval  forces 
of  the  embryo  republic.  At  the  same  time,  Dec.  22,  1775,  captains 
were  commissioned  for  the  purchased  vessels,  and  first,  second,  and 
third  lieutenants  appointed  to  each.  Under  the  same  law  the  pay  of 
the  commander-in-chief  of  the  fleet  was  fixed  at  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  dollars  a  month.  Such  was  the  humble  beginning  of  a 
national  naval  organization.  Cruisers  armed  and  equipped  by  and 
holding  commissions  from  the  several  colonies  had  been  fitted  and 
continued  to  be  sent  out  for  some  time  after  under  their  colonial  or 
State  flags,  and  probably  continued  to  fly  them  until  the  close  of  the 
war. 

The  floating  batteries  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  Delaware,  carried  the 
pine-tree  flag  in  the  autumn  of  1775.  According  to  the  English 
newspapers,  privateers  throughout  the  year  1776,  wearing  a  flag 
of  this  description,  were  captured  and  carried  into  British  ports. 
The  Yankee  Hero  was  captured  under  these  colors  in  June.     Com- 

1  Watson's  Annals  of  Philadelphia,  2  Washiugton's  Letters,  B,  vol.  i.  p.  84. 

^  Washington's  Letters,  vol.  vii.  p.  106. 


228  (n:u;iN  and  1'i:()(;ki:s.s  of   riii-: 

mutlore  Tucker  has  related  that  he  hoisted  them  on  the  Fninklin  in 
January,  ITTd,  ami  under  them  captured  the  .^liip  George  and  brig 
Arabella. 

Dec.  21,  1775.  The  i)rovince  of  North  Carolina  authorized  three 
armed  vessels  to  be  htted  out  with  all  despatcli  Inr  the  protection  <>{' 
the  trade  of  that  province. 

Xov.  11, 1775.  The  South  Carolina  Colony  schooner  Defence,  pro- 
ceeding to  sink  some  hulks  in  Hog  Island  Creek,  Charleston  Harbor, 
was  fired  at  by  the  king's  ships  Tamar,  of  sixteen,  and  Cherokee,  of 
six  guns.  Fort  Johnson  discharged  some  2G-pounders  at  the  king's 
ships. 

Nov.  14,  1775.  Clement  Lempriere  was  appointed  captain  of  the 
sliip  Prosper,  fitting  and  arming  for  South  Carolina,  and  other  officers 
were  appointed  to  her. 

Throughout  October,  1776,  the  navy  board  of  South  Carolina  made 
various  provisions  for  a  State  navy,  and  commissioned  officers  fur  it 
and  vessels.^ 

Dec.  20,  1775.  A  committee  was  appointed  by  the  New  York 
Provincial  Congress  to  purchase  and  equip  a  proper  vessel  for  the 
defence  of  the  East  Piiver,  her  cost  not  to  exceed  £600. 

Jan.  22,  1776.  The  Committee  of  Safety  of  the  Provincial  Con- 
gress of  New  York  wrote  to  the  delegates  from  New  York  to  the  Con- 
tinental Congress,  that  they  are  informed  by  one  of  those  delegates 
that  the  Continental  Congress  will  take  into  the  continental  service 
the  sloop  Sally,  purchased  December  20  by  Colonel  McDougall  for 
the  defence  of  the  colony  for  £325,  and  request,  "  Should  it  so  be  de- 
termined, her  fiag  sJwidd  be  described  to  them,"  —  showing  that  at  that 
time  the  New  York  Committee  of  Safety  were  not  informed  what  the 
continental  flag  was.^ 

April,  1776,  the  Massachusetts  Council  passed  a  series  of  resolu- 
tions providing  for  the  regulation  of  the  sea  service ;  among  them  was 
the  following :  — 

"  Resolved,  That  the  uniform  of  the  officers  be  green  and  white,  and 
that  they  furnish  themselves  accordingly,  and  that  the  colors  be  a 
white  flag  with  a  green  pine-tree,  and  the  inscription,  '  An  appeal  to 
Heaven.' " 

The  following  order  to  the  commander  of  one  of  these  State  cruisers 
was  issued  later  in  the  year  :  — 

1  American  Archives,  vol.  ii.  5th  series,  pp.  1323-1329. 

2  Anierican  Archives,  vol.  iv.  4th  series. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  229 

"  State  of  Massachusetts  Bay  to  John  Clouston,  Commander  of  the  Sloojo 
Freedom,  in  the  service  of  said  State. 

"  You  are  hereby  directed,  and  commanded  to  repair,  with  the  vessel 
under  your  command,  to  the  harbor  of  Boston,  in  company  with  the  sloop 
Eepublick,  commanded  by  John  Foster  Williams,  now  in  Dartmouth,  and 
there  to  await  the  further  orders  of  the  council. 

"By  order  of  the  major  part  of  the  council,  the  4th  of  September,  1776. 

"  Samuel  Adams,  Secretary. 

"  Returns  of  officers  on  hoard  the  armed  slooj)  called  the  Freedom,  whereof 
John  Clouston  is  coTnmander :  —  John  Clouston,  captain  •  James  Scott, 
first  lieutenant;  Timothy  Tobey,  second  lieutenant.  In  council,  Sept.  4, 
1776,  read  and  ordered  that  the  above  officers  be  commissioned  agreeably  to 
their  respective  rank. 

"Samuel  Ada^is,  Secretary.'' 

Philadelphia,  June  6,  1776.  Two  privateers  belonging  to  this  port 
have  taken  three  very  A^aluable  ships  bound  from  Jamaica  to  London, 
laden  with  rum,  sugar,  molasses,  &c.,  having  also  a  large  quantity  of 
dollars  and  plate  on  board.  We  hear  that  on  board  of  the  above  ships 
there  were  several  very  fine  sea-turtles,  intended  as  a  present  to  Lord 
North,  one  of  which,  with  his  lordship's  name  nicely  cut  in  the  shell, 
was  yesterday  presented  by  the  captain  to  the  M'orthy  president  of  the 
American  Congress. 

June  29,  1776,  an  ordinance  passed  the  Virginia  Convention  estab- 
lishing a  board  of  commissioners  to  superintend  and  direct  the  naval 
affairs  of  that  colony.^ 

Senior  of  the  five  first  lieutenants  of  the  new  continental  navy 
stood  John  Paul  Jones,  who  was  commissioned  to  the  Alfred,  then  in 
the  Delaware,  designed  to  be  the  flag-ship  of  the  commander-in- 
chief,  Esek  Hopkins,  and  of  which  Dudley  Saltonstall,  Esq.,  was  the 
captain. 

Paul  Jones  has  recorded  that  '  the  Flag  of  America  '  was  hoisted 
by  him,  " by  his  ovm  hand" ^  on  board  the  Alfred,^  and  adds,  " being 
the  first  time  it  was  ever  displayed  by  a  regular  man-of-war."     From 

1  American  Archives,  vol.  vi.  4th  series,  p.  1598. 

'^  Mackenzie's  Life  of  J.  Paul  Jones,  vol.  i.  p.  22  ;  J.  F.  Cooper's  Life  of  Jones, 
p.  17  ;  Emmons's  United  States  Navy,  1775-1853  ;  Sands's  Life  of  Jones,  p.  33,  who 
adds,  "  He  does  not  mention  the  date  of  this  transaction,  nor  has  the  present  compiler  been 
able  to  fix  it." 

3  All  the  commissions  for  the  Alfred  were  made  out  before  those  for  the  Columbus. 
Sands's  Life  of  Jones,  p.  35. 


230  (»Kl(;iN    ANI>    I'IMUnJKSS   OF   THE 

this  wc  iiuiy  infi'V  it  IkkI  been  previously  displayed  by  some  of  the 
State  cruisers. 

In  a  letter  to  llobert  Morris,  dated  Oct.  10,  1783,  Jones  .says :  "  It 
was  my  fortune,  as  the  senior  lirst  lieutenant,  to  hoist  the  '  flag  of 
America'  the  first  time  it  was  displayed.  Thounjh  this  wtus  1ml  a 
light  circumstance,  yet  I  feel  for  its  honor  more  than  I  think  I  should 
have  done  if  it  had  not  happened." 

In  a  letter  to  Baron  Yander  Capellan,  Jones  says :  "  America  has 
been  the  country  of  my  fond  election,  from  the  age  of  thirteen  when 
I  first  saw  it.  I  had  the  honor  to  hoist  with  my  own  hands  the  flag 
of  freedom,  the  first  time  it  was  displayed  on  the  Delaware  ;  and  1 
have  attended  it  with  veneration  ever  since  on  the  ocean." 

Jones's  commission  is  dated  the  7th  of  December,  but  as  the  flag  is 
said  to  have  been  hoisted  for  the  first  time  when  the  commander-in- 
chief  embarked  on  the  Alfred,  and  his  commission  was  not  issued 
until  the  22d  of  December,  it  would  seem  probable  either  that  Christ- 
mas or  New  Year's  day  would  be  selected  for  its  display.  The  latter 
would  bring  its  hoisting  to  the  same  date  as  the  raising  of  the  union 
flag  in  the  lines  of  the  army  at  Cambridge. 

Could  the  log-book  of  the  Alfred  referred  to  in  the  following  letter 
be  found,  the  precise  date  when  Jones  hoisted  the  flag  of  America 
would  be  kno\\Ti. 

"Captain  Jones  to  Colonel  Tillinghast. 

"Sloop  Providence,  June  20,  1776. 

"  Sir,  —  I  have  made  so  many  unsuccessful  attempts  to  convey  the  Fly 
past  Fisher's  Island,  that  I  have  determined  to  give  it  up,  and  pursue  my 
orders  for  Boston.  When  I  arrive  there  I  will  transmit  you  my  letter  of 
attorney ;  in  the  mean  time  you  will  singularly  oblige  me  by  applying  to 
the  admiral  for  an  order  to  receive  for  me  a  copy  of  the  Alfred's  log-book, 
which  I  had  made  out  for  my  private  use  before  I  left  the  ship,  and  which 
was  unjustly  withheld  from  me  when  I  took  command  of  the  sloop,  by  the 
ill-natured  and  narrow-minded  Captain  Saltonstall.  When  the  old  gentle- 
man was  down  here  he  promised  to  order  that  my  copy  should  be  delivered ; 
but  when  my  lieutenant  applied  for  it,  the  master  of  the  Alfred  told  the  ad- 
miral a  cursed  lie,  and  said  there  was  no  copy  made  out.  On  inquiry,  you 
Avill  hnd  that  'Mr.  Vaughan,  the  mate  of  the  Alfred,  made  out  tlie  copy  in 
question  for  me  before  I  went  to  New  York. 

"  I  should  not  be  so  particular,  did  I  not  stand  in  absolute  need  of  it 
before  I  can  make  out  a  fair  copy  of  my  journal  to  lay  before  the  Congress, 
for  I  was  so  stinted  in  point  of  time  in  the  Alfred,  that  I  did  not  copy  a 
single  remark ;  besides,  it  is  a  little  hard  that  I,  who  planned  and  superin- 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  231 

tended  the  log-book,  should  not  be  thought  worthy  a  copy,  when  a  midship- 
man, if  he  pleases,  may  claim  one.  I  take  it  for  granted  that  you  will  receive 
the  book ;  I  must  therefore  beg  you  to  send  it,  if  possible,  to  me  at  Mr.  John 
Head's  or  Captain  J.  Bradford's,  Boston.  Regard  not  the  expense,  I  will 
cheerfully  pay  it. 

"  I  am,  sir,  Avith  esteem,  your  obliged  and  very  humble  servant, 

"J.  Paul  Jones." 

The  Alfred,  for  which  the  high  honor  is  claimed  of  being  first 
to  wear  '  the  flacf  of  America,'  as  well  as  the  standard  or  flag  of  the 
first  naval  commander-in-chief,  was  originally  a  merchant  vessel  called 
the  Black  Prince.  She  arrived  at  Philadelphia  from  London  under 
the  command  of  Captain  Barry,  October  13,^  and  was  purchased  and 
armed  by  the  committee.  According  to  our  present  ideas,  she  was  a 
small  ship,  though  a  stout  vessel  of  her  class  at  that  time,  mounting 
twenty  9-pounders  on  her  main  deck,  and  from  one  to  two  guns  on 
her  quarter  deck  and  forecastle.  When  captured,  in  1778,  by  H.  B.  M. 
ships  Ariadne  and  Ceres,  her  captors  reported  her  as  mounting  twenty 
9-pounders  on  a  single  deck,  having  no  spar  deck  battery.  The  weight 
of  shot  thrown  from  her  entire  battery  or  both  broadsides  was  not 
equal  to  the  weight  of  a  single  shot  thrown  by  one  of  our  modern 
monitors.  Such  have  been  the  changes  in  naval  warfare  within  a 
hundred  years. 

I  have  said  that  Christmas  or  New  Year's  day  was  probably  se- 
lected for  hoisting  the  flag  of  America,  but  there  is  evidence  showing 
that  it,  or  at  least  a  continental  flag,  was  hoisted  over  the  Alfred  as  early 
as  the  3d  of  December,  before  any  of  the  officers  of  our  infant  navy 
had  been  commissioned.  A  letter  addressed  to  the  Earl  of  Dartmouth, 
and  dated  from  '  Mar3dand,  Dec.  20,  1775,' says :  "Their  harbors  by 
spring  will  swarm  with  privateers :  an  admiral  is  appointed,  a  court 
established,  and  on  the  3d  inst.  [December]  the  continental  flag  on  board 
the  Black  Prince  opposite  Philadelphia  was  hoisted."  ^  Another  let- 
ter to  a  friend  in  England  says :  "  The  Black  Prince  [Alfred],  a  fine 
vessel,  carries  a  flag,  and  mounts  from  twenty  to  thirty  12  and  16 
pounders,  besides  swivels,  and  fights  mostly  underdeck." 

It  is  not  known  with  certainty  what  flag  Jones  calls  '  the  flag  of 
America,'  though  there  are  reasons  for  supposing  it  the  grand  union 

1  "The  Black  Prince,  Campbell,  arrived  at  Falmoutli  from  Pliiladelpliia,  Oct.  31, 
1775."  —  Boston  Gazette,  Feb.  3,  1776.  Either  this  was  another  ship  of  the  same  name,  or 
there  is  a  mistake  of  dates.  A  vessel  called  the  Black  Prince  was  one  of  the  Saltonstall 
e.xpedition,  and  was  burnt  by  the  enemy. 

2  See  letter  signed  B.  P.,  Niles's  American  Pievolution,  Baltimore,  1S22,  p.  541. 


2r.2  ()Ki(;i\   AND  i'K(t(;i{i:ss  of  tiih 

flag  of  thirteen  stripes  displayed  at  Cambridge  on  tliu  2d  of  .lanuary, 
and  identic-id  with  the  "  union  Hag"  ilisplaycd  hy  tin-  ^'irginiil  C(ni- 
vention  in  May. 

In  the  day-signals  for  the  fleet  to  the  several  captains  in  the  llect,  as 
sailing  from  the  capes  of  Delaware,  Feb.  17,  177(3,  tlie  signal  for  the 
Providence  to  chase  was  a  "  St.  George's  ensign  with  stripes  at  the 
mizzen  peak."  For  a  general  attack,  or  the  whole  fleet  to  engage, 
"  the  standard  at  the  maintop  masthead  with  the  striped  jack  and  en- 
sign at  their  proper  places."  This  standard  was  prol^ably  the  rattle- 
snake flag  mentioned  elsewhere.  The  striped  jack  may  have  been  a 
flag  of  thirteen  stripes,  with  a  rattlesnake  undulating  ujjon  it.^ 

1  Tlie  following  are  these  orders  in  full,  taken  from  Aniciiean  Archives,  4tli  series, 
vol.  iv.  p.  179,  &e.     They  are  undoubtedly  the  first  signals  used  by  our  navy. 

Orders  given  the  several  Captains  in  the  Fleet  at  sailing  from  the  Capes 
OF  THE  Delaware,  Feb.  17,  1776. 
Sir,  —  You  are  hereby  ordered  to  keep  company  with  me,  if  possible,  and  truly  ob- 
serve the  signals  given  by  the  ship  I  am  in  ;  but  in  case  you  should  be  separated  in  a  gale 
of  wind  or  otherwise,  you  then  are  to  use  all  possible  means  to  join  the  fleet  as  soon  as 
possible  ;  but  if  you  cannot,  in  four  days  after  you  leave  the  fleet  you  are  to  make  the 
best  of  your  way  to  the  southern  part  of  Abaco  (one  of  the  Bahama  islands)  and  there 
wait  for  the  fleet  fourteen  days.  But  if  the  fleet  does  not  join  you  in  that  time,  you  are 
to  cruise  in  such  places  as  you  think  will  most  annoy  the  enemy.  And  you  are  to  send  into 
port,  for  trial,  all  British  vessels,  or  property,  or  other  vessels,  with  any  supplies  lor  the 
ministerial  forces,  who  you  may  make  yourself  master  of,  to  such  places  as  you  may  think 
best  within  the  United  Colonies.  In  case  you  are  in  any  givat  danger  of  being  taken,  you 
are  to  destroy  these  orders  and  your  signals. 

EzECK  Hopkins,  Commaiulcr-in-chief. 

Signals  for  the  American  Fleet  by  Day. 

For  sailing :  Loose  the  foretopsaO,  and  sheet  it  home. 

For  vjcighing  and  coming  to  sail :  Loose  all  the  topsails,  and  sheet  them  home. 

For  tJie  fleet  to  anchor :  Clew  up  the  maintopsail,  and  hoist  a  weft  in  the  ensign. 

For  seeing  a  strange  vessel :  Hoist  the  ensign,  and  lower  and  hoist  it  as  many  times  as 
you  see  vessels,  allowing  two  minutes  between  each  time. 

For  clmsing :  For  the  whole  fleet  to  chase,  a  red  pendant  at  the  foretopmast  head. 

To  give  over  the  clmse :  A  white  pendant  at  the  foretopmast  head. 

For  tlie  Columbus  to  chase:  Strike  the  broad  pendant  half  mast,  to  be  answered  by  a 
weft  in  tlie  ensign,  and  making  sail. 

To  cluisc  to  windward:  Hoist  the  ensign,  lowering  the  pendant  at  the  same  time  ;  if 
to  leeward,  not. 

To  give  over  the  chase :  A  white  pendant  at  the  foretopmast  head,  and  if  at  a  great 
distance,  fire  a  gun  at  the  same  time.  This  may  serve  for  any  of  the  vessels  to  give  over 
the  chase  and  return  to  the  fleet. 

For  the  Andrew  Doria  to  chase :  A  Dutch  flag  at  the  foretopmast  head. 

To  chase  to  windward :  Hoist  the  ensign,  lowering  the  pendant  at  the  same  time  :  if 
to  leeward,  not. 

To  give  over  tlie  chase :  A  white  pendant  at  the  foretopmast  head,  and  if  at  a  great 
distance,  fire  a  gun  at  the  same  time. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  233 

A  contemporary  account  says  that,  in  the  succeeding  February, 
Admiral  Hopkins  sailed  from  Philadelphia  with  the  American  fleet. 

For  the  Cabot  to  chase:  A  white  flag  at  the  foretopmast  liead.  To  chase  to  windward, 
&c.,  as  above. 

For  the  Providence  to  chase  :  A  St.  George's  ensign  with  stripes  at  the  mizzen  peak. 
To  chase  to  windward,  as  above. 

For  the  Fly  to  chase  :  A  Dutch  flag  at  the  maintopmast  head.  To  chase  to  windward, 
&c.,  as  above. 

For  the  Hornet  to  chase  :  A  red  pendant  at  the  maintopmast  head.  To  chase  to  mnd- 
ward,  &c.,  as  above. 

For  the  Wasp  to  chase  :  A  Dutch  flag  at  the  mizzen  peak.  To  chase  to  windward,  &c. , 
as  above. 

For  a  Genercol  Attack,  or  the  wlwle  Fleet  to  engage. 

The  standard  at  the  maintopmost  head,  with  the  striped  jack  and  ensign  at  their 
proper  places. 

To  disengage  and  form  into  a  squadron :  A  white  flag  at  the  ensign  staff",  and  the 
same  into  a  weft  for  every  vessel  to  make  the  best  of  their  way  off"  from  the  enemy  for 
their  own  preservation. 

For  all  captaiiis  to  come  on  board  the  Commodore :  A  red  pendant  at  the  ensign  staff". 

To  speak  vjith  the  Columbus :  A  white  pendant  at  the  mizzen  topmast  head. 

To  speak  with  the  Andrew  Doria :  A  Dutch  flag  at  the  mizzen  topmast  head. 

To  speak  with  the  Cabot :  A  weft  in  a  jack  at  the  mizzen  topmast  head. 

To  speak  with  the  Providence  :  A  white  flag  at  the  mizzen  tojimast  head. 

To  speak  with  the  Fly :  A  Dutch  flag  at  the  ensign  staff". 

For  any  vessel  in  the  fleet  that  wants  to  speak  with  the  Commodore  :  A  weft  in  the  en- 
sign, and  if  in  distress,  accompanied  with  two  guns. 

To  fall  into  a  line  abreast :  A  red  pendant  at  the  mizzen  peak. 

To  fall  into  a  line  ahead:  A  white  pendant  at  the  mizzen  peak. 

For  meeting  after  a  separation :  A  weft  in  an  ensign,  at  the  maintopmast  head,  to  be 
answered  with  the  same,  and  clewing  up  the  maintop  gallant  sail,  if  they  have  any  set. 

For  the  ship  Providence  to  chase :  A  red  pendant  at  the  mizzen  topmast  head.  TO' 
chase  to  windward,  as  before. 

To  speak  with  the  ship  Providence :  A  weft  in  the  ensign  at  the  ensign  staff. 

Among  the  signal  flags  to  be  used  by  the  fleet  under  Abraham  Whipple,  commodore 
commanding,  given  under  his  hand  on  board  the  continental  frigate,  Providence,  Nan- 
tasket  Roads,  Nov.  22,  1779,  are  mentioned  :  — 

A  continental  ensign.         A  Butch  jack  and  ensign.         A  striped  flag,  and 
A  continental  jack.  A  white  ensign.  A  white  jack. 

A  red  ensign. 

Among  the  signals  prescribed  to  be  observed  by  commanders  in  the  continental  navy, 
and  issued  by  order  of  the  Marine  Committee,  .Jan.  14,  1778,  are  mentioned  as  to  be 
used,  — 

A  French  jack  and  A  continental  jack. 

Colonel  Reigart,  in  his  unreliable  pamphlet,  assigns  a  particular  flag  to  each  vessel  of 
this  squadron,  —  but  without  giving  any  authority  for  his  statement,  and  in  all  my  re- 
searches I  have  never  found  any,  —  which  is,  viz.  :  that  "  the  Alfred  carried  a  pine-tree  flag, 
presented  by  Connecticut ;  the  Columbus,  the  red  cross  of  St.  George,  presented  by  Ver- 
mont ;  the  Andrea  Doria,  the  white  cross  of  St.  Andrew,  presented  by  Philadelphia ;  the 
Cabot,  a  white  silk  pine-tree  flag  from  Connecticut ;  the  Providence,  St.  Andrew's  cross,. 


2:U  oiJiciN   AM)   i'i;(>(;i;i:ss  of  TllK 

"amidst  the  acclamations  of  tliousauds  assembled  on  tin;  joyful  occa- 
sion, under  the  display  of  tlu!  union  (laj^,  with  thirteen  stripes  in  the 
iield,  emblematical  of  the  thirteen  I'nited  Colonies." 

The  first  achievement  of  this  s(|u;nh(in  was  the  capture  of  New 
Providence,  and  a  writer  from  thence  to  the  '  London  Ladies'  ]\Ia^a- 
ziue/  underrate  May  13,  1770,  mentions  that  the  colors  of  the  Amer- 
ican fleet  were  "  striped  under  the  union,  with  thirteen  stripes,  and  their 
standard  [admiral's  flag]  a  rattlesnake  ;  motto,  '  Don't  tread  on  me.'  " 

This  confirms  my  opinion  that  '  the  flag  of  America '  was  no  other 
than  the  grand  union  flag  of  Cambridge,  and  that  the  commander-in- 
chief^s  flag  was  the  yellow  flag  presented  by  Colonel  Gadsden,  and 
heretofore  described. 

At  the  Naval  Academy,  Annapolis,  there  is  preserved  a  mezzotinto 
engraving  of  "  Commodore  Hopkins,  commander-in-chief  of  tlie  American 
fleet ,  iniMishcd  as  the  laio  directs,  2 2d  August,  1776,  by  Thomas  Hart, 
London,  which  has  been  transferred  to  glass  and  colored."  ^  I  have  a 
copy  of  this  mezzotinto  from  which  the  illustration  has  been  engraved.^ 
The  commodore  is  represented  in  the  naval  continental  uniform,*  with 

presented  by  Ehode  Island  ;  the  Honiet,  the  yellow  silk  flag  of  Virginia,  with  rattlesnake ; 
the  Wasp,  the  yellow  silk  flag  of  South  Carolina,  with  a  crescent,  a  beaver,  a  rattle- 
snake, and  motto,  '  Don't  tread  on  me  ; '  the  despatch  vessel  Fly,  bearing  a  blue  flag  with 
red  cross  of  St.  George."  As  these  vessels  were  not  fitted  out  or  equipped  by  the  colo- 
nies to  which  he  assigns  them,  without  further  authority  his  statement  with  regard  to 
the  flags  cannot  be  credited. 

^  There  are  extant  other  copies  of  this  engraving.  C.  J.  Bushnell,  Esq.,  of  New 
York,  lias  one.  It  is  inscribed  like  the  other,  22d  August,  1776.  Hon.  J.  R.  Bartlett, 
of  Providence,  also  has  a  copy.  Mr.  Bushnell  has  a  similar  engraving  of  Charles  Lee, 
which  has  over  a  cannon  a  flag-staff,  attached  to  which  is  a  white  flag  bearing  the  motto, 
"An  Appeal  to  Heaven."  This  cngi'aving  is  inscribed,  "Charles  Lee,  Esq.,  major-general 
of  the  continental  forces  in  America.  Published  as  the  act  directs  Oct.  31,  1775,  by  C. 
Shepherd.  Thomtinson,  pinxt."  Mr.  Bushnell  has  also  a  similar  engiaving  of  General 
Gates,  which  exhibits  at  his  a-ight  hand  a  flag  with  thirteen  black  bars  and  thirteen  white. 
It  is  inscribed,  "  Horatio  Gates,  Esq.,  major-genei-al  of  the  American  forces.  London,  pub- 
lished as  the  act  directs,  Jan.  2,  1778,  by  John  Morris."  I  have  seen  a  colored  copy  of 
this  engraving,  in  which  General  Gates  is  dressed  in  a  red  coat  with  white  or  buff  facing, 
and  the  thiiteen  black  bars  on  the  flag  are  painted  red. 

2  See  p.  222. 

3  This,  the  first  uniform  of  the  continental  navy,  was  prescribed  by  the  Marine  Com- 
mittee, just  two  weeks  after  the  date  of  this  engi'a^ing. 

Uniform  of  Navy  and  Marine  Officers. 

Ix  Marine  Committee,  Philadelphia,  Sept.  5,  1776. 
Resolved,  That  the  uniform  of  the  officers  of  the  navy  in  the  United  Slates  be  as  fol- 
lows :  — 

Captains:  Blue  cloth  with  red  lapels,  slash  cuff,  stand-up  collar,  flat  yellow  but- 
tons, blue  breeches,  red  waistcoat  with  yellow  lace. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  235 

a  drawn  sword.    At  his  right  hand  there  is  a  flag  of  thirteen  stripes  with 
a  snake  undulating  across  them,  and  underneath  it  the  motto,  "  Dont 

lAeuteTvants :  Blue  with  red  lapels,  a  round  cutf  faced,  staud-up  collar,  yellow  but- 
tons, blue  breeches,  red  waistcoat,  plain. 

Master :  Blue  with  lapels,  round  cuff,  blue  breeches,  and  red  waistcoat. 

Midshipmen :  Blue  lapelled  coat,  a  round  cuff  faced  with  red,  stand-up  collar,  with 
red  at  the  button  and  button-hole,  blue  breeches,  and  red  wai-stcoat. 

Uniform  of  the  Marine  Officers. 
A  green  coat  faced  with  white,  round  cuff,  slashed  sleeves  and  pockets,  with  buttons 
round  the  cuff,  silver  epaulette  on  the  right  shoulder,  skirts  turned  back,  buttons  to  suit 
the  facings.     White  waistcoat,  and  breeches,  edged  with  gi'een,  black  gaiters,  and  garters- 
Green  shirts  for  the  men,  if  they  can  be  procured. 

Extract  from  the  ilinutes  : 

JoHX  Bkown,  Secretary. 
American  Archives,  5th  series,  vol.  ii.  p.  181. 

This  uniform  does  not  appear  to  have  been  satisfactory,  for  in  March,  1777,  the  major 

part  of  the  captains  at  Boston  agi'eed  upon  the  following  uniform  di'ess  for  the  navy  :  — 

Full  Dress  for  Post  Captains. 
Dark  blue  coat,  white  lining,  white  cuffs,  and  narrow  white  lapels  the  whole  length 
of  the  waist.  The  coats  full  trimmed  with  gold  lace  or  embroidered  button-holes  ;  the 
buttons  at  equal  distance  asunder  on  the  lapels,  the  upper  part  of  the  lapels  to  button 
on  the  upper  pai-t  of  the  shoulder,  three  buttons  on  each  pocket  flap,  three  on  each  cuff. 
Stand-up  blue  collars.  White  waistcoats,  breeches,  and  stockings.  Dress  swords.  Plain 
hats  with  black  cockades  and  gold  buttons  and  loops.  Gold  epaulettes  on  the  right 
shoulder,  the  figure  of  a  rattlesnake  embroidered  on  the  straps  of  the  epaulettes,  with  the 
motto,  "  Dont  tread  on  me."  The  waistcoat  trimmed  with  gold  lace,  yellow  flat  buttons, 
with  the  impression  of  the  rattlesnake  and  the  motto  " Dmi't  tread,  on  me"  on  each  of 
them. 

Undress  for  Post  Captains. 

The  same  as  dress  coats,  with  the  difference  that  the  undress  coats  have  frock  backs 
and  turn-down  white  collars. 

Dress  for  Lieutenants. 

The  same  as  for  post  captains,  excepting  the  lace  and  embroidery  and  the  epaulettes, 
and  that  instead  of  the  rattlesnake  they  wear  buttons  with  the  impression  of  an  anchor. 
Evidently  lieutenants  were  not  allowed  epaulettes. 

Undress  for  Lieutenants. 
The  same  as  for  post  captains,  excepting  the  lace,  embroidery,  and  the  epaulettes  and 
buttons,  and  that  the  coats  be  made  short,  or  such  as  are  usually  called  'coatees.' 

Dress  and  Undress  for  Masters  and  Midshipmen. 

The  same  as  for  lieutenants,  excepting  the  lapels,  and  tliat  they  wear  turn-do«-n  col- 
lars on  their  dress  and  undress  coats. 

The  dress  and  undress  for  commanders  of  ships  and  vessels  under  twenty  guns  to  be 
the  same  as  for  post  captains,  excepting  the  epaulettes. 

This  uniform  proposition  I  found  among  tlie  'Paul  Jones  MS.'  in  the  Congressional 
Library,  and  is  signed  by  Captains  Jolin  Jlanly,  Hector  McXeil,  Dudley  Saltonstall, 
E.  Hinman,  .Joseph  Olney,  John  Roche,  and  John  Paul  Jones,  and  by  Captain  JlcXeil 
for  Captain  William  Thompson,  and  by  Captain  Olney  for  Captain  Abraham  "Wliipple. 

Evidently  this  uniform  was  adopted  by  Jones,  if  by  no  one  else  ;  for  John  Adams, 


!>.",()  OinciN    AM)    PROGRESS   OF   THE 

iiraiJ  on  nu."  There  is  no  union  to  the  ila^j,  and  it  may  represent 
the  striped  jack  mentioned  in  his  sij^iiuls  to  the  ileet.  Over  his  left 
hand  is  a  white  Hag  with  the  Massachusetts  pine-tree,  and  over  it  the 
words,  "Zibo'ti/  Tree,"  and  under  it,  "An  ApjJeal  to  God." 

F.  J.  Dreer,  of  Philadelphia,  has  a  smaller  French  engraving,  evi- 
dently from  the  same  painting,  inscribed  :  "  Cummodorc  Hupldns,  Com- 
■mandeur  en  Chef  dcs  Amerj :  Flottc"  It  is  without  date,  and  only 
shows  the  flag  at  Hopkins's  right  hand,  which  is  hoisted  on  the  ensign 
staff  of  a  ship  of  the  line,  and  has  the  thirteen  red  and  white  stripes, 
without  any  union,  rattlesnake,  motto,  or  other  device.  The  ship  has 
pennants  at  each  masthead.  In  this  engraving  the  left  hand  of  the 
commodore,  and  ship  and  flag  over  it,  are  not  shown. ^ 

Cooper  is  of  opinion  that  the  flag  hoisted  by  Jones  was  a  pine-tree 
flag  with  a  rattlesnake  coiled  at  its  roots,  and  the  motto.  Such  flags 
were  hoisted  over  the  Massachusetts  State  cruisers,  and  it  is  possible 
such  a  flag  was  hoisted  over  the  Alfred ;  but  Jones  would  scarcely 
have  called  it  "  the  Flag  of  America."  The  proof  is  certain,  however, 
that  the  squadron  sailed  under  striped  ensigns.  Whether  the  stripes 
were  red  and  white,  or  blue  and  white,  or  red,  blue,  and  white  alter- 
nately, seems  not  certain.  A  writer  in  the  '  Boston  Post,'  in  1853, 
asserted  he  had  then  before  him  a  fac-simile  of  the  flag  used  by  the 
Confederate  States  from  July,  1776,  until  the  adoption  of  the  stars 
and  stripes,  and  that  in  the  union  emblem  of  the  stripes  there  is  a 
rattlesnake  coiled  up  and  ready  to  strike,  with  the  usual  motto  under- 
neath. A  writer  in  'Harper's  Magazine,'  in  1855,  says,  without  citing 
his  authority  :  "  The  Alfred  was  anchored  off  the  foot  of  Walnut  Street. 
On  a  brilliant  morning  early  in  February,  1776,  gay  streamers  were 
seen  floating  from  every  masthead  and  spar  on  the  river.  At  nine 
o'clock  a  full-manned  barge  threaded  its  way  among  the  floating  ice 

who  was  a  passenger  to  L'Orient  in  the  Alliance,  Captain  Landais,  \vrites  in  his  diary 
at  that  port,  May,  1779  :  — 

"  After  dinner,  walked  out  with  Captains  Jones  and  Landais  to  see  Jones's  marines 
dressed  in  the  English  uniforms,  red  and  white.  A  number  of  very  active  and  clever 
sergeants  and  corporals  are  employed  to  teach  them  the  exercise  and  manoeuvres  and 
marches',  &c.,  after  which  Jones  came  on  board  our  ship.  This  is  the  most  ambitious 
and  intriguing  officer  in  the  American  navy.  Jones  has  art  and  secrecy,  and  aspires 
very  high.  You  see  the  character  of  the  man  in  his  uniform  and  that  of  liis  officers  and 
marines,  variant  from  the  uniforins  established  by  Congress,  —  golden  button-holes  for  him- 
self, two  epaulettes  ;  marines  in  red  and  white  instead  of  green.  Eccentricities  and 
irregularities  are  to  be  expected  from  him,  —  they  are  in  his  character,  they  are  visible  in 
his  eyes.  His  voice  is  soft  and  still  and  small  ;  liis  eye  lias  keenness  and  wildness  and 
softness  in  it." 

^  Mr.  Bushnell  has  another  French  engraving  of  Hopkins,  undated.  It  is  in  an  oval, 
surrounded  by  emblems,  &c.,  and  under  it  are  the  two  flags  shown  in  the  Hart  engiaving. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  237 

to  the  Alfred,  bearing  the  commodore,  who  had  chosen  that  vessel  for 
his  flag-ship.  He  was  greeted  by  the  thunders  of  artillery  and  the 
shouts  of  a  multitude.  When  he  reached  the  deck  of  the  Alfred, 
Captain  Saltonstall  gave  a  signal,  and  Lieutenant  Jones  hoisted  a  new 
flag  prepared  for  the  occasion.  It  was  of  yellow  silk,  bearing  a  pine-tree, 
with  the  significant  device  of  a  rattlesnake,  and  the  ominous  motto, 
' DonH  tread  on  me!''''  This  is  like  the  flag  presented  by  Colonel 
Gadsden  to  Congress,  in  February,  for  the  use  of  the  commander-in- 
chief  of  the  American  navy,  with  the  addition  of  a  pine-tree. 

An  English  writer  of  the  period  is  quoted  by  Eobert  C.  Sands,  in 
his  '  Life  of  Paul  Jones,'  as  saying  :  — 

"  A  strange  flag  has  lately  appeared  in  our  seas,  bearing  a  pine-tree 
with  the  portraiture  of  a  rattlesnake  coiled  up  at  its  roots,  with  these 
daring  words,  '  Dont  tread  on  me!  We  learn  that  the  vessels  bearing 
this  flag  have  a  sort  of  commission  from  a  society  of  people  at  Phila- 
delphia calling  themselves  the  Continental  Congress." 

Miss  Sarali  Smith  Stafford  informed  me,  in  1873,  that  when  she  was 
about  eleven  years  old  her  father  took  her  to  New  York,  where  she  was 
shown  several  flags  of  the  era  of  the  Eevolution,  and  well  remembered 
seeing  one  with  stripes,  and  a  snake  stretched  out  and  partially  con- 
cealed in  grass,  with  the  head  a  little  elevated.  This  emblem  created 
a  great  impression  on  her,  as  she  had  never  seen  a  snake. 

A  letter  from  Williamsburg,  Va.,  dated  April  10,  1776,  states  that 
a  British  cruiser,  the  Eoebuck,  had  taken  two  prizes  in  Delaware, 
which  she  decoyed  into  her  reach  by  hoisting  a  continental  union 
flag.  The  af&davit  of  Mr.  Berry,  master's  mate  of  the  ship  Grace, 
captured  by  the  Roebuck,  confirms  the  letter.^ 

Another  letter,  from  Williamsburg,  Va.,  May  11,  177G,^  describes 
the  colors  of  the  American  fleet  as  follows  :  "  The  colors  of  the  Ameri- 
can fleet  have  a  snake  with  thirteen  rattles  (the  fourteenth  budding  ^), 
in  the  attitude  of  going  to  strike,  with  this  motto,  '  Don't  tread  on  me!  " 

John  F.  Watson  ^  states  that  the  AUiance,  frigate,  when  commanded 

•  Pennsylvania  Evening  Post,  June  20,  1776. 

2  American  Archives,  4th  series,  vol.  vi.  p.  420;  also  Boston  Gazette,  April  14,  1777. 
This  letter  bears  no  signature,  but  immediately  above  it  and  on  the  same  page  in  '  Ameri- 
can Archives '  there  is  a  letter  of  the  same  date  from  Williamsburg,  addressed  by  General 
Charles  Lee  to  General  Washington. 

3  The  half-formed  additional  rattle  was  said  by  Franklin  to  represent  tlie  Province  of 
Canada,  and  the  wise  man  added  that  "the  rattles  are  united  together  so  that  they  can 
never  be  separated  but  by  breaking  to  pieces."  —  Charles  Sumner's  Lecture,  'Are  we  a 
Nation  ? ' 

*  Annals  of  New  York,  p.  .34. 


2;J.S  nHK;iN  AM)  iMjncijKss  or  'I'iik 

l»y  .Tones,  horc  tliu  "national  Hag  of  the  coiled-np  rattlesnake  and 
thirteen  .strijies.  Watson  must  1)e  mistaken,  since  the  Alliance  was 
not  launched  until  1777,  and  Jones  did  not  etmimand  iier  until  1779, 
when  she  must  have  carried  the  stars  and  stripes.  On  Dec.  17,  1779, 
the  Dutch  admiral  at  the  Texel  wrote  Jones,  asking  to  be  inlornied 
whether  the  Alliance  M'as  a  French  or  an  American  vessel ;  if  the  hrst, 
the  admiral  expected  him  to  show  his  commission  and  di.splay  the 
French  ensign  and  pendant,  under  a  salute ;  if  an  American,  that  he 
should  lose  uo  occasion  to  depart.  The  French  commissary  of  ma- 
rine urged  him  to  satisfy  all  parties  by  hoisting  French  colore ;  but 
Jones  refused  to  wear  any  other  than  '  the  Americcm  fiag^  and  sent 
word  to  the  admiral  that  under  that  flag  he  should  proceed  to  sea 
whenever  the  pilot  would  undertake  to  carry  the  ship  out. 

Ten  days  after,  on  the  morning  of  the  27th  of  December,  Jones  went 
to  sea,  and  had  the  satisfaction  of  wanting  to  Mr.  Dumas,  Ijy  the  pilot : 
"  I  am  here,  my  dear  sir,  with  a  good  wind  at  east,  and  under  my  hcst 
American  colors."  Favored  by  a  strong  east  wind,  the  Alliance  the 
next  day  passed  through  the  Straits  of  Dover,  with  her  colors  set,  run- 
ning close  to  the  Goodwin  Sands,  in  full  view  of  the  fleet  anchored  in 
the  Downs  only  three  or  four  miles  to  leeward.  On  the  29tli  she 
reconnoitred  the  fleet  at  Spitliead,  still  showing  her  colors,  and  on  the 
18th  of  January,  1780,  was  fairly  out  of  the  Channel.^ 

It  is  claimed  for  Commodore  Barney  that  he  first  hoisted  'the 
continental  flag'  in  Maryland.  He  w^as  appointed  second  in  rank 
to  the  sloop  Hornet,  one  of  Hopkins's  squadron.  A  crew  had  not 
been  shipped,  and  the  duty  of  recruiting  fell  upon  him.  Fortunately 
for  his  purpose,  just  at  this  moment  a  new  '  American  flag,'  sent  by 
Commodore  Hopkins  for  the  service  of  the  Hornet,  arrived  from  Phil- 
adelphia, tlie  first  that  had  been  seen  in  the  State  of  ]\Iaryland.  His 
biographer  calls  it  a  star-spangled  banner ;  but  that  is  evidently  her 
mistake.  The  next  morning  at  sunrise  Barney  unfurled  it,  to  the 
music  of  drums  and  fifes,  and,  hoisting  it  upon  a  staff,  planted  it  with 
his  own  hands  at  the  door  of  his  rendezvous.  The  sound  of  the 
martial  music,  then  a  novelty  in  Baltimore,  and  the  still  more  novel 
sight  of  the  rchel  colors  gracefully  waving  in  the  breeze,  attracted 
crowds  of  all  ranks  and  sizes  to  the  gay  scene  of  the  rendezvous ; 
and  before  the  setting  of  the  same  day's  sun  the  young  recruiting 
officer  had  enlisted  a  full  crew  of  joll}''  rebels  for  the  Hornet.^ 

That  Paul  Jones  was  the  first  to  hoist  the  new  continental  flag 

1  Mackenzie's  Life  of  Paul  Jones,  vol.  i.  pp.  252,  253. 
*  Life  of  Commodore  Joshua  Barney,  by  ^Laiy  Barney. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  239 

has  been  doubted  ;  and  Cooper  remarks,  he  may  have  been  mistaken  :  ^ 
"  He  always  claimed  to  have  been  the  first  man  to  hoist  the  flag  of 
1775  in  a  national  ship,  and  the  first  man  to  show  the  present  ensign 
on  board  a  man-of-war.  This  may  be  true  or  not.  There  -was  a 
weakness  about  the  character  of  the  man  that  rendered  him  a  little 
liable  to  self-delusions  of  this  nature ;  and  while  it  is  probable  he  was 
right  as  to  the  flag  which  was  shown  before  Philadelphia,  the  town 
where  Congress  w^as  sitting,  it  is  by  no  means  as  reasonable  to  sup- 
pose that  the  first  of  the  permanent  flags  [stars  and  stripes]  was  shown 
at  a  place  as  distant  as  Portsmouth.  The  circumstances  are  of  no 
moment,  except  as  they  serve  to  betray  a  want  of  simplicity  of  char- 
acter, that  was  rather  a  failing  with  the  man,  and  his  avidity  for  per- 
sonal distinction  of  every  sort." 

John  Adams,  who  certainly  did  not  love  Jones,  writing  Elbridge 
Gerry,  Vice-President  of  the  United  States,  from  Quincy,  Jan.  28, 
1813,2  disputes  this  claim  of  Jones,  and  says,  with  the  pride  of  a 
Massachusetts  man :  "  Philadelphia  is  now  boasting  that  Paul  Jones 
has  asserted  in  his  Journal  that  '  his  hand  hoisted  the  first  American 
flag,'  and  Captain  Barry  has  asserted  that  '  the  first  British  flag  was 
struck  to  him  ; '  now  I  assert  that  the  first  American  flag  was  hoisted 
by  Captain  John  Manly,  and  the  first  British  flag  was  struck  to  him. 
You  were  not  in  Congress  in  1775,  but  you  was  in  the  State  Con- 
gress, and  must  have  known  the  history  of  Manly's  capture  of  the 
transport  which  contained  the  mortar^  which  afterwards,  on  Dor- 
chester Heights,  drove  the  English  army  from  Boston,  and  navy  from 
the  harbor." 

He  also  wrote  John  Langdon,  who  was  a  member  of  the  first 
IVIarine  Committee,  Jan.  24,  1813  :  "  My  recollection  has  been  excited 
lately  by  information  from  Philadelphia  that  Paul  Jones  has  written 
in  his  Journal,  '  My  hand  first  hoisted  the  American  flag,'  and  that 
Captain  Barry  used  to  say  that  the  first  British  flag  was  struck  to 

1  Cooper's  Life  of  Paul  Jones,  p.  31. 

-  Austin's  Life  of  Elbridge  Gerry. 

^  The  transport  brig  Nancy,  with  military  stores,  several  brass  guns,  and  one  mor- 
tar, was  captured  by  the  schooner  Lee,  Captain  John  Manly,  of  four  gi^ns,  ten  swivels, 
and  fifty  men,  on  the  29th  of  November,  1775.  December  8,  he  captured  the  ship  Jenny, 
of  two  guns,  loaded  with  provisions,  and  the  brig  Hannah, and  beat  off  a  British  schooner 
of  eiglit  guns,  having  two  vessels  under  convoy. 

Captain  Barry  did  not  get  to  sea  in  the  Lexington  until  February,  1776.  "We  have 
no  account  of  the  flag  worn  by  Manly.  It  was  probably  the  jiine-tree  flag.  I  think 
Jones  may  retain  liis  honors,  and  for  Barry,  it  can  be  truthfully  claimed  that  he  was  the 
first  under  the  striped  flag  to  capture  an  armed  vessel  of  the  enemy.  The  fortunate  cap- 
ture of  the  Nancy  is  alluded  to  in  one  of  Mr.  John  Adams's  letters. 


240  OKK.IN    A.M>    l'K<Miia:ss    OF    TUl-: 

liiiii.  r.ntli  llit'SL'  vain  ))i):i-ts  1  kiutw  to  1)0  lalsi*,  and  as  you  know 
theiii  to  bu  so,  1  wish  your  tcsUniony  to  corroljorate  mine.  It  is  \u)l 
decent  uor  just  that  these  emigrants,  loreij^aiers  of  the  South,  shouhl 
lalsely  aiTogate  to  themselves  merit  that  belongs  to  New  England 
sailors,  otticers  and  men." 

Mr.  Langdon  replied  IVom  Tortsmuuth,  "  Jan.  27,  1813,  the 
appointment  of  IManly  and  his  successors  must  be  well  known 
throughout  the  United  States.  As  to  Paul  Jones,  if  my  memory 
serves  me,  pretending  to  say  that  '  this  hand  first  hoisted  the  Ameri- 
can fiag,'  and  Captain  Barry,  that  '  the  first  British  fiag  was  struck  to 
him/  they  are  both  unfounded,  as  it  is  impressed  on  my  mind  that 
many  prizes  were  brought  into  tlie  Xew  England  States  before  their 
names  were  mentioned."  ^ 

The  brig  Lexington,  mounting  fourteen  4-pounders,  commanded  by 
Ca}itain  John  Barry,  has  been  credited  as  the  first  of  the  new  con- 
tinental marine  to  get  to  sea  and  to  display  the  striped  Hag  upon  the 
ocean.  There  had  been  private  and  colonial  marine  enterprises  and 
cruisers  previously,  as  there  were  later.  Two  vessels,  the  Lynch  and 
the  Franklin,  had  been  commissioned  by  General  Wasliington,  and 
had  sailed  under  the  pine-tree  flag,  and  two  small  vessels,  the  Wasp 
and  Hornet,  had  come  around  from  Baltimore  to  join  the  fleet  in  the 
Delaware; 2  but  it  was  claimed  for  the  Lexington  that  she  was  the 
first  to  get  to  sea.  Cooper,  in  the  early  editions  of  his  '  Naval  His- 
tory,' so  asserted ;  but  in  later  editions  he  says  an  examination  of  the 
private  papers  of  Captain  Barry  has  shown  him  that  Captain  Barry 
was  actually  employed  on  shore  or  in  the  ])elaware  for  a  short 
time  after  Commodore  Hopkins  got  to  sea.^  The  first  regular  com- 
missioned cruisers,  therefore,  of  the  National  Navy  of  the  United  Col- 
onies were  those  of  Hopkins's  .squadron.  The  fleet  left  Philadelphia 
early  in  January,  1776.* 

1  Life  and  Works  of  .John  Adams,  vol.  x.  pp.  28  and  29,  where  also  are  his  letters  to 
Elbridge  Gerry,  pp.  30,  31. 

2  "Tuesday,  .Jan.  9,  1776.  Resolved,  That  a  letter  be  written  to  Mr.  Tilghnian  in- 
forming him  that  the  Hornet  and  Wasp  are  under  orders  to  sail  to  the  Capes  of  Dela- 
ware, and  tliat  sucli  vessels  as  are  ready  to  sail  may  take  the  benefit  of  that  convoy. 

"That  the  committee  for  fitting  out  armed  vessels  be  directed  to  give  orders  to  the 
captains  of  the  Hornet  and  Wasp,  to  take  under  their  convoy  such  vessels  as  are  ready  to 
sail."  —  American  Archives,  4th  series,  vol.  iv.  p.  1637. 

3  Cooper's  Naval  History,  edition  1856. 

*  The  Naval  Committee  were  authorized  by  the  Committee  of  Safety  of  Pennsylvania, 
under  date  Jan.  1,  1776,  to  engage  three  pilots  of  that  province  to  conduct  the  vessels 
down  to  Reedy  Island,  and  the  Committee  of  Safety  also  authorized  the  loan  of  a 
number  of  men  from  the  armed  bodies  of  that  province  to  navigate  the  vessels  belonging 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  241 

The  following  letter  contains  an  account  of  its  departure  for  Eeecly 

Island  :  — 

"Newbern,  N.  C,  Feb.  9,  1776. 

"  By  a  gentleman  from  Philadelphia,  Ave  have  received  the  pleasing  ac- 
count of  the  actual  sailing  from  that  place  of  the  first  American  fleet  that 
ever  swelled  their  sails  on  the  Western  Ocean,  in  defence  of  the  rights  and 
liberties  of  the  people  of  these  colonies,  now  suffering  under  the  persecuting 
rod  of  the  British  ministry,  and  their  more  than  brutish  tyrants  in  America. 
This  fleet  consists  of  five  sad,  fitted  out  from  Philadelphia,  Avhich  are  to  be 
joined  at  the  Capes  of  Virginia  by  two  ships  more  from  Maryland,  and  is 
commanded  by  Admiral  Hopkins,  a  most  experienced  and  venerable  sea- 
captain.  The  admiral's  ship  is  called  the  Columbus,  after  Christopher 
Columbus,  thirty-six  guns,  12  and  9  pounders,  on  two  decks,  forty  swivels, 
and  five  hundred  men.  The  second  ship  is  called  the  Cabot,  after  Se- 
bastian Cabot,  who  completed  the  discoveries  of  America  made  by  Colum- 
bus, and  mounts  thirty-two  guns.  The  others  are  smaller  vessels,  from 
twenty-four  to  fourteen  guus.  They  sailed  from  Philadelphia,  amidst  the 
acclamations  of  many  thousands  assembled  on  the  joyful  occasion,  under  the 
display  of  a  union  flag  with  thirteen  stripes  in  the  field,  emblematical  of 
the  thirteen  United  Colonies ;  but  unhappily  for  us,  the  ice  in  the  river  Del- 
aware as  yet  obstructs  the  passage  down,  but  the  time  will  now  soon  arrive 
when  this  fleet  must  come  to  action.  Their  destination  is  a  secret,  but  gen- 
erally supposed  to  be  against  the  Ministerial  Governors,  those  little  petty 
tyrants  that  have  lately  spread  fire  and  sword  throughout  these  southern 
colonies.  For  the  happy  success  of  this  little  fleet,  three  millions  of  people 
offer  their  most  earnest  supplications  to  Heaven."  ^ 

At  Eeedy  Island,  the  squadron  was  frozen  up  for  six  weeks,  and 
did  not  leave  the  Delaware  until  the  17th  of  February .^    On  the  19th, 

to  Congress  down.     The  Naval  Committee's  sailing  orders  to  Hopkins  are  dated  Jan.  5, 
1776.  — American  Archives,  4tli  series,  vol.  iv.  pp.  506  and  578. 

Washington,  in  his  letter  to  Read,  Jan.  4,  1776,  after  describing  his  raising  the  union 
flag  at  Cambridge,  says  :  "  I  fear  your  fleet  has  been  so  long  fitting  out,  and  the  destina- 
tion of  it  is  so  well  known,  that  the  end  will  be  defeated,  if  the  vessel  escape." 

1  American  Archives,  4th  series,  vol.  iv.  p.  964.  John  Adams,  in  a  letter  from 
"  Quincy,  Ainil  13,  1819,"  writes  :  "  I  lay  no  serious  claim  to  the  title  of  '  Father  of  the 
American  navj','  or  of  any  thing  else  except  my  own  family.  Have  you  seen  the  '  History 
of  the  American  Navy,'  written  by  a  Mr.  Clark  and  edited  by  Mat.  Carey  ?  I  gave  the 
names  Alfred,  Columbus,  Cabot,  and  Andrea  Doria  to  the  first  ships  that  sailed  under 
the  flag  of  the  United  Colonies." —  Watsons  Men  and  Times  of  tJie  Revolution.  See 
also  ante. 

Adams  alludes  to  the  '  Naval  History  of  the  United  States,'  by  Thomas  Clark,  a  second 
edition  of  which,  in  two  volumes,  r2nio,  was  published  in  Philadelphia,  by  SI.  Carey, 
Jan.  3,  1814.  The  book  is  scarce,  and  has  long  been  out  of  print.  The  first  edition  was 
published  May  6,  1813. 

2  Life  of  Paul  Jones  ;  Hopkins's  Orders  to  the  Fleet ;  Cooper's  Naval  History,  &c. 

16 


242  (>i;i<.i\   A\i)  I'lJoriKESS  ov  twe 

tlie  Hornet  and  Fly  luirted  conipiuiy.  Tlie  Hi-st  achievement  of  tlie 
squadron  undiT  tla'  continental  llaj,'  was  a  descent  ujxm  New  Trovi- 
dence,  where  near  one  Inindrcd  cannon  and  a  kirge  (|uantity  of  other 
stores  fell  into  its  hands.  After  hnistin;^'  the  striped  llajf,  and  holding 
j)ossession  of  the  place  for  a  few  days,  Coniniodori.'  no])kins  left  <»n  the 
17th  of  ^larch,  briugiug  away  the  governor  and  one  or  two  men  of  iiote.^ 

On  this  occasion,  the  first  that  ever  occurred  in  the  continental 
navy,  the  marines,  under  Captain  Nicholas,  behaved  with  the  spirit 
and  steadiness  that  has  distinguished  the  corps  from  that  hour  down 
to  the  present  time. 

Scattering  his  small  vessels  along  the  southern  coast,  the  Commo- 
dore, with  the  remainder  of  his  squadron,  airived  off"  ^lontauk  Point  on 
the  4th  of  April,  where  he  captured  a  small  vessel  of  six  guns,  and  on 
the  6th  engaged  the  Glasgow,  20,  Captain  T}Tingham  Howe,  which 
managed  to  get  into  Newport,  and  join  the  English  squadron. 

On  the  17th  of  April,  when  near  the  Capes  of  Virginia,  the  Lexing- 
ton supported  the  honor  of  the  continental  flag  on  the  seas  by  captur- 
ing, after  a  close  and  spirited  action,  the  British  brig  Edward,  mounting 
sixteen  4-pounders,  two  more  than  the  Lexington.  The  Lexington 
had  only  four  men  killed,  wldle  the  Edward  was  cut  to  pieces,  and 
suffered  severe  loss.  The  Lexington's  career  was  short,  but  glorious. 
The  same  year,  in  October,  and  near  the  spot  where  she  engaged  the 
Edward,  she  was  captured  by  the  frigate  Pearl.  During  the  night,  the 
Americans  overpowered  the  prize  crew,  and  took  the  brig  to  Baltimore, 
where  she  was  recommissioned,  and  sailed  thence,  March,  1777,  for 
Europe.  After  her  arrival,  cruising  in  company  with  the  Dolphin  and 
Reprisal,  she  was  chased  by  a  ship  of  the  line,  but  escaped  into  Mor- 
laix,  where  she  was  seized  and  detained  by  the  French  government 
until  September.  Immediately  after  her  release  she  sailed,  and  the 
next  day  surrendered  to  the  British  man-of-war  cutter  Alert,  after  an 
action  of  an  hour  and  a  lialf  and  a  hard  chase  of  four  hours,  having 
exj)ended  all  her  ammunition.  Conquered,  not  subdued,  and  unable 
to  return  her  opponent's  fire.  Captain  Johnson,  her  commander,  to  save 
the  lives  of  his  crew,  was  compelled  to  strike  her  colors. 

When  taken,  she  had  been  in  service  about  one  year  and  eight 
months.  She  was  the  first  vessel  that  bore  the  continental  flag  to 
victory  on  the  ocean,  and  in  her  short  career  had  fought  two  severe 
actions  under  it,  was  twice  taken  and  once  recaptured,  was  otherwise 
engaged  with  armed  vessels,  and  captured  several  prizes.  This  Lex- 
ington of  the  seas,  therefore,  occupies  the  position  in  our  naval  annals 

1  Cooper's  Naval  Hi.story. 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES.  243 

that  the  Lexington  from  whence  she  derived  her  name  does  from 
having  been  the  arena  of  the  first  conflict  of  the  colonies  with  England. 

A  correspondent  in  England  says :  "  An  American  privateer  was 
some  time  since  taken  by  one  of  our  frigates.  She  carried  the  conti- 
nental colors,  which  are  thirteen  red  and  white  strijDes  ;  but  it  was 
observed  that  this  privateer  had  but  twelve  stripes  in  his  colors. 
Being  asked  the  reason,  he  answered  that,  since  we  had  taken  New 
York,  the  Congress  had  a  province  less ;  and  that  whenever  they  lost  any 
of  the  provinces,  it  was  their  orders  to  cut  away  one  of  the  stripes  from 
their  colors,  so  that  there  should  be  no  more  stripes  than  provinces."  ^ 

It  has  been  suggested,  as  a  reason  that  a  flag  emblematic  of  the 
union  of  the  colonies  was  not  sooner  adopted,  the  adherence  of  Georgia 
was  required  to  complete  their  union.  On  the  6th  of  July,  1775, 
Georgia,  in  her  Provincial  Congress,  assented  to  all  measures  of  re- 
sistance, and  united  with  the  other  colonies  against  the  ministerial 
measures ;  but  the  flag  with  thirteen  stripes  was  not  hoisted  until 
January,  1776. 

It  is  not  the  province  of  this  work  to  follow  the  naval  events  of 
the  war  only  as  it  is  connected  with  the  history  of  the  flag  under  its 
several  phases,  and  to  show  where  and  when  it  first  made  its  mark 
upon  the  ocean. 

The  first  American  vessel  of  war  to  show  the  continental  flag  to 
the  European  world  was  the  Eeprisal,  Captain  Lambert  Wickes,  a  brig 
of  sixteen  guns.  She  sailed  from  home  soon  after  the  Declaration  of 
Independence. 

A  letter  from  St.  Eustatia,  dated  "  July  27,  1776,"  mentions  her 
arrival  there,  after  an  engagement  with  the  Shark,  sloop  of  war,  of  equal 
force,  and  that  "  the  colors  which  the  American  showed  were  a  field 
white  and  yellow,  with  thirteen  stripes."  ^ 

She  arrived  at  Philadelphia,  September  17,  with  Dr.  Franklin  on 
board  as  a  passenger,  and  appeared  in  France  in  the  autumn  of  1776, 
bringing  in  several  prizes.  The  prizes  were  ordered  to  quit  France 
without  delay,  and  the  Eeprisal  and  the  Lexington  were  detained 
until  security  was  given  that  they  would  quit  the  European  seas. 
When  released,  the  Reprisal  sailed  for  America,  and  foundered  on  the 
banks  of  Newfoundland,  when  all  on  board  perished,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  cook. 

Aug.  16,  1776,  the  Marine  Committee  directed  Captains  Jones  and 
Hallock,  of  the  continental  ships  Hornet  and  Providence,  to  watch  for 

1  Low's  Astrouomical  Diaiy,  1777. 

2  American  Archives,  5tli  series,  vol.  i.  p.  610. 


244  ni;i(;iN    AND   I'liUliKLSS   ul'   TlIK 

the  arrival  uf  tlu'  sltuip  Queen  of  llun^'ary,  liriiiuiiig  arms  ami  ammuni- 
tion tinm  Martinico,  whose  Hag  was  six  black  bars  and  six  yellow  liars. 

In  a  little  work  published  at  Leipsic,  entitled  'The  Historic  (Jene- 
alo<'ical  Calendar  or  Chronicle  of  the  most  Memorable  Transactions  in 
the  New  World,'  for  1784,  copies  of  which  are  in  the  IMercantile  and 
Historical  Society  Library  of  New  York  City,  there  is  a  colored  rep- 
resentation of  "the  flag  and  pendant  of  the  thirteen  United  States 
of  North  America."  The  flag  bears  on  its  field  thirteen  horizontal 
stripes,  red,  blue,  and  white,  and  a  canton  extending  over  tlie  first  six 
stripes,  charged  with  thirteen  white  star.s,  arranged  three  and  two. 
The  narrow  pendant  corresponding,  consists  of  three  stripes,  red,  lilue, 
and  white,  forked  red  and  white  at  the  end,  and  has  a  blue  chief 
charged  with  thirteen  white  stars  next  the  staff,  similarly  arranged ; 
but  between  this  chief  and  the  three  horizontal  stripes  are  thirteen 
short  perpendicular  stripes,  red,  blue,  and  white. 

The  first  vessel  to  obtain  a  salute  for  the  continental  flag  from  a 
foreign  power  was  the  brig  Andrea  Doria,  Captain  Robinson.  This 
little  brig  was  purchased  prior  to  the  resolution  of  Dec.  22,  1775, 
and  had  done  some  active  cruising  under  the  command  of  Nicholas 
Biddle.  She  sailed  from  Philadelphia,  September,  1776,  and  pro- 
ceeded at  once  to  St.  Eustatia  to  procure  arms.  On  her  arrival  at 
that  port,  Nov.  16,  1776,  she  saluted  the  Dutch  flag,  and  her  salute 
was  returned  by  the  governor,  who  was  subsequently  removed  from 
office  for  his  indiscretion.^  A  letter  to  the  Maryland  Council  of 
Safety,  dated  St.  Eustatia,  Nov.  19,  1776,  says,  "  Captain  Robertson,  of 
the  continental  brig  Andrea  Doria,  arrived  here  three  days  ago,  and 
saluted  the  fort  with  eleven  guns.  The  salute  was  returned  by  the 
fort  with  18-pounders,  and  the  captain  most  graciously  received  by 
his  Honor  the  Governor  and  all  ranks  of  people."  "All  American 
vessels  here  now  wear  the  Congress  colors."  ^ 

On  her  return,  the  Andrea  Doria  captured  the  Race  Horse,  of 
twelve  guns,  a  vessel  of  about  her  own  force,  and  arrived  at  Philadel- 
phia with  her  prize.  When  the  evacuation  of  Fort  Mifflin  gave  com- 
mand of  the  Delaware  to  the  British,  both  these  vessels  were  burnt,  to 
prevent  their  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 

1  In  1876,  a  pamphlet  was  published  in  Concord,  N.  H.,  entitled  '  The  Stars  and 
Stiipes:  The  Flag  of  the  United  States  of  America, —When,  where,  and  by  whom 
was  it  first  saluted  ? '  in  which  the  writer  proves  the  fact  of  tliis  salute,  and  considers 
it  a  salute  to  the  stai-s  and  stripes !  Of  course  he  is  mistaken,  as  the  stars  were  not 
added  to  the  stripes  until  June,  1777,  and  did  not  come  into  use  for  some  months 
later. 

2  American  Archives,  vol.  ii.  5th  scries,  p.  760. 


FLAG   OF   THE    UNITED    STATES.  245 

In  August,  1777,  the  General  Mifflin,  commanded  l3y  Captain  Wil- 
liam McXeil,  and  wearing  the  '  continental  colors,'  was  saluted  at  Brest, 
much  to  the  indignation  of  the  British  ambassador.  This  is  the  second 
salute  to  the  continental  striped  flag  of  which  we  have  any  account.^ 

On  the  29th  of  October,  1776,  the  Continental  Congress  passed  the 
following  resolve,  though  it  does  not  appear  upon  its  journals  that 
to  that  time,  or  for  several  months  later,  there  was  any  legisla-tion 
establishing  a  national  flag :  ^  — 

''Resolved,  That  no  private  ship  or  vessel  of  war,  merchant  ship,  or 
other  vessel,  belonging  to  the  subjects  of  these  States,  be  permitted  to 
wear  pendants  when  in  company  with  continental  ships  or  vessels  of 
war,  without  leave  from  the  commanding  officer  thereof.  That  if  any 
merchant  ship  or  vessel  shall  wear  pendants  in  company  with  conti- 
nental ships  or  vessels  of  war  without  leave  from  the  commander 
thereof,  such  commander  be  authorized  to  take  away  the  pendant 
from  the  offender.  That  if  private  ships  or  vessels  of  war  refuse  to 
pay  the  respect  due  the  continental  ships  or  vessels  of  war,  the  captain 
or  commander  refusing  shall  lose  his  commission." 

This  law,  says  Cooper,  in  his  '  Naval  History,'  who  dates  it  a  year 
earlier  (1775),  "  was  framed  in  a  proper  spirit,  and  manifested  an  in- 
tention to  cause  the  authorized  agents  of  the  government  on  the  high 
seas  to  be  properly  respected.  It  excites  a  smile,  however,  that 'the 
whole  marine  of  the  country  consisted  at  that  time  of  two  small  ves- 
sels, that  were  not  yet  equipped."  ^  He  might  have  added,  and  before 
any  national  flag  had  l^y  legal  enactment,  so  far  as  the  journals  of 
Congress  show,  been  prescribed.  The  official  origin  of  the  grand 
union  striped  flag  at  Cambridge,  and  the  striped  flags  worn  by  the 
fleet  of  Commodore  Hopkins,  is  involved  in  obscurity.  It  is  sin- 
gular that  no  mention  of  their  official  establishment  can  be  found  in 
the  private  diaries  of  the  times,  the  official  or  private  correspondence 
since  made  public  of  the  prominent  actors  of  the  Revolution,  the 
newspapers  of  the  times,  or  the  journals  of  the  Provincial  and  Conti- 
nental Congresses.      We  only  know,  from    unimpeached   testimony, 

1  In  1863,  the  Confederate  (rebel)  cruiser  Florida  received  a  return  salute  from  the 
English  authorities  at  Bermuda,  but  we  do  not  learn  that  the  governor  was  removed  for 
his  indiscretion. 

2  Journal  of  Congress,  Tuesday,  Oct.  29,  1776,  vol.  i.  p.  531  (edition  of  Way  & 
Gideon,  Washington,  1823). 

••  The  list  of  vessels  belonging  to  the  United  States  Navy,  October,  1776,  the  date  of 
the  resolve  given  by  Cooper,  was  :  Thirteen  vessels  of  from  32  to  28  guns  building,  and 
thirteen  vessels  in  service  ;  viz..  One  of  24,  one  of  20,  two  of  16,  three  of  14,  one  of  12, 
two  of  10,  and  three  smaller,  —  814  guns.  At  the  same  time  (Oct.  10,  1776),  a  resolution 
passed  Congiess  defining  the  relative  rank  of  the  twenty-four  captains  then  in  the  navy. 
Cooper's  Naval  History,  1856  ed.,  pp.  57,  58. 


246 


DKICIX    ANK    I'KnCKI.SS    ()V    'IMIK 


tliat  thei*e  was  a  striped  conLinentul  Hag,  representing  tlic  majesty 
and  authority  of  the  thirteen  United  Colonies. 

Flags  with  dillerent  devices  and  mottoes  continued,  however,  to  ]n\ 
used  l)y  troojis  in  the  field. 

At  the  l)attle  ol"  Long  Island,  Aug.  liO,  177<»,  the  Hessian  regiment 
of  Uahl  saw  a  troop  of  some  fifty  Americans  liastening  towards  them 
Avith  living  colors.  K'ald  (•(•mmanded  to  give  lire.  Tlic  Americans, 
wilt)  had  lost  tlieir  way,  or  had  been  cut  off  from  their  countrymen, 
surrendered,  begged  for  quarter,  and  laid  down  their  arms.  An  under 
officer,  leaping  forward,  took  away  the  colors.  He  was  about  to  present 
them  to  Colonel  Kahl,  when  General  Von  Merl)ach  arrived,  and  was 
about  snatching  the  colors  from  the  under  officer's  hands,  when  Ifahl 
said,  in  a  tone  of  vexation, "  By  no  means.  General;  my  grenadiers  have 
taken  those  colors,  they  shall  keep  them,  and  I  shall  not  permit  any 
one  to  take  them  away."  A  short  altercation  now  took  place  between 
them,  and  they  separated  in  an  angry  mood,  but  the  colors  remained 
for  the  present  with  Eahl's  regiment.  The  captured  colors  were  of 
red  damask,  with  the  motto,  "  Liberty."  The  Americans  took  their 
stand  at  the  head  of  the  regiment  llahl,  with  arms  reversed,  carry- 
ing their  hats  under  their  arms,  and  fell  u]>on 
their  knees,  earnestly  entreating  that  their 
lives  might  be  spared.^ 

I  have  an  engraving  of  Mhat  purports  to 
be  the  battle  of  Wliite  Plains,  Oct.  28,  1776, 
which  seems  to  represent  the  scene  above  de- 
scribed, the  Americans  carrying  a  flag  of  which 
the  annexed  is  a  fac-simile. 

That  a  national  flag  other  than  the  striped 
continental  was  not  provided  until  some  time 
after  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  is  to 
me  certain.  William  Eichards,  writing  to  the 
Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Safety,  Aug.  19, 
1776,  says,  "I  hope  you  have  agreed  what 
sort  of  colors  I  am  to  have  made  for  the  galleys,  &c.,  as  they  are  much 
wanted  ;  "  and  again,  Oct.  15,  1776,  "  The  commodore  was  with  me  this 
morning,  and  says  the  fleet  has  not  any  colors  to  hoist  if  they  should 
be  called  on  duty.  It  is  not  in  my  powder  to  get  them  until  there  is  a 
design  fixed  on  to  make  the  colors  by."  '^ 

A  letter  dated  Newport,  Oct.  21,  1776,  says,  on  the  authority  of 

1  Hessian  account  of  the  battle  of  Long  Island.     Memoiis  of  Long  Island  Historical 
Society,  vol.  ii.  pp.  434,  435. 

2  Pennsylvania  Archives,  vol.  v.  pp.  17,  46. 


American  Flag 
From  an  old  English  engraving 
of  the  Battle  of  White  Plains 
Oct.  28,  1776. 


FLAG   OF    THE    UNITED   STATES.  247 

a  Captain  Vickery,  just  arrived  from  the  West  Indies :  "  No  vessel 
is  suffered  to  wear  English  colors  in  any  French  port,  but  continental 
colors  are  displayed  every  Sunday,  and  much  admired."  ^  A  letter 
dated  "Southampton,  England,  Nov.  11,  1776,"  says,  "that  the  brig 
Kingston,  Captain  Eeveness,  this  day  arrived  fourteen  days  from 
Oporto,  and  brought  advice  of  sixteen  American  privateers  at  Bilboa 
and  four  at  Ferrol,  Spain,  and  that  "  their  colors  are  a  red  field  with 
thirteen  stripes  where  our  union  is  placed,  denoting  the  united  rebel- 
lious colonies."  ^  This  would  show  that  the  flags  were  red,  with  thir- 
teen stripes  in  a  union  where  we  now  have  stars. 

Boston,  Dec.  5,  1776.  Captain  Barbeoc,  in  a  vessel  belonging  to 
Newburyport,  has  arrived  at  Squam  from  Bilboa,  in  thirty-three  days. 
With  him  came  passenger  Mr.  George  Cabot,  of  Beverley,  merchant, 
who  informs  that  the  Spanish  and  French  ports  are  open  to  our 
cruisers,  and  that  they  permit  American  vessels  to  carry  the  American 
flag  in  their  ports. 

In  the  preceding  pages  we  have  established  that  the  earliest  flags 
planted  on  the  shores  of  North  America,  of  which  there  is  any  record, 
were  those  of  England ;  that  during  the  colonial  and  provincial  pe- 
riods they  were  continued  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlements,  with  the 
addition  of  various  devices  and  mottoes,  to  the  time  of  the  grand 
union  flag  raising  at  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  Jan.  2,  1776,  when 
the  long-established  and  well-known  red  ensign  of  England,  bearing 
in  its  union  the  crosses  of  St.  George  and  St.  AndreM^,  was  striped 
in  its  field  with  thirteen  alternate  red  and  white  stripes,  emblematic 
of  the  union  of  the  thirteen  colonies  against  the  oppressive  acts  of 
the  ministerial  government  of  the  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain,  whose 
symbol  they  nevertheless  retained.  We  now  have  arrived  at  the 
period  when  this  last  symbol  of  loyalty  was  abandoned,  and  the 
striped  union  flag  of  the  colonies  received  added  beauty  and  new 
significance  by  the  erasure  of  the  blended  crosses  of  St.  George  and 
St.  Andrew,  and  showing  in  their  place  a  canopy  of  white  stars  on  a 
blue  field,  representing  a  new  constellation  in  the  western  political 
heavens,  an  entire  separation  of  the  colonies  from  Great  Britain,  and 
the  advent  among  nations  of  a  new  power,  which,  by  its  Declaration 
a  few  months  previous,  had  solemnly  proclaimed  a  free  and  indepen- 
dent State,  under  the  name  of  The  United  States  of  America. 

1  American  Archives,  5th  series,  vol.  i.  p.  173. 

2  American  Archives,  5th  series,  vol.  iii.  j).  637. 


THE     STARS    and      STRIPES.    1777-1878. 


PROPOSED     STANDARD 
1818 


t-r----==="''!*"i|lliiliiillli^^ 

tH* ;??--  i.  ^■lii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

^fc^^Miiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiw^ 

liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilliiiiiiiiiiii 

liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiwiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

1818 

1847 

30    srAnS         /J    STHIPLS 


1878 

J»      iTAHS         13    STRIPES 


PAET   III. 

THE   STARS  AND   STRIPES. 

A.D.  1775-1818. 


THEOEIES  AS  TO  THE   ORIGIN    OF   THE    STARS   AND   STRIPES 
AS  THE   DEVICES   OF   OUR   NATIONAL   BANNER. 

1774-1777. 

THE  THIRTEEN  STARS  AND  THIRTEEN   STRIPES  DURING 
THE  REVOLUTION. 

1777-1783. 

THE   FLAG  OF  THIRTEEN   STARS  AND   THIRTEEN    STRIPES. 

1783-1795. 

THE  FLAG  OF  FIFTEEN   STARS  AND  FIFTEEN   STRIPES. 

1795-1818. 


"Tlnm  hast  ffivon  a  ))!UUK'r  to  tlu'iii  that  fear  tluf,  that  it  may  l>i-  ilisplaycil  because 
of  the  tmth."  —  PsaliiLs  l.\.  4.  . 

"As  at  the  early  dawn  the  stars  sliiiic  forth  even  wliiU-  it  gmws  lij^lit,  ami  then,  us 
the  sun  atlvumes,  that  light  hreaks  into  banks  ami  streaming  lines  of  color,  the  glowing 
nnl  ami  intense  white  striving  together  and  ribbing  the  horizon  with  bars  effulgent.  So 
on  the  American  flag,  st4irs  and  beams  of  many-colored  light  shine  out  together.  And 
where  this  Hag  comes,  and  men  Ix-hold  it,  they  see  in  its  .sarred  embla/.onry  no  ram|iing 
lions  and  no  fierce  eagle,  no  embattled  castles  or  insigiria  of  imi)eriul  authority  :  they 
see  the  symbols  of  light.  It  is  the  banner  of  dawn.  It  means  Lilirrly  ;  and  the  galley 
slave,  the  poor  oppressed  conscript,  the  down-trodden  creature  of  foreign  desiMitism,  sees 
in  the  American  Hag  that  very  promise  and  prediction  of  God  :  '  The  people  which  sat 
in  darkness  saw  a  great  light ;  and  to  them  which  .sat  in  the  region  and  sliadow  of  death 
light  is  sprung  up.' 

"In  1777,  witliin  a  few  days  of  one  year  after  tlic  Dcidaration  of  Independence,  the 
Congi'css  of  the  Colonies  in  the  Confederated  States  assembled  and  ordained  this  glorious 
national  flag  which  we  now  hold  and  defend,  and  advanced  it  lull  higli  before  God  and 
all  men  as  the  flag  of  liberty. 

"  It  was  no  lioliday  flag  gorgeously  emblazoned  for  gayety  or  vanity.  It  was  a  solemn 
national  signal.  "When  that  banner  first  unrolled  to  the  sun,  it  was  the  symbol  of  all 
those  holy  trutlis  and  puri)0ses  which  brought  together  the  Colonial  American  Congress  ! 
.  .  .  Our  flag  carries  American  ideas,  American  history,  and  American  feelings.  Begin- 
ning witli  the  Colonies,  and  coming  down  to  our  time,  in  its  sacred  heraldry,  in  its  glo- 
rious insignia,  it  has  gathered  and  stored  chiefly  this  supreme  idea  :  Divine  right  of 
liberty  in  man.  Every  color  means  liberty  ;  every  thread  means  liberty  ;  every  fonn  of 
star  and  beam  or  stripe  of  light  means  liberty  :  not  law-lessness,  not  license  ;  but  organ- 
ized institutional  liberty,  —  liberty  through  law,  and  laws  for  liberty  ! 

"  It  is  not  a  painted  rag.  It  is  a  whole  national  liistory.  It  is  the  Constitution.  It 
is  the  government.  It  is  the  free  people  that  stand  in  the  government  on  the  Constitu- 
tion."—  Henry  Ward  BeecJier's  Address  to  two  Comjianies  of  the  Brooklyn  Fourteenth 
Regiment,  1861.  ' 

"  Across  the  wide-spread  continent  our  father's  flag  we  bear  ; 
Each  hill  and  dale,  from  shore  to  shore,  the  sacred  sign  shall  wear, 
And  unseen  hands  shall  strengthen  ours,  to  hold  it  high  in  air, 
As  we  go  marching  on."  —  General  Dte. 

"  I  once  entered  a  house  in  old  Massachusetts,  where  over  its  doors  were  two  crossed 
swords.  One  was  the  sword  carried  by  the  grandfatlier  of  its  owner  on  the  field  of 
Bunker  Hill,  and  the  other  was  the  sword  carried  by  the  English  grandsire  of  the  wife, 
on  the  .same  field,  and  on  the  other  side  of  the  conflict.  Under  those  crossed  swords,  in 
the  restored  harmony  of  domestic  peace,  lived  a  happy  and  contented  and  free  family, 
under  light  of  our  republican  liberties.  (Applause. )  I  trust  the  time  is  not  far  distant 
when  under  the  cro.ssed  swords  and  the  locked  shields  of  Americans,  North  and  South, 
our  people  shall  sleep  in  peace  and  rise  in  libert}%  love,  and  harmony,  under  the  union  of 
our  flag  of  the  stars  and  stripes."  —  General  Garfield,  at  the  dedication  of  a  soldiers' 
monument  at  PainrsviUe,  Ohio,  July  3,  1880. 

"  When  the  rebellion  was  crushed,  the  heresy  of  secession,  in  every  form  and  in 
e\ery  incident,  went  down  forever.  It  is  a  thing  of  the  dead  past :  we  move  forward, 
not  backward."  — Letter  of  Gen.  W.  S.  Hancock  to  Tlieodorc  Cook,  Sept.  23,  1880. 


PART   III. 
THE   STARS  AND   STRIPES. 


THEOEIES  AS  TO  THE  OEIGIX  OF  THE  STAES  AND  STEIPES. 

1774-1777. 

"  Flag  of  the  free  heart's  hope  and  home  ! 

By  angel  hands  to  valor  given  ; 
Thy  stars  have  lit  the  welkin  dome, 

And  all  thy  hues  were  born  in  heaven. 
For  ever  float  that  standard  sheet ! 

Where  breathes  the  foe  but  falls  before  us, 
With  Freedom's  soil  beneath  our  feet 

And  Freedom's  banner  streaming  o'er  us  ?  "  —  Drake. 

The  earliest  suggestion  of  stars  as  a  device  for  an  American  ensign 
prior  to  their  adoption  in  1777  is  found  in  the  'Massachusetts  Spy' 
for  March  10,  1774,  in  a  song  written  for  the  anniversary  of  the 
Boston  Massacre  (March  5).  In  a  flight  of  poetic  fancy,  the  writer 
foretells  the  triumph  of  the  American  ensign  :  — 

"A  ray  of  bright  glory  now  beams  from  afar, 
The  American  ensign  now  sparkles  a  star 
Which  shall  shortly  flame  wide  through  the  skies." 

The  earliest  known  instance  of  the  thirteen  stripes  being  used 
upon  an  American  banner  is  found  upon  a  standard  presented  to  the 
Philadelphia  troop  of  Light  Horse  in  1775,  by  Captain  Abraham 
Markoe,  which  is  now  in  the  possession  of  that  troop,  and  displayed 
at  its  anniversary  dinners.^  As  General  Washington,  when  en  route 
to  take  command  of  the  army  at  Cambridge,  accomjianied  by  Generals 
Lee  and  Schuyler,  was  escorted  by  this  troop  of  Light  Horse  from 

1  I  had  a  dim  recollection  of  having  seen  a  lithograpli  of  this  standard,  many  years 
before,  but  I  am  indebted  to  my  indefatigable  friend,  John  A.  McAllister,  Esq.,  of  Phil- 
adelphia, in  a  letter  dated  Oct.  26, 1871,  for  my  knowledge  of  this  flag,  which  had  escaped 
the  notice  of  the  previous  historians  of  our  flag. 


252 


()i;i(;lN    .\M>    I'KixniKSS    OF   TIIK 


rhiladeli.hia,  June  21,  1775,  to  New  York.^  he  was  douV.tless  familinr 
with  the  si-ht  of  this  standard,  and  it  is  possil^e  that  it  may  liave 

suggested  to  him  the  strii)ed 
union  flag  he  raised  at  ("am- 
liiidge  six  months  later. 

The  first  Continental  Congress 
assembled  at   riiiladelphia,  Sep- 
tember, 1774  ;  and  on  the  17th  (tf 
November    twenty-eight   gentle- 
men of  the  highest  respectability 
and   fortunes  voluntarily  associ- 
ated, constituted  themselves  the 
I'hiladelphia     troop     of     Light 
Horse,     and     elected     Abraham 
Markoe  captain.     The   members 
staiuUiid  of  the  Philadelphia  Light  Horse,  1775.      equipped  tlicmselves  at  their  own 
expense      The  uniform  adopted  by  them  was  a  dark  brown  short- 
coat,  faced  and  lined  with  white;  high-topped  boots;  a  round  black 
hat  bound  with  silver  cord  and  a  buck's  tail.     Their  housmgs  were 
brown  edged  with  white,  with  the  letters  '  L.  H.'  worked  on  them. 
Their  arms  were  a  carbine,  a  pair  of  pistols  in  holsters,  and  a  horse- 
man's sword,  with  white  belts  for  the  sword  and  carbine.     Such  was 
the  appearance  of  the  troop  when  it  escorted  General  Washington  to 
New  York,  and  afterward  fought  under  this  standard  at  Trenton  and 

Princeton. 

1  Sparks's  Life  of  AVashington,  p.  143,  also  Bancroft'.s  History  of  the  United  States. 
"On  the  23(1  of  June,  the  day  after  Congi-ess  had  heard  the  first  rumors  of  the  battle  at 
Charlestown,  Washington  was  escorted  out  of  Philadelphia  by  the  Massachusetts  dele- 
gates and  many  others,  with  music,  officers  of  militia,  and  a  cavalcade  of  light  horse  in 
uniform.  On  Sunday,  the  25th,  aU  New  York  was  in  motion.  Washington,  accompanied 
by  Lee  and  Schuyler,  under  escort  of  the  Philadelphia  Light  Hoi-se,  was  known  to  have 
reached  Newark.  On  the  news  that  he  was  to  cross  the  Hudson,  bells  were  rung,  the 
militia  paraded  in  their  gayest  trim,  and  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  the  commander- 
in-chief,  dressed  in  a  uniform  of  blue,  was  received  at  Lispenard's  by  the  mass  of  m- 
ha])itan'ts.  Drawia  in  an  open  carriage  by  a  pair  of  white  horses,  he  was  escorted  into 
the  city  by  nine  companies  of  infantiy,  while  multitudes  of  all  ages  bent  their  eyes  on 
him  from  house-tops,  the  windows,  and  the  streets.  That  night  the  royal  governois 
Tryon,  landed  mthout  any  such  popular  T^^v^de."  -  Bancroft's  History  of  tlu  United 

"^Nov.  21,  1775,  Lady  Washington  was  escorted  from  Schuylkill  Ferry  into  the  city 
by  the  Light  Horse,"  kc.  . 

"Nov.  27,  1775,  Ladv  Wa.shington,  attended  by  a  troop  of  horse,  two  companies  ot 
Hght  infantrv!  &c..  left  Philadelphia  on  her  jouniey  to  the  camp  at  Cambridge."  —  Pr,.9- 
sagcs  from  tU  Diary  of  Christoplur  Marslmll,  vol.  i..  1774-77,  edited  by  William  Duane, 
pub.  Phila.,  1839. 


I 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  253 

Captain  Markoe  resigned  his  commission  late  in  1775,  an  edict  of 
Christian  VIII.,  king  of  Denmarl^,  forbidding  his  subjects  to  engage 
in  the  war  against  Great  Britain,  under  penalty  of  confiscation  of 
their  property.^  He  presented  this  standard  to  the  troop  before  his 
resignation,  and  it  was  their  first  standard ;  this  fixes  the  date  of  its  man- 
ufacture in  1775,  and  prior  to  the  union  flag  raising  at  Cambridge.  For 
this  reason  this  flag  is  considered  a  relic  of  priceless  value  by  the  troop. 
The  following  minute  description  of  this  interesting  Kevolutionary 
relic  is  furnished  by  Mr.  Charles  J.  Lukens,  of  Philadelphia :  ^  — 

"  The  flag  of  the  Light  Horse  of  Philadelphia  is  forty  inclies  long 
and  thirty-four  inches  broad.  Its  canton  is  twelve  and  one-half 
inches  long,  and  nine  and  one-half  inches  wide.  The  armorial 
achievement  in  its  centre  occupies  the  proportional  space  shown  in 
the  drawing ;  both  sides  of  the  flag  exhibit  the  same  attributes.  The 
left  side  shows  every  thing  as  if  the  material  were  transparent,  giving 
the  right  side  entirely  in  reverse,  except  the  ciphers  '  L.  H.,'  and  the 
motto,  "  For  these  we  strive."  The  ciphers,  the  running  vine  on  both 
sides,  the  cord  and  tassels,  and  the  fringe,  are  of  silver  bullion  twist. 
The  spear-head  and  the  upper  ferrule,  taken  together  eight  inches  in 
length,  are  of  solid  silver.  The  staff  is  of  dark  wood,  in  three  care- 
fully ferruled  divisions  screwing  together.  Ten  screw  rings  at  irregu- 
lar intervals,  from  two  and  one-half  to  three  and  three-fourths  inches, 
are  used  to  attach  the  flag  to  the  staff  by  means  of  a  cord  laced  through 
corresponding  eyelets  in  the  flag. 

"  The  flag  is  formed  of  two  sides  very  strongly  hemmed  together 
along  the  edges,  each  side  being  of  two  equal  pieces  attached  to- 
gether by  means  of  a  horizontal  seam, 
the  material  of  the  flag  being  a  light, 
bright  yellow  silk,  and  apparently  the 
same  tint  as  that  of  the  present  artil- 
lery flag  of  the  United  States.  The 
canton  of  the  flag  is  '  Barry  of  thirteen 
azure  and  argent'  The  azure  being 
deep  ultramarine,  the  argent  silver  leaf. 
The  achievement  in  the  centre  of  the 
flag  is :  Azure,  a  round  knot  of  three 
interlacings,  with  thirteen  divergent, 
wavy,  bellied,  double  foliated  ends  or,  whereof  two  ends  are  in  chief, 

1  By-Laws,  Muster  Roll,  and  Papers  of  the  First  Troop  of  the  Philadelphia  City  Cavalry, 
Philadelphia,  1856  ;  History  of  the  First  Troop,  1876.    The  edict  was  dated  Oct.  4,  1775. 

2  Letters  of  C.  J.  Lukens,  Kov.  6,  1871,  March  21,  1872,  &c.     Mr.  Lukens  says  the 


254  ()Kit;iN  AND  riKniUK.ss  OF   lui: 

and  one  iu  base  as  pur  inai-iu.     The  scvollea  edging  ..f  the  shield  is 
gold,  with  outer  and  inner  rims  of  silver. 

"  CirM  [without  a  wreath]  a  horse's  head  /'"//,  ^vith  a  white  star  on 
the  forehead,  erased  at  the  shoulders,  nianed  sable,  bitted  and  rosetted 
or,  and  bridled  ((zirrc.  Over  the  head  of  the  charger  is  the  monogram 
'L.  H.,'  for  Light  Horse,  though  it  has  been  suggested  these  letters  are 
the  monogram  of  Levi  Hollingswortli,  who  was  (quartermaster  of  the 
troop  at  the  battle  of  Trenton. 

"Ikmeath  the  shield,  the  motto,  'For  these  ire  drive ;^  in  black 
Eomau  capitals  of  the  Elizabethan  style,  on  a  floating  silver  scroll, 
upon  the  upcurled  ends  of  which  stand  the  supporters,  Dexter,  a 
continental  masquerading  as  an  American  Indian  (probably  of  the 
Boston  tea-party,  Dec.  16,  1773),  with  a  bow  or,  the  loosened  string 
blue  floating  on  the  wind,  in  his  left  hand,  and  in  his  right  a  gold 
rod  upholding  a  liberty  cap,^  with  tassel  azure,  the  lining  silcer,  head- 
first troop  have  always  prized  their  standard  very  highly,  but  never  suspected  its  vuluo 
iu  the  histoiy  of  the  stare  and  stripes.  Since  the  publication  of  the  fust  edition  of  tliLs 
work  the  flag  has  been  placed  between  two  plates  of  glass,  and  deposited  in  an  iron  tire- 
proof  safe,  built  expressly  for  its  reception  in  the  troop's  new  amiory. 

1  Evidently  referring  to  fame  and  liberty,  represented  by  the  supportera. 
■'  Many  pei-sons  entertain  a  belief  that  the  liberty  cap  was  first  used  in  modern  times 
as  an  emblem  of  freedom  by  the  French  in  1790.     That  this  was  not  the  case  is  proved 
by  its  being  one  of  the  devices  on  the  flag  of  the  PhUatlelphia 
Light  Horse,  and  by  the  following  resolve  :  — 

"  Phihidclphia,  August  Z\st,  1775.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,  held  this  day,  Resolved,  That  Owen  Biddle  pro- 
vide a  seal  for  the  use  of  the  board,  about  the  size  of  a  dollar,  with 
a  ccq)  of  liberty,  with  this  motto,  '  This  is  my  right,  and  I  will  dc- 
fold  it.'  " 
Tlie  rhrygian  Cap.  T}ie  liberty  cap  is  of  Phrygian  origin,  and  belongs  to  classical 

times.  It  was  gi-anted  to  freedmen  as  a  token  of  manumission  from  bondage.  The 
Sa.vons  of  England  used  it  as  their  ordinary  head-dress,  but  without  the  meaning  we 
attach  to  it.  It  was  on  American  coins  in  1783.  The  Bryges,  a  warlike  people  from 
the  southwest  shores  of  the  Euxine,  conquered  the  east  of  Asia  Minor,  which  they  called 
'Brifia,' — afterwards  changed  to  Phrycjia.  This  people  distinguished  themselves  from 
the  primitive  inhabitants  by  wearing  their  national  cap  as  a  sign  of  their  independence, 
and  it  was  stamped  on  their  coins.  The  Eomans  adopted  it,  and,  when  a  slave  was 
manumitted,  ])laced  a  small  red  cap  called  '  a  pileus '  on  his  head,  proclaimed  him  a 
ft-eedman,  and  registered  his  name  as  such.  WHien  Saturnius  took  the  capital  in  263, 
he  hoisted  a  cap  on  a  spear  to  indicate  that  all  slaves  who  joined  him  .should  be  free. 
When  Caesar  was  murdered,  the  conspirators  raised  a  Phiygian  cap  on  a  spear  as  a  token 
of  liberty.  The  Goddess  of  Liberty  on  the  Aventine  Mount  held  in  her  hand  a  cap,  the 
symbol  of  freedom.  In  France,  t"he  Jacobins  wore  a  red  cap.  In  England,  the  symbol  of 
liberty  is  a  blue  cap  with  a  white  border  ;  and  Britannia  is  represented  holding  such  a 
cap  on  the  end  of  a  spear.  The  American  cap  of  liberty  has  been  adopted  from  the 
British,  and  is  blue  with  a  white  border  or  bottom  on  which  are  thirteen  stars.  There  is 
no  positive  regulation  in  regard  to  it  beyond  its  shape  and  color,  so  far  as  America  is 
concerned. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  255 

dress  and  kilt  (or  ga-ka-ah)  of  feathers,  the  former  of  five  alternately 
of  dark  red  and  gold,  with  fillet  of  crimson.     The  latter  of  seven  al- 
ternately of  gold  and  of  dark  red.     This  may  be  of  eight,  and  then 
it  would  be  5  +  8  =  13,  alternately  of  dark  red  and  of  gold,  as  the 
gold  at  least  occupies  the  extreme  natural  right  of  the  kilt.     The  un- 
certainty arises  from  age,  and  the  fact  that  the  dependent  ends  of  a 
crimson  shoulder  sash  or  scarf  worn  from  left  to  right  with  knot  at 
the  waist  bound  the  left  edge  of  the  kilt,  which  itself  is  supported  by 
a  narrow  girdle,  with  pendent  loops  of  gold,  and  the  looped  spaces 
red.     The  quiver  is  of  gold,  supported  over  the  right  shoulder  by  a 
Hue  strap;  its  arrows  are  proper.      A  continental  officer's  crescent, 
gold,  suspended  around  the  neck  by  a  hhie  string,  rests  just  wliere  the 
clavicles  meet  the  sternum.     The  mocassins  are  Imff  with  feather  tops, 
I  think  alternated  dark  red  and  gold.     The  Indian  has  deep  black 
hair,  but  his  skin  is  intermediate  between  the  Caucasian  and  the  abo- 
riginal hues,  rather  inclining  to  the  former,  and  his  cheek  is  decidedly 
ruddy,  almost  rosy.     He  approaches  the  shield  in  profile,  as  does  also 
the  sinister  supporter,  which  represents  an  angel  of  florid  tint,  roseate 
clieek,  with  auburn  curly  hair,  and  blue  eyes,  blowing  a  golden  trumpet, 
with  his  right  hand,  and  holding  in  his  left  a  gold  rod:     His  wings  are 
a  light  Uuish  gray  with  changeable  flashes  of  silver.     His  flowing  robe 
from  the  right  shoulder  to  the  left  flank  is  purple.    These  supporters  not 
being  heraldic  in  position  and  motion  for  human  or  angelic  figures,  their 
left  and  right  action  have  the  natural  and  not  heraldic  significations. 

"  This  flag  is  in  admirable  condition,  considering  that  more  than  one 
hundred  years  have  elapsed  since  it  was  made.  The  whole  is  a  model 
of  good  taste  and  judgment,  and  evidences  that  Captain  Markoe  spared 
no  expense." 

The  presentation  is  not  found  chronicled  in  the  Philadelphia  papers 
of  the  time.i 

A  lithogi-aph  of  this  flag,  presenting  a  fair  idea  of  its  appearance, 
was  published  in  William  Huddy's  '  Military  Magazine,'  Philadelphia, 
1839.  The  picture  is  accompanied  by  some  spirited  lines  by  Andrew 
McMakin,  which  are  dedicated  to  it.^     A  fine  colored  representation 

1  The  '  GermantoATO  Telegraph,'  some  twenty  years  ago,  stated  that  the  old  flag  of  the 
first  troop  of  Philadelphia  county  cavalry  was  in  existence,  and  said  :  "  It  was  painted  in 
1774,  at  the  organization  of  the  corps,  and  is  believed  to  be  the  only  relic  now  e.xtant  of 
the  first  flag  adopted  by  the  colonies."  A  correspondent  of  the  'Philadelphia  Sunday 
Dispatch'  says  :  "The  newspapers  of  1774  contain  nothing  about  the  presentation  of 
this  flag,  nor  about  the  formation  of  the  troop  of  Light  Horse,  and  I  have  searched  the 
newspapers  of  1774  and  '75,  without  finding  any  mention  of  the  presentation." 

2  These  lines  were  given  in  full  in  tlie  first  edition  of  this  book. 


256  OKICIN    AM'    PKOLiKK.SS    OT     lllE 

of  the  flag  is  given  in  llic  '  L'untruiiial  History  nf  the  Troop;  pul.lislied 

in  1875. 

Ou  the  semi-centennial  anniversary  of  the  troop,  Nov.  17,  1824, 
this  hanner  was  displayed;  and  David  Paul  Brown,  when  called  upon 
fur  a  toast,  gave  inii»ronii)tu  :  — 

"Oi'R   IJanxku! 
For  tifty  yfurs,  at  fray  or  feast, 
O'erdi'adly  foe  or  gentle  guest, 

Triiiiiii>liautly  inifiirled  ! 
And  FIFTY  more  our  Hag  shall  wave 
In  memory  of  the  Good  aud  Brave 

Who  dignified  the  world, 
Aud  tyranny  and  time  defy 
In  freedom's  immortality." 

Mr.  Lukens  considered  this  flag  to  bear  intrinsic  evidence  of  hav- 
ing existed  before  the  invention  of  the  star-spangled  banner,  "  because 
it  has  no  stars  save  a  white  star  in  the  forehead  of  the  horse-head 
used  as  a  crest ;  it  also  symbolizes  the  thirteen  colonies  by  a  golden 
knot  of  thirteen  divergent  wavy,  floating,  foliated  ends  upon  a  blue 
sliield  ;  and  although  this  in  itself  is  a  very  beautiful  type  of  the 
United  Colonies,  it  never  would  have  been  selected  for  the  purpose 
by  anybody  after  the  invention  of  the  thirteen  stars  on  blue,  equiva- 
lent to  thirteen  stars  in  the  heavens ;  as  the  latter,  being  a  higher  and 
more  significant  symbol,  would  instantly  have  swayed  every  heart  in 
its  favor."  ^ 

Fortunately,  solving  all  doubts  as  to  the  early  date  of  this  standard, 
William  Camac,  a  great-grandson  of  Captain  IVIarkoe,  and  at  one  time 
a  lieutenant  of  the  City  Troop,  discovered  among  his  ancestor's  papers, 
in  November,  1874,  the  original  bills  for  designing  and  painting  it, 
and  has  presented  them  to  the  troop.  A  fac-simile  of  them  will  be 
found  on  the  following  page. 

The  first  bill,  it  will  be  observed,  is  for  a  pair  of  colors,  that  is,  both 
sides  of  the  standard,  which  were  made  separately  and  sewed  together ; 
and  includes  a  charge  for  a  '  union,'  that  is,  the  stripes,  showing  that 
it  was  not  an  after  addition,  as  has  been  suggested. 

Nothing  on  these  bills  fixes  the  precise  date  of  ordering  the  flag. 
The  bill  for  designing  is  dated  a  week  later  than  the  bill  for  painting, 
and  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  the  standard  was  completed  some  time 
before  tliese  bills  were  presented.     Georgia,  the  thirteenth  State  to 

1  Mr.  Lnkens's  lecture  on  'The  Heraldry  of  the  American  Flag,'  as  reported  in  the 
'  Philadelphia  Sunday  Dispatch.' 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES.  257 

join  the  confederacy,  assented  in  her  provincial  congress  to  all  the 
measures  of  resistance,  and  united  with  the  other  colonies  on  the 


-^^^O^^.z^       <^^.^^ 


^^#^/77.^~" 


>s:  ^, 


/m^m^z^E^^      /^^^^  ^^^.^.....c- 


'^ 


6th  of  July,  1775,  three  months  earlier,  though  her  delegates  did  not 
take  their  seats  in  Congress  until  September ;  and  the  thirteen  blue 
and  white  stripes  on  the  union  of  this  flag  may  have  symbolized  those 
events,  or  anticipated  them.  And  it  may  be  that  it  was  borne  by  the 
troop  when  it  accompanied  Washington,  June  21,  1775,  from  Phila- 
delphia to  New  York,  when,  being  a  new  flag  and  device,  it  would 
naturally  have  attracted  his  attention.  Colonel  Joseph  Eeed,  his 
military  secretary,  was  at  that  time  a  resident  of  Philadelphia,  and 
had  doubtless  opportunities  of  seeing  the  flag  carried  by  the  troop, 
and  he  may  have  suggested  the  stripes  to  Washington.  This  con- 
clusion is  strengthened  by  the  fact  that  he  was  secretary  of  the 
Committee  of  Conference  sent  by  Congress  to  arrange  with  General 
Washington  the  details  of  the  organization  of  the  army,  which  went 
into  being  Jan.  2,  1776,  and  Colonel  Pieed,  while  the  conmiittee  was 

1  James  Claypoole  was  a  painter  in  Pliiladelphia  as  early  as  1749.  He  died  in  Phila- 
delphia in  1784.  Nothing  is  known  of  John  Folwell.  —  Zf/siJory  of  the  First  Troop, 
Philadelphia  City  Cavalry,  1774-1874. 

17 


258  (iKK.IN     A\l>    i'KOUKL.SS    UF    I'llK 

ill  session,  had  the  suhjecl  ul'  a  Hajj;  under  consideration.  This  stand- 
ard was  larried  by  tlie  troop  on  all  important  jjarades  until  about 
1S:U),  when  its  condition,  owing  to  age  and  the  risk  of  its  exposure, 
prevented  its  use  in  service.  It  was,  however,  often  displayed  at  the 
anniversary  dinners. 

,\.s  from  its  increasing  age  the  standard  required  careful  preserva- 
tion, and  would  not  permit  of  its  being  handled,  in  1872,  immediately 
after  the  publication  of  the  first  edition  of  this  book,  in  which  atten- 
tion was  called  to  its  exceeding  value,  the  City  Troop  had  a  haJidsonie 
frame  and  case  made  for  its  safe-keeping.  The  frame  is  of  black  wal- 
nut, in  the  form  of  a  screen,  in  which  is  set  the  case  made  of  two 
plates  of  plate-glass,  between  which  the  flag  is  placed.  On  either 
side,  and  below  the  case,  in  one  face  of  the  frame,  are  attached  the 
tliree  sections  of  the  staff.  In  the  ornamental  head  of  the  same  is  a 
small  semicircular  opening,  faced  on  either  side  w^ith  glass,  which  con- 
tains the  spear-head  and  tassels.  In  the  construction  of  the  troop's 
new  armory,  in  1874,  a  fire-proof  safe  was  built  for  the  special  pur- 
pose of  containing  this  frame,  in  which  is  kept  the  original  bills,  since 
discovered.  On  the  17th  of  November,  1874,  at  the  centennial  anni- 
versary of  the  troop,  the  standard  was  displayed  to  the  assembled 
guests  in  its  new  and  safe  quarters.  A  fine,  large,  colored  illustration 
of  it  was  published  in  the  Centennial  History  of  the  troop,  in  1875.^ 

The  '  Pennsylvania  Magazine,'  vol.  i.,  1775,  has  for  frontispiece  two 
flags  crossed,  one  of  which,  it  has  been  asserted,  is  blazoned  with  the 
thirteen  stripes,  but  has  no  stars.  An  examination  of  the  engraving, 
however,  shows  that  both  flags  are  plain,  and  that  the  stripes  are  only 
a  shaded  representation  of  the  folds  of  the  flag.  The  same  magazine 
has  "  a  correct  view  of  the  battle  at  Charlestown,  June  17,  1775,"  in 
which  the  British  flag  is  plainly  to  be  seen,  but  no  other  flag  is 
visible. 

1  History  of  the  First  Troop,  City  Cavalry,  1774.  Nov.  17,  1874.  1  vol.  4to,  pp. 
150. 


FLAG  OF   THE  UNITED   STATES.  259 


THE  THIETEEX    STAES   AND    THIETEEN    STEIPES    DUEING 
THE  EEVOLUTION. 

1777-1783. 

"  Red,  white,  aud  blue,  wave  on  ; 
Never  may  sire  or  son 

Thy  glory  mar ; 
Sacred  to  liberty, 
Honored  on  land  and  sea, 
Unsoiled  for  ever  be 

Each  stripe  and  star." 

W.  P.  Tilckn. 

On  Saturday,  the  14th  of  June,  1777,  the  American  Congress 
"  Resolved,  That  the  flag  of  the  thirteen  United  States  be  thirteen 
stripes  alternate  red  and  wliite;  that  the  union  be  thirteen  stars, 
white  in  a  blue  field,  representing  a  new  constellation."  ^  Thus,  full 
fledged,  and  without  any  debate  or  previous  legislation,  our  flag 
was  flung  as  a  new  constellation  among  the  nations.  A  careful 
examination  of  the  Eough  and  Smooth  MS.  Journals  of  Congress 
in  the  Library  of  Congress,  and  of  the  files  of  the  original  drafts  of 
motions  made  in  the  Continental  Congress  in  the  Department  of 
State,  instituted  at  my  request  by  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  shows 
that  this  is  the  first  legislative  action  of  which  there  is  any  record 
for  the  establishment  of  a  national  flag  for  the  sovereign  United 
States  of  America,  declared  independent  July  4,  1776,^  nearly  a 
year  previous,  and  proclaims  the  official  birth  of  a  new  constellation 
as  the  symbol  of  their  union.  In  the  '  Eough  Journal '  the  resolve 
reads :  "  1777,  Saturday,  June  14.  .  .  .  Besolved,  That  the  flag  of 
the  United  States  of  ['of  changed  to  'by']  13  stripes,  alternate  red 

1  MS.  Journal  of  Congress,  copied  by  Charles  Thomson,  No.  2,  vol.  vi.  p.  1537,  also 
in  1823  ed.,  vol.  i.  p.  165  ;  Arnold's  History  of  Rhode  Island  ;  Hamilton's  History  of 
the  TJ.  S.  Flag ;  Sarmiento's  History  of  our  Flag  ;  Boston  Gazette,  Sept.  15,  1777,  &c. 

2  Professor  S.  F.  B.  Morse,  President  of  the  American  Academy  of  Design,  said  that, 
entering  the  studio  of  Benjamin  West,  long  after  the  death  of  his  patron  and  friend,  • 
George  III.,  he  found  him  copying  a  portrait  of  that  king.  As  he  sat  at  his  work  and 
talked,  accordnig  to  his  custom,  he  said  :  "This  picture  is  remarkable  for  one  circum- 
stance. The  king  was  sitting  to  me  when  a  messenger  brought  him  '  the  Declaration  of 
Independence.'  "  "  How  did  he  receive  the  news  ?  "  I  asked.  "  He  was  agitated  at 
first,"  replied  West,  "  then  sat  silent  and  thoughtful  ;  at  length  he  said,  '  Well,  if  they 
cannot  be  happy  under  my  government,  I  hope  they  may  not  change  it  for  a  worse.  I 
wish  them  no  ill.'  "  —  Dunlop's  History  of  the.  Arts  of  Design  in  America. 


L>GO  oKKiiN   A.M>  1'i;i»i;ki;ss  of    riii; 

ami  white  ;  that  tlio  uni(»n  Itc  IM  stars,  \vhitc  in  a  blue  field,  repre- 
si'iitiiijj;  a  new  constellation."  ^  This  resolve  was  printed  in  the  papers 
ill  August,  but  was  not  olficially  jinmiulgated  over  the  signature  of 
tiu-  Secretary  of  Congi-ess  at  riiiladelpliia  until  September  3,  and  at 
other  places  still  later.  An  oHicer  ol'  the  American  army  records  in 
his  diary,  untler  the  date  Aug.  3,  1777  :  "It  appears  by  the  papers 
that  Congress  resolved,  on  the  14th  of  June  last,  that  tlie  Hag  of  tlie 
thirteen  United  States  be  thirteen  stripes,  alternate  red  and  white  ;  that 
the  union  be  thirteen  stars,  white  on  a  blue  field,"  &c.^  This  tardy 
resolve  of  Congi-ess,  it  will  be  observed,  was  not  passed  until  eighteen 
months  after  the  union  flag  raising  at  Cambridge,  and  the  sailing 
of  the  first  American  fleet  from  Philadelphia,  under  continental 
colors,  —  nearly  a  year  after  the  declaration  of  the  entire  separation 
of  the  colonies  from  Great  Britain,  and  another  two  and  a  half 
months  were  allowed  to  elapse  before  it  was  promulgated  officially. 
Tliere  was  red  tape  in  those  early  days  as  well  as  now.  No  record 
of  the  discussions  which  must  have  preceded  the  adoption  of  the  stars 
and  stripes  has  been  preserved,  and  we  do  not  know  to  whom  we  are 
indebted  for  their  beautiful  and  soul-inspiring  devices.  It  does  not 
appear  from  the  record  whether  it  was  the  device  of  a  committee  or  of 
an  individual,  or  who  presented  the  resolve.  It  seems  probable,  how- 
ever, it  emanated  from  the  Marine  Committee,  if  not/rom  a  special  one, 
and  such  is  the  tradition.  There  are  many  theories  ^s  to  its  origin, 
but,  though  less  than  a  century  has  elapsed,  none  are  satisfactory. 

The  stripes,  as  already  stated,  some  have  supposed  to  have  been 
borrowed  from  the  Dutch  or  from  the  designating  stripes  on  the  coats 
of  the  continental  soldiers.  Both  stars  and  stripes,  others  have  con- 
sidered, were  suggested  by  the  arms  of  Washington,  which,  by  a  sin- 
gular coincidence,  contain  both.  The  arms  of  William,  Lord  Douglas, 
however,  also  bear  on  a  shield  argent  a  chief  azure,  a  heart  imperially 
crowned  proper,  and  three  mullets  (five-pointed  stars)  ardent.  The 
stars  and  shield,  it  will  be  observed,  of  the  Douglas  arms,  are  the  color 
of  our  union,  while  those  on  the  Washington  arms  are  not. 

"  The  Hodye  harte  in  the  Dowglas  annes 
Hys  standere  stood  oa  hye 
That  every  man  myght  fule  well  knowe; 
By  side  stode  starres  three."  ® 

1  Rough  MS.  Journal,  Xo.  1,  vol.  ix.  p.  243. 

2  Military  Journal  during  the  American  Eevolutionarj' War,  from  1775  to  1783,  by 
James  Thatcher,  M.D.,  late  Surgeon  in  the  Anicnia. 

3  Battle  of  Otterbume  (written  cir.  Henry  VI.). 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  261 

Had  any  banner  been  blazoned  with  the  coat  armor  of  Washington, 
it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  he  would  have  chosen  its  devices  for  the 
banner  of  his  own  Life  Guard ;  but  that  had  no  such  device.^ 

A  British  antiquarian  ^  supports  the  idea  that  Washington's  arms 
furnished  the  device  for  "  our  flag." 

"Like  Oliver  Cromwell,  the  American  patriot  was  fond  of  gene- 
alogy, and  corresponded  with  our  heralds  on  the  subject  of  his  own 
pedigree.^  Yes !  that  George  Washington,  who  gave  sanction  if  not 
birth  to  that  most  democratical  of  all  sentiments,  '  that  all  men  are 
free  and  equal,'  *  was,  as  the  phrase  goes,  a  gentleman  of  blood,  of 
ancient  time,  and  coat-armor,  nor  was  he  slow  to  acknowledge  the 
fact.^  When  the  Americans,  in  their  most  righteous  revolt  against 
the  tyranny  of  the  mother  country,  cast  about  for  an  ensign  with 
which  to  distinguish  themselves  from  their  English  oppressors,  what 
did  they  ultimately  adopt  ?  Why !  nothing  more  nor  less  than  a 
gentleman's  badge,  a  modification  of  the  old  English  coat  of  arms 
borne  by  their  leader  and  deliverer.  A  few  stars  had,  in  the  old 
chivabous  times,  distinguished  his  ancestors  from  their  compeers  in 
the  tournament  and  upon  the  battle-field ;  more  stars  and  additional 
stripes,  denoting  the  number  of  States  that  joined  in  the  struggle, 
now  became  the  standard  around  which  the  patriots  of  the  West 
so  successfully  rallied.  It  is  not  a  little  curious  that  the  poor 
worn-out  ray  of  feudalism,  as  so  many  would  count  it,  should  have 
expanded  into  the  bright  and  ample  banner  that  now  waves  from 
every  sea." 

The  assumption  of  this  writer  finds  denial  in  this,  —  that  Washing- 
ton, in  his  correspondence  or  writings,  has  not  mentioned  any  con- 
nection of  his  arms  with  our  flag,  as  he  would  have  been  likely  to 
have  done  had  there  been  any,  for  he  would  certainly  have  been  proud 

1  See  illustration,  p.  10.  2  Lowes.  3  j^Tq^  mjtil  1792. 

*  He  gives  to  Washington  credit  due  to  Jefferson,  who  wrote  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence, in  which  all  men  are  declared  to  be  created  equal ;  or  rather  to  Hon.  George 
Mason,  of  Virginia,  who  wrote,  May,  1776,  "that  all  men  are  created  equally  free  and 
independent,"  the  commencing  words  of  the  Declaration  of  Rights,  on  a  copy  of  which  he 
indorsed,  "The  first  declaration  of  the  kind  in  America."  The  document  can  be  found 
in  Niles's  'American  Revolution.' 

^  Washington  to  Sir  Isaac  Heard,  "  Philadelphia,  May  2,  1792,"  in  answer  to  his 
queries  about  the  genealogy,  &c.,  of  the  Washington  family,  says  :  "This  is  a  subject  to 
which  I  confess  I  have  paid  very  little  attention."  "The  arms  enclosed  in  your  letter 
are  the  same  that  are  held  by  the  family  here." 

Mrs.  Lewis,  of  Woodlawn,  Va.,  has  the  little  robe  in  which  Washington  was  baptized. 
It  is  made  oi  white  silk  lined  with  red  (crimson)  silk,  and  trimmed  with  blue  ribbon,  our 
national  colors,  red,  white,  blue.  —  Lossing's  Hist.  Record,  March,  1872. 


2G2  oiiK.iN   AM)  i'i:<>(;ki:ss  nr   iiih 

(if  tlu'  connect  ion  ;  ami  tlu'iv  is  no  allusion  lo  i]\v  siilijt'cl  in  the  ]iu1>- 
lislit'd  ctdTi'siioiuk'nct'  oi'  his  conteni]»ur;irics. 

Mr.  Haven  lUvors  the  supposition  that  the  devices  of  our  ilag  were 
tiiken  from  the  arms  of  the  AVashington  family,  and  were  used  out  of 
respect  to  the  commander-in-chief.  He  thought,  also,  the  stars  on  the 
Washington  shield  might  be  of  Koman  origin.  "  Virgil  speaks  of  re- 
turning to  the  stars,  rcdirc  ad  ustra,  implying  a  home  of  jtcacc  ami  hap- 
piness ;  and  the  liomaus  worshipped  the  stars,  which  bore  the  name  of 
their  gods.  They  also  used  scourges,  producing  stripes  on  the  bodies 
of  those  they  punished."  From  these  symbolic  antecedents  we  m.ay, 
he  says,  "  derive  our  star-bearing  banner,  the  heaven-sent  ensign  of 
our  union,  freedom,  and  independence,  the  stripes  only  to  be  used  as 
a  scourge  to  our  enemies."  ^ 

A  correspondent  of  the  '  New  York  Inquirer '  beautifully  said : 
"  Every  nation  has  its  symbolic  ensign,  —  some  have  beasts,  some 
birds,  some  fishes,  some  reptiles,  in  their  banners.  Our  fathers  chose 
the  stars  and  stripes,  —  the  red  telling  of  the  blood  shed  by  them  for 
their  country ;  the  blue,  of  the  heavens  and  their  protection ;  and  the 
stars,  of  the  separate  States  embodied  in  one  nationality,  '  E  Fhurihus 
Uiiitm.' " 

Alfred  B.  Street,  alluding  to  our  flag  as  first  unfurled  at  the  sur- 
render of  Burgoyne,  says  :  — 

"  The  stars  of  the  new  flag  represent  a  constellation  of  States  rising 
in  the  West.  The  idea  was  taken  from  the  constellation  Lyra,  which 
in  the  hands  of  Orpheus  signified  harmony.  The  blue  of  the  field 
was  taken  from  the  edges  of  the  Covenanters'  banner  in  Scotland,^ 
significant  also  of  the  league  and  covenant  of  tlie  United  Colonies 
against  oppression,  and  involving  the  virtues  of  vigilance,  persever- 
ance, and  justice.  The  stars  were  disposed  in  a  circle,  symbolizing 
the  perpetuity  of  the  union ;  the  ring,  like  the  circling  serpent  of  the 
Egyptians,  signifying  eternity.  The  thirteen  stripes  showed  with  the 
stars  the  number  of  the  United  Colonies,  and  denoted  the  subordina- 
tion of  the  States  to  the  Union,  as  well  as  equality  among  themselves. 
The  whole  was  a  blending  of  the  various  flags,  previous  to  the  union 
flag,  — ^  the  red  flag  of  the  army  and  the  white  one  of  the  floating  bat- 
teries. The  red  color,  which  in  Roman  days  was  the  signal  of  defi- 
ance;' denotes  daring,  and  the  white  purity." 

1  Paper  read  before  the  New  Jersey  Historical  Society,  January,  1872. 

2  See  p.  139  for  description  of  the  Covenantei-s'  banner. 

^  Admii-al  Fan-agiit  used  the  old  Roman  signal  when  he  designated  two  red  lights  as 
a  signal  for  battle  previous  to  passing  the  forts  below  New  Orleans.     In  ancient  military 


I 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  263 

"  What  eloquence  do  the  stars  breathe  when  their  full  significance 
is  known !  a  new  constellation,  union,  perpetuity,  a  covenant  against 
oppression,  justice,  equality,  subordination,  courage,  and  purity." 

I  have  been  unable  to  find  that  his  poetic  and  fanciful  description 
is  supported  by  contemporaneous  proof,  or  that  it  was  ever  required 
the  stars  should  be  arranged  in  a  circle,  though  in  Trumbuirs  paint- 
ing of  the  '  Surrender  of  Burgoyne,'  and  Peale's  portrait  of  Washing- 
ton, the  stars  are  so  arranged  by  those  artists.  The  resolution  of  June 
14,  1777,  does  not  direct  as  to  their  arrangement  in  the  union.  It  does 
say,  however,  that  they  represent,  not  '  Lyra,'  or  any  known  heavenly 
cluster  of  stars,  but  '  a  new  constellation.'  The  idea  that  the  new 
constellation  was  a  representation  of  Lyra  is  advocated  in  Schuyler 
Hamilton's  '  History  of  the  Flag ; '  but  I  cannot  deem  the  evidence 
conclusive.  The  constellation  of  Lyra  is  a  symbol  of  harmony  and 
unity,  and  consists  of  the  required  number  of  stars  ;  but  to  represent 
it  in  the  union  of  a  flag  would  be  difficult  and  objectionable.  John 
Adams  is  said  to  have  pro^^osed  Lyra  as  the  emblem  of  union  ;  and 
when  John  Quincy  Adams  was  Secretary  of  State,  in  1820,  he  gave 
color  to  the  idea  by  removing  the  United  States  arms  from  the  United 
States  passports,  and  substituting  in  place  of  them  a  circle  of  thirteen 
stars,  surrounding  an  eagle  holding  in  his  beak  the  constellation  Lyra, 
and  the  motto,  "  Nunc  siclera  ducity 

Our  Eevolutionary  fathers,  wlien  originating  a  national  flag,  un- 
doubtedly met  witli  difficulty  in  finding  a  device  at  once  simple, 
tasteful,  inspiriting,  and  easily  manufactured.  The  number  of  States 
whose  unity  was  to  be  symbolized  was  a  stumbling-block.  The 
stripes  represented  them ;  but  what  could  be  found  to  replace  the 
crosses  emblematic  of  the  union  of  the  kingdoms  of  Scotland  and 
England,  whose  authority  they  had  renounced  ?  The  rattlesnake, 
which  had  been  used  for  a  time  as  a  symbol  of  the  necessity  of  union 
and  defiance,  ratlier  than  of  union  itself,  was  repulsive  to  many,  from 
being  akin  to  the  tempter  of  our  first  parents,  and  the  cause  of  their 
exj^ulsion  from  Paradise,  bearing  also  the  curse  of  the  Almighty. 

One  of  the  best  of  the  devices  suggested  for  a  union  was  a  circle  of 

history,  a  gilded  sliield  hung  out  of  the  admiral's  galley  was  a  signal  for  battle.  Some- 
times it  was  a  red  garment  or  banner.  During  the  elevation  of  this  signal,  the  fight  con- 
tinued, and  by  its  depression  or  inclination  to  the  right  or  left,  the  ships  were  directed 
how  to  attack  their  enemies  or  to  retreat  from  them.  In  matters  of  military  parade, 
probably  derived  from  this  ancient  custom,  it  is  usual  to  fix  a  red  flag,  called  a  '  signal- 
staff,'  somewhat  larger  than  a  camp  color,  to  point  out  the  spot  where  the  general  or  ofi3- 
cer  commanding  takes  his  station.  —  London  Encyclopedia,  vol.  x.x. 
A  red  flag  is  the  danger-signal  on  all  modern  railroads. 


2(j4  OKICIN    AND    I'KtM.KKSS    OF     I  111; 

tliirtrt'ii  iii;iil('(l  Imiids,  issuiug  IVoin  a  doutl,  and  j,Ta.sping  as  many- 
links  of  an  endless  chain.  An  instance  of 
ihis  device  exists  in  llic  \\i\<^  or  culnr  «.)f  a 
Xewltuiyport  conipjtny,  wliicli  was  on  exlii- 
liition  in  the  National  ^lusenm  in  I'liila- 
deljiliia,  in  1S7(».  It  had  the  addition  of  a 
pine-tiee  in  the  centre  ol'  the  siirn)unding 
liid<s.    . 

A  niaileil  hand  grasjiing  a  hnndle  of 
thirteen  arrows  had  been  a  device  for  pri- 
vateers ;  but  that  was  a  symbol  of  war  and 
defiance  rather  than  of  union.  A  round  knot  with  thirteen  floating 
ends  w'as  the  beautiful  device,  signifying  strength  in  union,  of  the 
standard  of  the  Philadelphia  Light  Horse.  A  checkered  union  of  blue 
and  white  or  blue  and  red  squares  might  have  answered,  but  the  odd 
number  of  the  colonies  prevented  that  or  any  similar  device.  Thir- 
teen terrestrial  objects,  such  as  eagles,  bears,  trees,  would  have  been 
absurd,  and  equally  so  would  have  been  thirteen  suns  or  moons ;  l)e- 
sides,  the  crescent  was  the  chosen  emblem  of  Mohammedanism,  and 
therefore  unfitted  to  represent  a  Christian  people.  Thirteen  crosses 
would  have  shocked  the  sentiments  of  a  portion  of  the  people,  who 
looked  upon  the  cross  as  an  emblem  of  popish  idolatry.  There  re- 
mained then  only  the  stars,  and  the  creation  of  a  new  constellation  to 
represent  the  birth  of  the  rising  republic.^  No  other  object,  heavenly 
or  terrestrial,  could  have  been  more  appropriate.     They  were  of  like 

1  An  English  writer,  a  few  years  later,  tluis  ridicules  the  fondness  of  the  American 
colonists  for  the  number  thirteen  :  — 

"  Thirteen  is  a  number  peculiarly  belonging  to  the  rebels.  A  party  of  naval  i)ris- 
onei-s  lately  returned  from  Jersey  say  that  the  rations  among  the  rebels  are  tliirteen  drieil 
clams  per  day  ;  that  the  titular  Lord  Stirling  takes  tliirteen  glasses  of  grog  every  morn- 
ing, has  thirteen  enormous  rum  bunches  on  his  uo.se,  and  that  (when  dulv  impregnated) 
lie  alwaj's  makes  thirteen  attempts  before  he  can  walk  ;  that  Mr.  \Vasliington  has  tliir- 
teen toes  to  his  feet  (the  extra  ones  having  grown  since  the  Declaration  of  Independence), 
and  the  same  number  of  teeth  in  each  jaw  ;  that  the  Sachem  Schuyler  has  a  topknot  of 
thirteen  stiff  hairs,  which  erect  themselves  on  the  crown  of  his  head  when  he  grows  mad  ; 
that  old  Putnam  had  tliirteen  pounds  of  his  posterior  bit  off  in  an  encounter  with  a  Con- 
necticut bear  ('twas  then  he  lost  the  balance  of  his  mind);  that  it  takes  thirteen  Congi-ess 
paper  dollars  to  equal  one  penny  sterling  ;  that  Polly  Wayne  was  just  thirteen  hours  in 
suWuing  Stony  Point,  and  as  many  seconds  in  leaving  it ;  that  a  well-organized  rebel 
household  has  thirteen  children,  all  of  whom  expect  to  be  generals  and  members  of  the 
high  and  mighty  Congress  of  the  '  tliirteen  united  States '  when  they  attain  thirteen 
years  ;  that  Mrs.  Washington  has  a  mottled  tomcat  (which  she  calls  in  a  compliincntaiy 
way  Hamilton)  with  thirteen  yellow  rings  around  his  tail,  and  that  his  flaunting  it  sug- 
gested to  the  Congi'ess  the  adoption  of  the  same  number  of  stripes  for  the  rebel  flag."  — 
Journal  of  Captain  Smytlie,  E.  A.,  Januaiy,  1780. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES. 


265 


form  and  size,  typifying  the  similarity  of  the  several  States,  and, 
grouped  in  a  constellation,  represented  their  unity. 

It  will  probably  never  be  known  who  designed  our  union  of  stars. 
The  records  of  Congress  being  silent  upon  the  subject,  and  there  being 
no  mention  or  suggestion  of  it  in  any  of  the  voluminous  correspondence 
or  diaries  of  the  time,  public  or  private,  which  have  been  published. 

It  has  been  asked  why  the  stars  on  our  banner  are  five-pointed, 
while  those  on  our  coins  are,  and  always  have  been,  six-pointed.  The 
answer  is,  that  the  designer  of  our  early  coins  followed  the  English, 
and  the  designer  of  our  flag  the  European,  custom.^  In  the  heraldic 
language  of  England,  the  star  has  six  points ;  in  the  heraldry  of  Hol- 
land, France,  and  Germany,  the  star  is  five-pointed. 

Mr.  William  J.  Canby,  in  1870,  read  before  the  Historical  Society  of 
Pennsylvania  a  paper  on  the  American  Flag,  in  which  he  claimed  that 

his  maternal  gi'andmother, 
Mrs.  John  Eoss,^  w^as  the 
maker  and  partial  designer 
of  the  first  flao;  combining 
the  stars  and  stripes.  The 
house  where  this  flag  was 
made  is  now  No.  239  Arch 
Street,  below  Third ;  it  is  a 
small  two-storied  and  attic 
tenement,  formerly  No. 
89,  and  was  occupied  by 
Mrs.  Ptoss  after  the  death 
of  her  first  husband.  The 
illustration  is  from  a  pho- 
tograph furnished  by  Mr. 
Canby. 

A  committee  of  Con- 
gress, he  asserts,  accompa- 
nied by  General  Washing- 
ton, in  June,  1776,^  called 
upon  Mrs.  Eoss,  who  was 


House  where  the  first  Stars  and  Strijies  are  said  to  Lave 
been  made. 


^  Editor  Historical  Magazine. 

-  Mrs.  Ross's  maiden  name  was  Griscom.  After  the  death  of  Mr.  Ross,  she  mar- 
ried, second,  Ashburn,  who  died  a  prisoner  of  war  in  the  Mill  Prison,  England  ;  and,  third, 
John  Claypole,  a  lineal  descendant  of  Oliver  Cromwell.  Mrs.  Ross's  first  husband  was 
the  nephew  of  Colonel  George  Ross,  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 

3  Washington  was  called  from  New  York  to  Philadelphia,  June,  1776,  to  advise  with 
Congress  on  the  state  of  afl'airs  just  previous  to  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  and  was 
absent  from  Xew  York  fifteen  days.  —  Sparls's  Washinyton,  p.  177. 


L'iKi  iiKK.IN    AM"    ri;n(;i;i;ss    t»r     I'llH 

an  uphulstoivr,  iiiul  cugu^uJ  licr  lu  make  the  Hag  i'unn  a  rough  draw- 
ing, whicli,  at  lier  suggestion,  was  redrawn  by  General  Washington  in 
pencil  in  her  ]»ack  parlor.  The  tlag  tin  is  designed  was  adopted  by 
<'ongress,  an<l  was,  acconling  to  Mr.  I'iiiiliy,  the  lirst  star-spangled 
banner  whicli  ever  lioated  ou  the  breeze. 

^Irs.  Eoss  received  the  employment  of  Hag-making  for  government, 
and  continued  in  it  for  many  years.  Three  of  ]\Irs.  lioss's  daughters 
were  living  when  Mr.  Canl>y  wrote  his  jtaper,  and  confirm  its  state- 
ments, founding  their  belief  u]»on  wliat  their  mother  had  told  them 
concerning  it.  A  niece.  Miss  Maigaret  Boggs,  then  living  atCierman- 
town,  aged  ninety-five,  was  al§o  cognizant  of  the  fact.  As  related  by 
them.  Colonel  George  lioss  and  (Jeneral  Washington  visited  Mrs. 
Ross  and  asked  her  to  make  the  flag.  She  said,  "  I  don't  know 
whether  I  can,  but  I'll  try ; "  and  directly  suggested  to  the  gentle- 
men that  the  design  was  wrong,  the  stars  being  six-cornered  and  not 
five-cornered  [pointed],  as  they  should  be.  This  was  altered,  and 
other  changes  made. 

Mr.  Canby,  in  a  letter  written  soon  after  reading  his  paper,  says :  ^ 
"It  is  not  tradition,  it  is  report  from  the  lips  of  the  principal  partici- 
pator in  the  transaction,  directly  told  not  to  one  or  two,  but  a  dozen 
or  more  living  witnesses,  of  whom  I  myself  am  one,  though  but  a 
little  boy  M'hen  I  heard  it.  I  was  eleven  years  old  when  Mrs.  Eoss 
died  in  our  house,  and  well  remember  her  telling  the  story.  My 
mother  and  two  of  her  sisters  are  living,  and  in  good  memory.  I 
have  the  narrative  from  the  lips  of  the  oldest  one  of  my  aunts,  now 
deceased,  reduced  to  writing  in  1857.  This  aunt,  Mrs.  Clarissa  Wil- 
son, succeeded  to  the  business,  and  continued  making  flags  for  the 
na^7^-ya^d  and  arsenals  and  for  the  mercantile  marine  for  many 
years,  until,  being  conscientious  on  the  subject  of  war,  she  gave  up 
the  government  business,  but  continued  the  mercantile  until  1857. 
Washington  was  a  frequent  visitor  at  my  grandmother's  house  before 
receiving  command  of  the  army.  She  embroidered  his  shirt  ruffles, 
and  did  many  other  things  for  him.  He  knew  her  skill  with  the 
needle.  Colonel  Eoss,  with  Eobert  Morris  and  General  Washington, 
called  upon  Mrs.  Eoss,  and  told  her  they  were  a  committee  of  Con- 
gress, and  wanted  her  to  make  tlie  flag  from  the  drawing,  a  rough  one, 
which,  upon  her  suggestions,  was  redrawn  by  General  Washington  in 
pencil  in  her  back  parlor.  This  was  prior  to  the  Declaration  of 
Independence.  I  fix  the  date  to  be  during  W^ashington's  visit  to 
Congress  from  Xew  York  in  June,  177G,  when  he  came  to  confer 

1  Letters  from  W.  J.  Canby,  March  29,  1870  ;  Nov.  9,  1871. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  267 

upon  the  affairs  of  the  army,  the  flag  being,  no  doubt,  one  of  these 
affairs."  ^ 

Mr.  Canby  contends  that  the  stars  and  stripes  were  in  common  if 
not  general  use  soon  after  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  nearly  a 
year  before  the  resolution  of  Congress  proclaiming  them  the  flag  of 
the  United  States  of  America ;  but  I  cannot  agree  with  him. 

He  finds  evidence  of  this  in  the  fact  that  regiments  were  allowed 
compensation  for  altering  their  colors  after  July  4,  1776,  and  that 
Indian  tribes  during  that  year  petitioned  Congress  for  a  flag  of  the 
United  States.  He  probably  refers  to  the  following,  which  is  dated 
eleven  days  earlier  than  the  resolve  giving  birth  to  the  new  constel- 
lation:  "Philadelphia,  June  3,  1777,  Colonial  Eecords,  vol.  xi.  p.  212. 
The  President  laid  before  the  council  three  strings  of  wampum,  which 
had  been  delivered  to  him  some  time  before  by  Thomas  Green,  a 
nominal  Indian  of  the  nation,  requesting  that  di..  flag  of  the,  United 
States  might  be  delivered  to  him  to  take  to  the  chiefs  of  the  nation,  to 
be  used  by  them  for  their  security  and  protection,  when  they  may 
have  occasion  to  visit  us  their  brethren,  and  that  his  Excellency  had 
referred  him  to  Congress  for  an  answer  to  his  request."  ^  He  also  re- 
gards as  evidence  the  statements  of  Miss  Montgomery,^  that  her 
father,  Captain  Hugh  jSIontgomery,  early  in  July,  1776,  hoisted  the 
stars  and  stripes.  Her  statement  is  that  Eobert  Morris,  in  the  winter 
of  1775,  chartered  the  brig  Nancy,  commanded  by  her  father,  who  was 
one  of  the  owners  of  the  brig.  In  March,  1776,  she  sailed  for  Porto 
Eico  under  Enclish  colors,  thence  to  other  "West  India  islands,  and 
finally  to  St.  Thomas,  where,  when  her  cargo  was  nearly  completed, 
information  was  received  that  independence  was  declared,  with  a  de- 
scription of  the  colors  adopted.  "  This  was  cheering  intelligence  to 
the  captain,  and  would  divest  him  of  acting  clandestinely.     Now  they 

^  A  ridiculous  pamphlet  lias  been  published  entitled  '  The  History  of  the  First 
United  States  Flag  and  the  Patriotism  of  Betsy  Koss,  the  immortal  heroine  that  origi- 
nated the  First  Flag  of  the  Union.  Dedicated  to  the  Ladies  of  the  United  States.  By 
Colonel  J.  Franklin  Reigart,  author  of  the  "  Life  of  Robert  Fulton. "  Harrisburg,  Pa. :  Lane 
S.  Hart,  Printer  and  Binder,  1878.'  It  is  a  handsome  4toof  twenty -five  pages,  illustrated 
\At\\  a  pretended  portrait  of  Mrs.  Betsy  Ross  (printed  in  colors)  making  the  first  flag, 
but  which  is  really  the  portrait  of  a  Quaker  lady  of  Lancaster,  now  living,  and  taken  from 
a  photograph !  His  facts  and  dates  and  assumptions  are  equally  unreliable.  Mr.  Canby 
repudiates  the  book,  and  says  it  does  not  correctly  present  the  modest  Quaker  lady  (his 
grandmother)  or  her  claim.     The  book  is  a  literary  curiosity. 

2  In  the  orderly  book  of  the  army  at  Williamsburg,  under  date  April  8,  1776,  the 
colonels  are  desired  to  provide  themselves  with  colors,  but  "  it  doeth  not  signify  of  what 
sort  they  are." 

3  Reminiscences  of  Wilmington,  in  Familiar  Village  Tales,  Ancient  and  New,  by 
Elizabeth  Montgomery,  pp.  176-179.     Philadelphia  :  T.  K.  Collins,  Jr.,  1851. 


268  oKiiiiN  AM)  I'K(k;i:i;ss  of    iiih 

could  show  their  true  colors.  The  matorial  was  at  once  procured,  and 
a  youujf  man  on  board  set  to  work  i)rivately  to  make  them."  He  was 
well  known  in  after  years  as  Cai)tain  Thomas  Alendenhall.  The  num- 
ber of  men  was  increased,  the  brii,'  armed  for  defence,  and  all  things 
put  in  order.  The  day  they  sailed,  the  captain  invited  the  governor 
and  his  suite,  with  twenty  other  gentlemen,  on  board  to  dine.  A 
sumptuous  dinner  was  cooked ;  and  a  sea-turtle  being  prepared,  gave 
it  the  usual  name  of  a  turtle  feast. 

"  As  the  custom-house  barges  approached  witli  the  company,  they 
were  ordered  to  lay  on  their  oars  while  a  salute  of  thirteen  guns  was 
fired.  Amid  this  firing  Mendenhall  was  ordered  to  haul  down  the 
English  Hag  and  hoist  the  first  American  stars  ever  seen  in  a  foreign 
port.^  Cheers  for  the  national  congress ;  cries  of  '  Down  with  the  lion, 
up  with  the  stars  and  stripes  1 '  were  shouted.  This  caused  great  ex- 
citement to  tlie  numberless  vessels  then  lying  in  tlie  harbor,  and  to 
the  distinguished  guests  was  a  most  animating  scene.  After  the  en- 
tertainment was  hurried  over,  they  returned  in  their  boats,  and  the 
brig  was  soon  under  full  sail."  Miss  Montgomery  then  naiTates  the 
Xancy's  approach  to  our  coast,  and  her  being  run  ashore  and  blown  up 
to  avoid  capture  by  a  British  fleet,  and  says,  "  One  tottering  mast,  with 
the  national  flag  flying,  seemed  only  left  to  guess  her  fate.  Still  a 
quantity  of  powder  and  merchandise  was  left  below,  and  it  was  re- 
solved, ere  she  was  abandoned,  to  prevent  these  stores  from  falling 
into  the  hands  of  the  enemy  by  blowing  her  up.  The  plan  was  ar- 
ranged so  that  the  men  could  have  time  to  leave,  and  the  captain  and 
four  hands  were  the  last  to  quit.  As  the  boat  distanced  the  wreck, 
one  man,  John  Hancock,  jumped  overboard,  as  he  said,  '  to  save  the 
beloved  banner  or  perish  in  the  attempt.'  His  movement  was  so 
sudden  that  no  chance  was  afforded  to  prevent  his  boldness,  and  they 
looked  on  with  terror  to  see  him  ascend  the  shivering  mast,  and  de- 
liberately unfasten  the  flag,  then  plunge  into  the  sea  and  bear  it  to  the 
shore."  The  enemy,  taking  this  act  as  a  signal  of  surrender,  hastened 
in  their  boats  "  to  take  possession  of  the  prize,  and  was  involved  in  the 
subsequent  explosion."  Miss  Montgomery's  narrative  proves,  if  any 
thing,  not  that  her  father  hoisted  the  stars  and  stripes,  but  the  conti- 
nental flag;  for  the  Nancy  was  blown  up  on  the  29th  of  June,  1776, 
five  days  before  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  and  before  a  draw- 
ing of  Mrs.  Ptoss's  flag,  in  accordance  with  Mr.  Canby's  theory, 
could  have  reached  her  in  the  West  Indies,  as  will  be  seen  by  the 

1  A  beautiful  mezzotinto  engraving  of  the  Nancy  flying  the  stars  and  stiipes  ( ! )  fur- 
nishes a  frontispiece  to  Miss  Montgomery's  *  Reminiscences.' 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  269 

following  statement  in  a  newspaper,  dated  "  Philadelphia,  June  29, 
1776.  The  brig  Nancy,  Captain  Montgomery,  of  six  3-pounders 
and  eleven  men,  from  St.  Croix  and  St.  Thomas,  for  this  port,  with 
three  hundred  and  eighty-six  barrels  of  gunpowder,  fifty  firelocks,  one 
hundred  and  one  hogsheads  of  rum,  and  sixty-two  hogsheads  of  sugar, 
&c.,  on  board,  in  the  morning  of  the  29th  of  June,  when  standing  for 
Cape  May,  discovered  six  sail  of  men-of-war,  tenders,  &c.,  making 
towards  him,  as  also  a  row-boat.  The  boat  and  tenders  he  soon  after 
engaged  and  beat  off,  stood  close  alongshore,  and  got  assistance  from 
Captains  Wickes  and  Barry,  when  it  was  agreed  to  run  the  brig  ashore, 
which  was  done ;  and,  under  favor  of  a  fog,  they  saved  two  hundred 
and  sixty-eight  barrels  of  powder,  fifty  arms,  and  some  dry-goods, 
when  the  fog  clearing  away,  Captain  Montgomery  discovered  the 
enemy's  ships  very  near  him,  and  five  boats  coming  to  board  the  brig, 
on  which  he  started  a  quantity  of  powder  in  the  cabin,  and  fifty 
pounds  in  the  mainsail,  in  the  folds  of  which  he  put  fire,  and  then 
quitted  her.  The  men-of-war's  boats  (some  say  two,  some  three) 
boarded  the  brig,  and  took  possession  of  her,  with  three  cheers ;  soon 
after  which  the  fire  took  the  desired  effect,  and  blew  the  pirates  forty 
or  fifty  yards  into  the  air  and  much  shattered  one  of  their  boats  under 
her  stern ;  eleven  dead  bodies  have  since  come  on  shore,  with  two 
gold-laced  hats  and  a  leg  with  a  garter.  From  the  number  of  limbs 
floating  and  driven  ashore,  it  is  supposed  thirty  or  forty  of  them  were 
destroyed  by  the  explosion.  A  number  of  people  from  on  board  our 
ships  of  war,  and  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  Cape  May,  mounted 
a  gun  on  shore,  with  which  they  kept  up  a  fire  at  the  barges,  which 
the  men-of-war,  &c.,  returned,  and  killed  ]\Ir.  Wickes,  third  lieutenant 
of  the  continental  ship  Eeprisal,  and  wounded  a  boy  in  the  thigh."  ^ 

Although  the  flag  of  thirteen  stripes  had  been  displayed  Jan.  2, 
1776,  the  following  order  shows  conclusively  that  no  common  flag  had 
been  adopted  for  the  continental  army  in  February :  ^  — 

"  Head-quakteks,  20th  February,  1776. 
^^ Parole,  'Manchester.'  Countersign,  ' Bojle.' 
"  As  it  is  necessary  that  every  regiment  should  be  furnished  with  colors, 
and  that  those  colors  bear  some  kind  of  similitude  to  the  regiment  to  which 
they  belong,  the  colonels,  with  their  respective  brigadiers  and  with  the 
quartermaster-general,  may  fix  upon  any  such  as  are  proper  and  can  be  pro- 
cured. There  must  he  for  each  regiment  the  standard  for  regimental  colors, 
and  colors  for  each  grand  division,  —  the  whole  to  he  small  and  light.     The 

1  American  Archives,  4th  series,  vol.  vi.  p.  11.32. 

2  See  note  ante,  p.  226,  letter  and  order  on  same  subject,  dated  May  28  and  31,  1776. 


270  oKicix    \M>  i'i:<i(;i;i:ss  ok  'iiik 


as 


iuiinl)er  uf  the  regiment  is  t..  \>r.  inaikcl  on  tlio  (;(.l<.rs,  and  sucli  motto 
the  colonels  may  choose,  in  lixing  upon  which  tlie  general  advisor  a  c(msul- 
tation  among  them.  The  colonels  are  to  delay  no  time  in  getting  the  matter 
fixed,  that  the  quartermaster-general  may  provide  the  colore  for  them  as  soon 
as  possible.  "(3o.  WAsniN(;T(jN." 

Washington's  tir.st  requi-sitiou  on  iirriving  in  camp  was  i'ur  une 
luindrod  axes,  and  bunting  for  colors.  At  the  battle  of  Long  Island, 
fought  August,  1776,  a  regimental  color  of  red  damask,  having  only 
the  word  '  Liberty'  on  the  field,  was  captured  by  the  liritish. 

On  the  24th  of  February,  1776,  the  Committee  of  Safety  at  Pliila- 
delphia  ordered  "  that  Captain  Proctor  procure  a  Hag-staff  for  the  fort, 
with  a  flag  of  the  United  Colonics"  ^  and  that  Commodore  Caldwell  and 
Captain  Proctor  fix  upon  proper  signals  for  the  fieet,  merchantmen, 
and  battery.  Under  date  Aug.  19,  1776,  Captain  WilHam  Eichards 
writes  to  tlie  Pennsylvania  Council  of  Safety  :  — 

"  Gentlemen,  I  hope  you  have  agreed  what  sort  of  color  I  am  to 
have  made  for  the  galleys,  &c.,  as  they  are  much  wanted ; "  and  under 
date  "  Oct  15,  1776 :  "  Gentlemen,  the  commodore  was  with  me  this 
morning,  and  says  the  fleet  has  not  any  colors  to  hoist  if  they  sliould 
be  called  to  duty.  It  is  not  in  my  power  to  get  them  done,  until  there 
is  a  design  to  make  the  colors  by."  ^ 

The  colors  he  asked  a  design  for  were  State  colors,  but  the  request 
shows  that  no  national  colors  had  been  adopted,  and  the  continental 
flag  was  still  in  use. 

The  first  colors  made  for  this  fleet,  of  which  there  is  record,  were 
made  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Koss,  as  is  shown  by  the  following,  extracted 
from  the  minutes  of  the  Navy  Board  :  — 

"State  Navy  Boaed,  May  29,  1777. 
"  Present :         William  Bradford,         Joseph  Marsh, 
Joseph  Blewer,  Paul  Cox. 

"An  order  on  William  Webb  to  EHzabeth  Ross  for  fourteen  pounds, 
twelve  shillings,  and  two  pence,  for  making  ship's  colours,  &c.,  put  into  Wil- 
liam Eichards  store.     £14.  12.  2."  ^ 

1  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Eecords,  vol.  x.  p.  494. 

2  Pennsylvania  Archives,  vol.  v.  pp.  13,  14. 

8  Pennsylvania  Archives,  1st  series,  vol.  v.  p.  46. 

Joseph  Webb  was  paid  by  the  Massachusetts  Board  of  War,  May  5,  1777,  "To 
mending  an  ensign  and  sewing  in  a  pine  tree,  6s. 

•,--y  State  of  Massachusetts  Bay  to  Jos.  Webb,  Dr. 

Aug.  20.     To  making  a  suit   Colours,   44s.;   thread,   12.s. ;    painting  Pine 

Trees,  &e.,  24s £4.  0.  0 

For  Brig  Freedom,  Capt.  Clouston. 

To  22  yards  narrow  "crimson  Bunting  added,  2s 2.4.0 

JOUX  CLOU.STOX.  £6.  4.  0 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  271 

When  the  Declaration  of  Independence  was  received  at  Easton, 
Penn.,  July  8,  the  colonel  and  all  the  other  field-officers  of  the  first 
battalion  repaired  to  the  court-house,  the  light  infantry  company 
inarching  there  with  their  drums  beating,  fifes  playing,  "and  the 
standard  (the  device  for  which  is  the  thirteen  United  Colonies),  which 
was  ordered  to  be  displayed."  ^ 

The  Declaration  was  read  in  New  York  in  the  presence  of  Wash- 
ington by  one  of  his  aids,  on  the  9th  of  July,  1776,  in  the  centre  of  a 
hollow  square  of  the  troops,  drawn  up  on  the  Park  near  where  there 
is  now  a  fountain,  and  the  "  grand  union  "  flag  of  Cambridge  was  then, 
if  it  had  not  been  earlier,  unfurled  in  New  York.  On  the  10th  the 
Declaration  was  read  at  the  head  of  the  several  brigades. 

On  the  9th  it  was  proclaimed  from  the  old  State  House  in  Phila- 
delphia, by  the  Committee  of  Safety,  and  the  king's  arms  were  taken 
from  the  court-house  and  committed  to  a  bonfire  in  front  of  it. 

Thursday,  July  18,  1776,  it  was  proclaimed  from  the  balcony  of 
the  State  House  in  Boston,  and  the  king's  arms  and  every  sign  of 
them  taken  down  and  burnt,  bells  rung,  &c. 

It  was  not  until  Sept.  9,  1776,  that  Congress  ordered  "all  conti- 
nental commissions  and  instruments  should  be  made  to  read  '  United 
States,'  where  heretofore  the  words  '  United  Colonies '  had  been  used." 

The  first  anniversary  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  July  4, 
1777,  was  celebrated  in  Philadelphia,  with  demonstrations  of  joy  and 
festivity.  About  noon,  all  the  armed  ships  and  galleys  in  the  river 
were  drawn  up  before  the  city,  dressed  in  the  gayest  manner,  with  the 
colors  of  the  United  States  and  streamers  flying.  At  one  o'clock,  the 
yards  being  manned,  they  celebrated  tlie  day  by  a  discharge  of  thir- 
teen cannon  from  each  ship,  and  one  from  each  of  the  thirteen  galleys, 
in  honor  of  the  thirteen  United  States.  In  the  afternoon,  an  elegant 
dinner  was  provided  by  Congress,  when  toasts  were  drank  and  feu-dc- 
joies  were  fired.  The  troops  were  reviewed  by  Congress  and  the 
General  Officers,  and  the  day  closed  with  the  ringing  of  bells  and 
exhibition  of  fireworks,  which  began  and  ended  with  thirteen  rockets. 
The  city  was  beautifully  illuminated.^ 

At  Charleston,  S.  C,  at  sunrise  the  same  day,  American  colors  were 
displayed  from  all  the  forts,  batteries,  and  vessels  in  the  harbor,^  and 
at  one  o'clock  the  forts  discharged  seventy-six  pieces,  alluding  to  the 
glorious  year  1776. 

1  Pennsylvania  Evening  Post,  July  11,  1776  ;  New  England  Chronicle,  vol.  viii.  No. 
414,  July  25,  1776. 

2  Pennsylvania  Journal,  July  9,  1777.  ^  Independent  Clironicle,  July  31,  1777. 


272  oniiiiN  AM>  i'i:()(.KEss  or  tiik 

Similar  rejoicinj,'s  uiul  displays  of  tlic  '  riiited  States'  colors  were 
had  all  over  the  couiitrv. 

The  portrait  o\'  Washington  at  the  battle  of  Trenton,  Dec.  2G-27, 
1776,  painted  by  Charles  Wilson  I'eale  in  1  77'.',  rejjresents  the  union 
jack,  with  the  thirteen  stars  arranj^^etl  in  a  circle;  hut  it  affords  only 
presumptive  prijof  that  such  a  Hag  was  carried.  ;Mr.  Teale's  son, 
Titian  R  Peale,  writing  a  friend  in  1870,  says:  "Whether  the 
union  jack  was  my  father's  design,  original  or  not,  I  cannot  say, 
but  1  suppose  it  was,  because  he  has  somewhat  marred  the  artistic 
effect  by  showing  the  stars,  and  flattening  the  field  to  show  their  ar- 
rangement ; "  and  in  another  letter  he  .says :  "  I  have  just  had  time  to 
visit  the  Smithsonian  Institution  to  see  the  portrait  of  Washington 
painted  by  my  father,  C.  W.  Peale,  after  the  battle  of  Trenton.  It  is 
marked  in  his  handwriting,  1770.  The  Hag  represented  is  a  blue  field 
with  white  stars  arranged  in  a  circle.  I  don't  know  that  I  ever  heard 
my  father  speak  of  that  flag,  but  the  trophies  at  Washington's  feet  I 
know  he  painted  from  the  flags  then  captured,  and  which  were  left 
with  him  for  the  purpose.  He  was  always  very  particular  in  matters 
of  historic  record  in  his  pictures  (the  service  sword  in  that  picture  is 
an  instance,  and  probably  caused  its  acceptance  by  Congress).  The 
blue  ribbon  has  also  excited  comment,  —  the  badge  of  a  field-marshal 
of  France  in  that  day.^  I  have  no  other  authority,  but  feel  assured 
that  flag  was  the  flag  of  our  army  at  the  time,  1779.^  My  father  com- 
manded a  company  at  the  battles  of  Germantown,  Trenton,  Princeton, 
and  Monmouth,  and  was  soldier  as  well  as  painter,  and,  I  am  sure, 
represented  the  flag  then  in  use,  not  a  regimental  flag,  but  one  to  mark 
the  new  republic."  ^ 

An  unfinished  sketch  of  the  battle  of  Princeton,  Jan.  3,  1777,  in 
the  Trumbull  Gallery  at  Xew  Haven,  represents  the 
American  Ha"  with  thirteen  white  stars  on  a  blue 
field,  arranged  as  in  the  diagram,  —  and  with  thirteen 
stripes,  red  and  av bite  alternately.  As  Colonel  Trum- 
bull was  in  active  service  until  February,  1777,  his 
representation  of  the  flag  carried  by  the  troops,  with 
which  he  must  have  been  familiar,  is  worthy  of  attention.^ 

Arthur  Lee,  one  of  our  commissioners  to  France,  writing  Henry 

^  Washington's  general  order,  July  24,  1775,  prescribes  a  hroad  jmrjjh  ribbon  as  the 
distinguishing  mark  of  a  major-general.     See  note,  ante,  p.  224. 

2  Possibly  in  1779  ;  but  in  December,  1776,  or  in  January,  1777,  the  stars  had  no 
place  on  our  flag.     See  ante,  p.  198. 

8  Letter  to  John  A.  McAllister,  1872. 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


273 


Laurens,  the  President  of  tlie  Continental  Congress,  Sept.  20,  1778,  a 
year  after  the  public  promulgation  of  the  law  of  June,  1777,  which 
prescribed  the  thirteen  stripes  to  be  red  and  white  alternately,  says  : 
"  The  ship's  colors  should  be  white,  red,  and  blue  alternately,  to  thir- 
teen, and  in  the  upper  angle  [canton]  next  the  staff  a  blue  field  with 
thirteen  white  stars." 

I  am  indebted  to  ]\Iiss  Sarah  Smith  Staflbrd  for  the  following  ac- 
count of  the  presentation  of  the  first  star-gemmed  banner  by  ladies 
of  Philadelphia  to  Paul  Jones.  This  story  she  received  from  Mrs. 
Patrick  Hayes,  who  had  it  from  her  aunt.  Miss  Sarah  Austin,  one  of 
the  donors.  Miss  Austin  became  later  the  second  wife  of  Commodore 
John  Barry,  U.  S.  N".  "The  patriotic  ladies  of  Philadelphia  met  at 
the  Swedes'  Church  in  that  city,  and  under  the  direction  of  John 


Swedes'  Churcli,  Philadelphia. 


Brown,  Esq.,  secretary  of  the  new  Board  of  Marine,  formed  or  arranged 
a  flag,  which  was  presented  to  Jones  by  Misses  Mary  and  Sarah  Aus- 
tin in  behalf  of  the  patriotic  ladies  of  Philadelphia.  Captain  Jones 
was  so  delighted  and  enthusiastic,  that  after  the  presentation  he  pro- 
cured a  small  boat,  and,  unfurling  the  flag,  sailed  up  and  down  the 
river  before  Philadelphia,  showing  it  to  thousands  on  shore."  ^ 

Paul  Jones  claimed  it  was  his  good  fortune  to  be  the  first  to  dis- 

1  Miss  Sarah  Sniith  Stafford,  Letter,  Jan.  15,  1873.  I  can  find  no  notice  of  this 
event  iu  the  church  records  or  in  the  newspapers  of  the  time,  and  the  fact,  if  fact  it  be, 
rests  on  the  statement  of  Miss  Stafford  and  her  informants. 

18 


274  OlilUIN    AM)    I'KUUliE.S.S    UF     TIIK 

]>l;iv  the  stars  and  stvi]»cs  on  a  naval  vessel,  as  it  had  been  his  to  hoist 
with  his  own  hand  the  "flag  of  America"  for  tlie  first  time  on  board 
the  Alfred.  He  also  claimed  to  have  obtained  and  received  for  our 
star-spangled  banner  the  first  salute  granted  to  it  in  Europe. 

The  day  that  Congress  passed  the  resolve  in  relation  to  the  Hag  of 
the  thirteen  United  States,  June  14, 1777,  it  also  "Resolved,  That  Paul 
Jones  be  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Ranger ; "  and  soon  after  lie 
hoisted  the  new  flag  on  board  of  that  vessel  at  Portsmouth.  The 
Eanger,  however,  did  not  get  to  sea  until  the  1st  of  November,  nearly 
five  months  later.  Her  battery  of  sixteen  G-j)ounders,  throwing  only 
forty-eight  pounds  of  shot  from  a  broadside  excites  a  smile  of  contempt 
in  these  days  of  heavy  guns ;  otherwise,  she  was  poorly  equipped. 
Among  her  deficiencies  Jones  laments  having  only  thirty  gallons  of 
rum  for  the  crew  to  drink  on  their  passage  to  Nantes.  He  also  rep- 
resented her  as  slow  and  crank,  but  nevertheless  managed  to  capture 
two  prizes  on  his  passage  to  Europe,  and  reached  Nantes  in  thirty 
days  from  Portsmouth,  N.  H. 

From  Nantes  Jones  sailed  to  Quiberon  Bay,  convoying  some  Amer- 
ican vessels,  and  placing  them  under  the  protection  and  convoy  of  the 
French  fleet  commanded  by  Admiral  La  Motte  Piquet.  From  him, 
after  some  coiTespondence,  Jones  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  first  sa- 
lute ever  paid  by  a  foreign  naval  power  to  the  stars  and  stripes.  The 
story  is  best  told  in  Jones's  letter  to  the  Naval  Committee,  dated  Feb. 
22,1778:  — 

"  I  am  happy,"  he  says,  "  to  have  it  in  my  power  to  congratulate  on 
my  having  seen  the  American  flag,  for  the  first  time,  recognized  in  the 
fullest  and  completest  manner  by  the  flag  of  France.  I  was  off  tliis 
bay  on  the  13th  inst.,  and  sent  my  boat  in  the  next  day  to  know  if 
the  admiral  would  return  my  salute.  He  answered  that  he  would 
return  to  me  as  the  senior  American  continental  officer  in  Europe  tlie 
same  salute  as  he  was  authorized  to  return  to  an  admiral  of  Holland 
or  any  other  republic,  which  was  four  guns  less  than  the  salute  given. 
I  hesitated  at  this,  for  I  had  demanded  gun  for  gun. 

"  Therefore  I  anchored  in  the  entrance  of  the  bay  at  a  distance 
from  the  French  fleet ;  but  after  a  very  particular  inquiry  on  the  14tli, 
finding  that  he  really  told  the  truth,  I  was  induced  to  accept  his  offer, 
the  more  as  it  was  an  achnouied gmcnt  of  Amcriean  Inde^jendence. 

"  The  wind  being  contrary  and  blowing  hard,  it  was  after  sunset 
before  the  Eanger  ^  was  near  enough  to  salute  La  Motte  Piquet  with 

^  Jones,  in  his  letter  to  the  American  commissioners  at  Paris,  dated  Brest,  May  27, 
1778,  mentions  that  in  the  action  between  tlie  Eanger  and  the  Drake  on  the  24th  of 


I 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES.  275 

thirteen  guns,  which  he  returned  with  nine.  How^ever,  to  put  the 
matter  beyond  a  doubt,  I  did  not  suffer  the  Independence  to  salute 
until  the  next  morning,  when  I  sent  word  to  the  admiral  that  I  would 
sail  through  his  fleet  in  the  brig,  and  would  salute  him  in  open  day. 
He  was  exceedingly  pleasant,  and  returned  the  compliment  also  with 
nine  guns."  ^ 

As  if  Providence  delighted  to  honor  Jones  over  all  others  in  con- 
nection with  our  flag,  and  was  determined  to  entwine  his  name  with 
its  early  history,  was  assigned  to  him  the  honorable  duty  of  displaying 
it  for  the  first  time  on  board  the  first  ship  of  the  line  built  for  the 
United  States,  and  fitly  named  '  The  America.' 

This  ship,  like  the  Eanger,  was  built  at  Portsmouth,  N.  H.,  and 
Jones  appointed  to  command  her.  Before  she  could  be  launched, 
the  Magnifique,  one  of  the  finest  ships  of  the  line  of  the  French  navy, 
was  stranded  near  Boston  harbor,  and  to  replace  her,  the  America, 
by  a  resolve  of  the  American  Congress,  was  presented  to  our  ally,  the 
sovereign  of  Prance.  Jones,  however,  was  retained  in  command,  and 
superintended  her  construction ;  and  on  the  5th  of  November,  1782,  dis- 
playing the  French  and  American  flags  from  her  stern,  he  launched  her 
into  the  waters  of  Portsmouth  harbor,  and  delivered  her  to  the  Chev- 
alier Martigne,  who  had  commanded  the  Magnifique.  It  seems  prob- 
able that  Jones  hoisted  the  stars  and  stripes  over  her  the  preceding- 
summer,  when,  at  his  own  expense,  he  celebrated  the  birthday  of  the 
Dauphin  of  France,  as  it  is  recorded  the  ship  on  that  occasion  was 
decorated  with  the  flags  of  different  nations,  that  of  France  being  in 
front,  and  that  salutes  were  fired,  and  at  night  the  ship  brilliantly 
illuminated,  &c. 

April  preceding,  when  the  latter  hoisted  the  English  colors,  "  t\\Q  American  stars  vi^ve. 
displa3'ed  on  board  the  Panger."  —  Sherburne's  Life  of  Jones.  This  is  the  first  recorded 
action  under  the  new  flag. 

The  Eanger  was  taken  with  other  vessels  in  the  port  of  Charleston,  S.  C,  on  the  sur- 
render of  that  city  to  the  British.  —  Charnoclcs  Biographie  Navalis,  vol.  vi.  p.  5. 

"The  continental  colors"  borne  on  the  General  Mifflin,  Captain  William  McNeil,  had 
been  saluted  at  Brest,  August,  1777,  much  to  the  indignation  of  the  English  ambassador, 
Lord  Stormont,  and  had  been  saluted  at  St.  Eustatia  by  the  Dutch  governor,  De  Graff, 
Nov.  16,  1776,  in  acknowledgment  of  a  salute  from  the  brig  Andrea  Doria,  Captain  Rob- 
ertson. See  ante,  p.  244.  The  evidence  of  the  pamphlet  proves  the  striped  continental 
flag  was  saluted  at  St.  Eustatia. 

1  Dr.  Ezra  Green,  the  surgeon  of  the  Ranger,  mentions  the  salute  in  his  diary,  under 
date  "Saturday,  14th  Feb.  Very  squally  weather,  came  to  sail  at  4  o'clock  p.m.  Sa- 
luted the  frencli  Admiral,  &  rec'd  nine  guns  in  return.  This  is  the  first  salute  ever  pay'd 
the  American  flagg. 

"  Sundcty,  15th  Feb'y.  Brig  Independence  saluted  the  french  Flagg,  which  was  re- 
turned." 


276  <>i:i<;iN  am*  i'i;n(;i:i;ss  of   iiik 

The  lirst  military  inciiltiit  coiineih'cl  with  the  new  \hv^  occurred  on 
the  iM  of  Au-,'u.st,  1777,  wWn  Lieutenants  Wnd  and  ]>rant  invested  Fort 
Stanwix,*  tlien  coniniandcd  by  Colonel  Peter  (lansevoort.  The  gar- 
rison was  without  a  lla",^  when  the  enemy  ajipeared,  l)ut  their  patriot- 
ism and  ingenuity  soon  supplied  one  in  eonl'ormity  to  the  pattern  just 
adopted  by  the  Continental  Congress.  Shirts  were  cut  up  to  form  the 
wliite  stripes,  bits  of  scarlet  cloth  were  joined  for  the  red,  and  the 
blue  ground  for  the  stars  was  composed  of  a  cloth  cloak  belonging  to 
Captain  Abraham  Swartwout,  of  Dutchess  County,  who  was  then  in 
the  fort.  Before  sunset,  this  curious  mosaic  standard,  as  precious  to 
the  beleaguered  garrison  as  the  most  beautiful  wrought  flag  of  silk 
and  needle-work,  was  floating  over  one  of  the  bastions.  The  siege 
was  raised  on  the  22d  of  August,  but  we  are  not  told  what  liecame  of 
the  improvised  flag. 

The  narrative  of  Colonel  Marinus  Willett  presents  a  different  ver- 
sion of  this  story.  He  says,  "  The  fort  had  never  been  supplied  with 
a  flag.  The  necessity  of  having  one,  upon  the  arrival  of  the  enemy, 
taxed  the  invention  of  the  garrison,  and  a  decent  one  was  soon  con- 
trived. The  white  stripes  were  cut  out  of  ammunition  shirts  fur- 
nished by  the  soldiers  ;  the  blue  out  of  the  camlet  cloak  taken  from  the 
enemy  at  Peekskill ;  while  the  red  stripes  w^ere  made  of  different  pieces 
of  stuff  procured  from  one  and  another  of  the  garrison." 

In  his  statement  to  Governor  Trumbull,  Aug.  21,  1777,  of  the  oc- 
currences at  and  near  Fort  Stanwix,  Colonel  Willett  mentions  as  one 
of  the  results  of  his  sally  from  the  fort  on  the  6th,  preceding,  that  he 
captured  and  brought  off  five  of  the  enemy's  colors,  the  whole  of  which 
on  his  return  to  the  fort  were  displayed  on  the  flag-staff  under  the 
impromptu  made  continental  flag.^ 

Mr.  Haven,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  New  Jersey  Historical 
Society,  says :  "  From  traditional  reports  in  circulation  here,  the 
first  time  that  our  national  flag  \vas  used  after  the  enactment  con- 
cerning it  by  Congress  was  by  General  Washington,  in  tlie  liurried 
and  critical  stand  made  by  him  on  the  banks  of  the  Assanpink,  wlien 
he  repulsed  Cornwallis,  Jan.  2, 1777.  As  this  conflict  was  the  turning- 
point,  in  connection  with  what  succeeded  at  Princeton,  of  the  struggle 
for  independence,  and  the  glorious  consequences  which  followed,  does 

1  Fort  Stanwdx  was  built  in  1758  by  an  English  general  of  that  name,  and  was  re- 
named 'Schuyler'  by  Colonel  Daj-ton  in  1777.  In  'Hai-per's  Magazine'  for  July,  1877, 
there  is  a  picture  of  the  site  of  Fort  Schuyler,  and  portraits  of  Colonels  Gansevoort  and 
Willett.     The  present  town  of  Rome  covers  the  site  of  Fort  Schuyler. 

-  Lossing's  Field-Book  of  American  Revolution,  vol.  i.  p.  242. 


I 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  277 

not  this  signal  baptism  of  the  stars  and  stripes,  with  the  hope  and 
confidence  regenerated  by  it,  seem  providential?  Freedom's  vital 
spark  was  then  rekindled,  and  our  own  country  and  the  whole  civil- 
ized world  are  now  illumined  with  its  beams." 

But  this  occurrence  took  place  six  months  before  the  stars  and 
stripes  were  adopted,  and  tradition  must  be  mistaken.  It  is  true, 
Leutze,  in  his  great  picture  of  Washington  crossing  the  Delaware,  has 
painted  Colonel  Munroe  in  the  boat  holding  the  stars  and  stripes,  but 
it  is  with  an  artist's  license.^ 

Beyond  a  doubt,  the  thirteen  stars  and  thirteen  stripes  were  un- 
furled at  the  battle  of  Brandy  wine,  Sept.  11,  1777,  eight  days  after 
the  official  promulgation  of  them  at  Philadelphia,  and  at  Germantown 
on  the  4th  of  October  following  ;  they  witnessed  the  operations  against 
and  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne,  after  the  battle  of  Saratoga,  Oct.  17, 
1777 ;  and  the  sight  of  this  new  constellation  helped  to  cheer  the 
patriots  of  the  army  amid  their  sufferings  around  the  camp  fires  at 
VaUey  Forge  the  ensuing  winter.  They  waved  triumphant  at  the 
surrender  of  Cornwallis  at  Yorktown,  Sept.  19,  1781 ;  looked  down 
upon  the  evacuation  of  New  York,  Nov.  25,  1783 ;  and  shared  in  all 
the  glories  of  the  latter  days  of  the  Eevolution. 

A  monument  which  is  to  be  erected  in  commemoration  of  the 
battle  of  Saratoga  will  cover  the  exact  spot  where  the  marquee  of 
General  Gates  was  situated,  which  witnessed  the  formal  surrender  of 
Burgoyne,  and  the  formal  unfurling  of  the  stars  and  stripes. 

On  the  28th  of  January,  1778,  the  stars  and  stripes  for  the  first  time 
waved  over  a  foreign  fortress.  About  eleven  o'clock  the  night  pre- 
vious, the  American  sloop-of-war  Providence,^  Captain  John  Eath- 
burne,  mounting  twelve  4-pounders,  with  a  crew  of  fifty  men,  landed 
twenty-five  of  her  crew  on  the  island  of  New  Providence.  They  were 
joined  by  about  eighteen  or  twenty  Americans  escaped  from  British 
prison-ships,  and  who  were  waiting  an  opportunity  to  return  home. 
This  small  body  of  men  took  possession  of  Fort  Nassau,  with  the  can- 
non, ammunition,  and  three  hundred  stand  of  small-arms,  and  hoisted 
the  stars  and  stripes. 

In  the  port  lay  a  16-gun  ship,  with  a  crew  of  forty- five  men,  and 
five  vessels,  all  prizes  to  the  British  sloop  Grayton.  At  daybreak,  four 
men  were  sent  on  board  the  16-gun  ship  to  take  possession  of  her,  and 
send  the  officers  and  crew  into  the  fort.  Her  prize  captain  was  shown 
the  American  Hag  hoisted  on  the  fort,  and  informed  his  ship  would  be 

1  See  ante,  p.  198. 

2  The  Providence  was  captured  when  Charleston  was  taken,  1780. 


27H  oKK.iN  AM»  i'ij()(;i;i:>s  of   the 

instantly  sunk  sliduM  ho  hesitate  to  surrender.  Thus  intimidated,  lie 
pive  her  uj),  and  the  live  prize  vessels  were  seeured  in  a  similar  man- 
ner. Possession  was  also  taken  of  the  western  fort,  its  cannon  spiked, 
and  its  powder  and  small-arms  removed  to  Fort  Nas.sau.  Altout  twelve 
oVdock,  some  two  hundred  armed  people  assembled  and  threatened  to 
attack  the  fort ;  but,  on  being  informed  if  they  fired  a  single  gun  the 
town  woidd  be  laid  in  ashes,  they  dispersed.  Soon  after  the  Provi- 
dence had  anchored,  the  British  ship  Grayton  hove  in  sight.  The 
American  colors  were  immediately  taken  down,  and  the  guns  of  the 
Providence  housed,  hoping  the  Grayton  would  come  to  anchor.  But 
the  inhabitants  signalled  to  her  the  state  of  affairs,  and  she  stood  off. 
The  fort  opened  fire  upon  her,  but  she  made  her  escape. 

About  three  o'clock  the  next  morning,  some  five  hundred  men  with 
several  pieces  of  artillery  marched  within  sight  of  the  fort,  and  sum- 
moned it  to  surrender,  threatening  at  the  same  time  to  storm  the  place 
and  put  all  to  the  sword  without  mercy.  The  Americans,  however, 
in  the  presence  of  the  messenger,  nailed  their  colors  to  the  flag-staff, 
and  returned  answer  that,  while  a  man  of  them  survived,  they  would 
not  surrender. 

The  following  morning  the  prizes  were  manned,  the  guns  of  the  fort 
spiked,  the  ammunition  and  small-arms  conveyed  on  board  the  Prov- 
idence, and  the  whole  American  garrison  was  embarked  and  put  to 
sea,  after  having  held  possession  of  the  fort  two  days.  Two  of  the 
prizes,  being  of  little  value,  were  burnt,  the  others  were  sent  to  the 
United  States. 

When  the  news  that  the  treaty  of  alliance  with  France  (the  first 
treaty  of  our  new  republic  with  a  foreign  power)  wliich  had  been  signed 
at  Paris,  Feb.  6,  1778,^  was  received,  General  Washington,  from  his 
head-quarters  at  Valley  Forge,  ordered,  on  May  2d,  that  the  following 
day  should  be  set  apart  "for  gratefully  acknowledging  the  divine 
goodness  and  celebrating  the  important  event  which  we  owe  to  his 
Itenigu  interposition."  Accordingly,  the  army  was  reviewed  by  the 
commander-in-chief,  with  banners  waving,  and  at  given  signals,  after 
the  discharge  of  thirteen  cannon  and  a  running  fire  of  infantry,  the 
whole  army  huzzaed,  "  Long  live  the  King  of  France  ! "  then,  after  a 
like  salute  of  thirteen  guns  and  a  second  general  discharge  of  musketry, 
"  Huzza !  long  live  the  friendly  European  powers ! "  then  a  final 
discharge  of  thirteen  pieces  of  artiQery,  followed  by  a  general  running 
fire  and  "  Huzza  for  the  American  States  ! "  ^ 

^  Pennsylvania  Packet,  Marcli  28,  1778. 

2  The  French  alliance  was  looked  upon  as  a  wonderful  interposition  of  Providence, 


I 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  279 

The  officers  approached  the  place  of  entertainment  thirteen  abreast 
and  closely  linked  in  each  other's  arms,  thus  signifying  the  thirteen 
American  States,  and  the  interweaving  of  arms  a  complete  union  and 
most  perfect  confederation.^ 

The  next  interesting  incident  connected  with  the  new  constellation 
occurred  on  the  7th  of  March,  1778,  when  the  continental  ship  Ean- 
dolph,  32,  Captain  Xicholas  Biddle,  was  blown  up  in  an  engagement 
with  the  Yarmouth,  64,  Captain  Vincent. 

and  every  measure  that  could  be,  was  taken  to  extend  a  sentiment  of  confidence  in  the 
result  of  the  struggle  after  this  happy  event.  As  one  means  of  effecting  this  end,  the 
following  cui'ious  statement  was  published  thi'oughout  the  United  States  :  — 

"Wmiderful  Appearances  and  Omens. 

"  1.  After  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne,  and  while  the  treaty  of  alliance  with  France  was 
on  the  carpet,  the  American  heavens  were  illuminated  at  intervals  for  whole  months  to- 
gether.    The  aurora  borealis,  or  northern  lights,  were  the  gi-eatest  ever  seen  in  America. 

"  2.  When  the  fleet  of  his  most  Christian  majesty,  twelve  ships  of  the  line,  and  by  the 
capture  of  a  British  ship  of  force,  thirteen,  and  commanded  by  the  admiral,  the  illustrioiLS 
D'Estaing,  hove  in  sight  of  our  capes,  the  artUlery  of  the  skies  was  discharged,  and  thir- 
teen thunders  were  distinctly  heard  on  the  coast  of  the  Delaware. 

"  3.  On  the  morning  after  the  arrival  of  his  plenipotentiary,  the  illusti'ious  Gerard, 
being  the  thirteenth  of  the  month,  an  aloe-tree  —  the  only  one  in  this  State  —  immedi- 
ately shot  forth  its  spire,  which  it  never  does  but  once  in  its  existence,  and  in  some  other 
climates  only  once  in  a  hundred  years.  It  has  been  planted  forty  years  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  this  city,  and  previously  only  produced  four  leaves  a  year,  until  this  year,  when 
it  produced  thirteen.  The  spire  is  remarkable,  being  thirteen  inches  round,  and  ha\-ing 
grown  thirteen  feet  in  the  first  thirteen  days.  The  Scotch  talk  much  of  the  thistle,  and 
the  South  Britons  of  the  Glastonbury  thorn.  jSIuch  finer  things  may  be  said  of  the  aloe  of 
America  and  the  fleur-de-lis  of  France."  —  Westcott's  History  of  Philadelphia,  published 
in  Sunday  Dispatch,  April,  1872. 

In  1781,  on  the  occasion  of  Washington's  visit  to  Philadelphia,  among  other  devices 
was  a  painting  representing  the  British  lion  lying  exhausted,  wounded  with  thirteen  ar- 
rows, a  cock,  emblem  of  France,  standing  on  his  body,  with  the  motto,  "  Gallus  victuni 
super  leonem  cantat."  At  another  window  was  the  Genius  of  America  trampling  on 
discord,  clothed  in  white,  covered  by  a  purple  mantle  strewed  with  stars,  a  fillet  on  her 
head  with  the  word  "Perseverance."  In  one  hand  a  banner  of  thirteen  stripes,  with  the 
words,  "  Equal  Eights." 

On  the  left-hand  comer  of  the  membership  certificate  of  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati, 
Issued  in  1785,  is  represented  a  strong  armed  man,  bearing  in  one  hand  a  union  flag, 
and  in  the  other  a  naked  sword.  Beneath  his  feet  are  British  flags,  a  broken  spear,  shield, 
and  chain.  Hovering  by  his  side  is  the  eagle,  our  national  emblem,  from  whose  talons 
the  lightning  of  destruction  is  flashing  upon  the  British  lion,  and  Britannia,  with  the 
crown  falling  from  her  head,  is  hastening  to  make  her  escape  in  a  boat  to  the  fleet. 

The  union  flag  of  this  certificate  is  composed  of  thirteen  alternate  red  and  white  st7-ipes 
and  a  lohite  union,  in  which  is  painted  the  present  arms  of  the  United  States,  adopted  in 
1782.     A  flag  of  this  kind  may  have  been  in  use  in  the  army  earlier. 

1  A  full  account  of  this  joyful  occasion  can  be  found  in  the  '  New  Jersey  Gazette,' 
May  13,  1778,  'New  York  Journal,'  June  15,  and  is  copied  in  Frank  Moore's  'Diary  of 
the  Eevolution,'  vol.  ii.  pp.  48-52. 


L>,SU  OKK.IN    AM»    I'KOCKKSS    (>K    Till-: 

The  Kandolph,  built  in  riiiliuk-liihia  in  177"»-7<),  sailed  from 
Charleston,  S.  C,  on  her  last  cruise,  early  in  February,  1778.  On  the 
afternoon  of  Marcli  7,  wiien  about  fifty  leagues  to  the  eastward  nl'  r>ar- 
badoes,  1)eing  in  company  with  the  (Jeneral  jMoultrie,  of  IH  ^uns,  she 
discovered  a  ship,  which  proved  to  be  the  Yarmouth,  04.  The  IJandolph 
and  Moultrie  hove  to  and  allowed  the  stmnger  to  come  within  hail 
about  eight  r.M.,  when  several  (questions  and  answers  passed  between  the 
vessels.  Lieutenant  Barnes,  of  the  Kandolph,  at  last  called  out,  "  This 
is  the  Eandolph,"  hoisted  her  colors,  and  gave  the  Yarmouth  a  broad- 
side. The  action  was  continued  about  twenty  minutes,  and  the  sur- 
geon was  engaged  in  examining  Captain  Biddle's  wound  when  the 
Eandolph  blew  up.  The  two  ships  were  in  such  close  action  that 
many  fragments  of  the  Randolph  struck  the  Yarmouth,  and  among 
other  things  an  American  ensign,  rolled  up,  was  blow^n  in  upon  the 
forecastle  of  the  Yarmouth.^  The  flag  was  not  singed.  Cooper,  in  his 
novel,  'Ze  Feu  Follet'  seizes  upon  this  incident,  when  he  describes  the 
flag  of  that  rover  after  her  sudden  disappearance  as  washed  upon  the 
forecastle  of  the  ship  in  chase. 

Five  days  after  the  engagement,  the  Yarmouth  discovered  a  piece 
of  the  wreck  with  four  men  on  it,  the  only  survivors  of  a  crew  of 
of  three  hundred  and  fifteen  who  had  so  gallantly  sustained  the 
action. 

A  model  of  the  Eandolph  has  been  preserved,  and  in  1842  was  to 
be  seen  in  the  hall  of  the  Naval  Asylum  at  Philadelphia. 

In  the  agreement  (June,  1779)  between  John  Paul  Jones,  captain 
of  the  Bon  Homme  Richard,  Pierre  Landais,  captain  of  the  Alliance, 
Dennis  Nicolas  Cottineaux,  captain  of  the  Pallas,  Joseph  Varage,  cap- 
tain of  the  Le  Cerf,  and  Philip  Nicolas  Recot,  captain  of  the  Ven- 
geance, it  was  stipulated  the  Franco- American  squadron  should  fly 
"  the  flag  of  the  United  States,"  and  that  it  should  be  commanded  by 
the  oldest  officer  of  the  highest  grade,  and  so  in  succession  in  case 
of  death  or  retreat.  The  frigate  Alliance,  named  in  honor  of  the 
treaty  with  France,  and  commanded  by  the  obstinate,  ill-tempered 
Frenchman,  Landais,  was  the  only  American-built  vessel  of  the 
squadron. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  New  Jersey  Historical  Society,  January,  1872, 

1  It  was  fortunate  for  us  that  we  were  to  windward  of  her  ;  as  it  was,  our  ship  was  in 
a  manner  covered  with  parts  of  her.  A  great  piece  of  a  top  timber,  .six  feet  long,  fell  on 
our  x^oop  ;  another  piece  of  timber  stuck  in  our  foretop-gallantsail  (tlien  upon  the  cap)  ; 
an  American  ensign,  rolled  up,  blown  upon  the  forecastle,  not  so  much  as  singed."  —  Cap- 
tain  Vincent  to  Admiral  Young,  March  17,  1778. 


I 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  281 

Mr.  C.  C.  Haven  made  some  interesting  remarks  concerning  the  origin 
of  our  flag,  and  said  that,  in  the  conflict  between  the  Bon  Homme 
Eichard  and  Serapis,  "  James  Bayard  Stafford  was  cut  down  by  a  Brit- 
ish officer,  but  rescued  and  rehoisted  her  flag,  which  probably  had  no 
stars  or  stripes."  As  that  action  was  fought  Sept.  2.3,  1779,  two  and  a 
half  years  after  their  establishment,  and  the  agreement  above  recited 
stipulates  that  the  American  squadron  should  fly  "the  flag  of  the 
United  States,"  Mr.  Haven  was  evidently  in  error.  Moreover,  Freneau, 
in  his  poem  on  "  that  memorable  victory  of  Paul  Jones,"  thus  alludes 
to  the  flag :  — 

"Go  on,  great  man,  to  scourge  the  foe, 

And  bid  the  haughty  Britons  know 
They  to  our  thirteen  stars  shall  bend : 

The  stars  that,  clad  in  dark  attire, 

Long  ghmmered  with  a  feeble  fire, 
But  radiant  now  ascend." 

And  Jones,  when  in  command  of  the  Eanger,  had  received  a  salute  ta 
the  stars  and  stripes  on  the  14th  of  February,  1778. 

Placing  the  matter  beyond  a  doubt.  Miss  Sarah  Smith  Stafford,  of 
Trenton,  N".  J.,  has  in  her  possession  the  following  letter :  ^  — 

1  Miss  Stafford  died  at  Trenton,  X.  J.,  Jan.  6,  1880,  and  the  flag  was  willed  by  her 
to  her  brother,  Samuel  Bayard  Stafford.     The  autography  is  half  the  size  of  the  original. 


282 


(n;i(;iN  AND  i'K<tt;i:i:ss  of  tiii: 


Uur  illusinilion,  sli(i\vin,i,f  tuxli-c  stars  and  thirteen  .stripes,  is  from  a 
photograph  ol"  the  thig  taken  in  1872.  Miss  Staflbrd's  story  ol"  the 
flag  is  this  :  — 

"About  ten  days  belore  the  battle  between  the  Bon  Homme  Rich- 
ard and  Serapis,  Paul  Jones  captured  a  Dritish  vessel  of  war  and 
her  prize,  an  armed  ship  called  the  Kitty,  commanded  l»y  Captain 
Philip  Stafford.  Tlie  Englishman  had  put  tlie  Kitty's  crew  in  irons, 
which  were  now  transferred  to  them.  The  crew  of  the  Kitty  vol- 
unteered to  serve  on  board  the  Serapis.  Among  these  volunteers 
was  James  Bayard  Stafford,  a  nephew  of  the  captain  of  the  Kitty, 
and  the  father  of  the  present  owner  of  the  flag.  Being  educated,  he 
was  made  an  officer  on  board  the  Piichard.  During  the  battle,  her  ilag 
was  shot  away,  and  young  Stafford  jumped  into  the  sea  and  recovered 
it,  and  was  engaged  in  replacing  it  when  he  was  cut  down  by  an 
officer  of  the  Serapis.  When  the  Bon  Homme  Pticliard  was  sinking, 
the  flag  was  seized  by  a  sailor  and  transferred  by  Jones  to  the  Serapis, 
and  accompanied  him  to  the  Alliance,  when  he  assumed  the  command 
of  tliat  frigate  at  the  Texal.     After  the  sale  of  the  Alliance,  the  flag 

was  sent  to  Stafford,  as 
the  letter  we  have  given 
shows.  This  relic  was 
preserved  by  Lieutenant 
Stafford,  and  by  his 
widow  until  her  death, 
Aug.  9,  1861,  when  it 
came  into  the  possession 
of  their  daughter,  whose 
death  has  been  recently 
announced.  Miss  Staf- 
ford states  that  her  father 
exhibited  this  cherished 
flag  to  several  of  the  crew 
of  the  Bon  Homme  Pilch- 
ard who  called  upon  him, 
for  which  they  expressed 
the  deepest  reverence- 
Miss  Stafford's  earliest 
recollection  of  the  flag 
is  in  1806,  when  she 
was  not  quite  four  years  old,  when,  on  the  occasion  of  a  family  moving, 
as  a  great  favor  she  was  permitted  to  carry  it  across  the  street. 


Flag  of  tlie  Bon  IIoiiiiin;  Richard,  said  to  liavc  been  worn  durinj; 
her  Action  with  the  Serapis,  Sept.  23, 1779. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNIl  VTES.  283 

Why  so  small  a  flag  was  used  —  scarcely  ^  laii  a  boat  ensign  of 

the  present  day  —  may  perhaps  be  explainer  ction  having  been 

fought  at  night,  and  because  of  the  high  cost  "nglish  material 

and  the  difficulty  in  procuring  it.     The  flag  ha.  laned  to  fairs 

and   festivals.      It  was  exhibited  at  the  sanitary  in  Philadel- 

phia and  New  York,  and  at  the  great  fair  in  Trento.  2,  and  was 

at  the  Centennial  Exhibition.     A  piece  (shown  in  tht.  .ation)  cut 

from  the  head  of  it  at  the  beginning  of  our  civil  war,  was,  by  direc- 
tion of  Mrs.  Stafford,  sent  to  President  Lincoln. 

The  flag  is  of  English  bunting,  and  about  eight  and  one-half  yards 
long  and  one  yard  five  inches  wide.  It  is  sewed  with  flax  thread,  and 
contains  twelve  white  stars  in  a  blue  union,  and  thirteen  white  stripes, 
alternately  red  and  white.  The  stars  are  arranged  in  four  horizontal 
lines,  three  stars  in  each  line. 

Why  its  union  has  only  twelve  stars,  unless  they  could  find  no 
symmetrical  j)lace  for  the  odd  star,  is  a  mystery.  It  has  been  sug- 
gested that  only  twelve  of  the  colonies  had  consented  to  the  con- 
federation at  the  date  of  its  manufacture ;  but  all  the  colonies  had 
confederated  before  the  adoption  of  the  stars  in  1777,  and  the  consent 
of  Georgia,  the  last  to  assent,  was  symbolized  in  the  flag  of  thirteen 
stripes,  alternate  red  and  white,  at  Cambridge,  as  early  as  Jan.  1, 
1776.  In  the  agreement  signed  by  Jones  and  the  captains  of  his 
Franco- American  squadron,  June,  1779,  it  was  stipulated  the  squadron 
should  fly  the  "  flag  of  the  United  States."  So  we  may  be  sure  the 
stars  and  stripes  were  flown  in  the  flght  between  the  Kichard  and 
Serapis,  as  they  had  been  in  the  fight  between  the  Ranger  and  Drake 
six  months  before,  as  Jones  himself  stated.  The  remarkable  action 
between  the  Bon  Homme  Richard  and  the  Serapis,  fought  within 
sight  of  the  shores  of  England,  exercised  as  important  an  influence 
upon  our  affairs  in  Europe  as  did  the  fight  between  the  Kearsarge  and 
Alabama  in  recent  times. 

At  the  4th  of  July  celebration  in  Philadelphia,  1788,  consequent 
upon  the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Constitution,  there  was  in  the  pro- 
cession a  Federal  ship  called  "  the  Union,"  thirty-three  feet  in  length, 
the  bottom  of  which  was  made  from  the  barge  of  the  frigate  Alliance, 
and  which  was  also  the  barge  of  Serapis  when  she  was  captured  by 
the  Bon  Homme  Richard.  This  little  vessel  is  described  in  the  news- 
paper of  the  day  "  as  a  masterpiece  of  elegant  workmanship,  perfectly 
proportioned  and  complete  throughout,  and  decorated  with  emblemat- 
ical carving,"  and,  what  was  "  truly  astonishing,  she  was  begun  and 
fully  completed  in  less  than  four  days,  fully  prepared  to  join  the 


2S4  OKKilN    AM)    I'lJOGUESS   ()F   Till: 

grand  procession.  Sliu  Avas  sul)se(HU'ntly  placed  in  tlic  Slate  House 
yard,  and.  latei\  removed  to  Gray's  Ferry.  Her  ultimate  fate  is  un- 
known." 

How  slowly  the  new  ilags  came  into  general  use  is  shown  by  the 
following  notices :  A  manuscript  Mritten  by  an  ollicer  on  board  the 
privateer  Cumberland,  Captain  John  Manly,  early  in  1779,  says, 
alluding  to  the  flag,  in  particular,  of  that  vessel,  "At  this  time  we  had 
no  national  colors,  and  every  ship  had  the  right,  or  took  it,  to  wear 
what  kind  of  fancy  flag  the  captain  pleased."  ^  The  diary  of  a  surgeon 
of  the  British  forces  in  Charleston  harbor,  under  date  1780,  April  3, 
says :  "  In  the  evening  I  walked  across  James  Island  to  the  mouth  of 
Wapoo  Creek  in  Ashley  liiver;  saw  the  American  thirteen-striped 
flag  displayed  on  the  works  opposite  the  shore  redoubts  commanded 
by  ]\Iajor  ]\Iackleroth,  and  two  other  flags  displayed  in  tlieir  new  works 
opposite  our  forces  on  Charleston  Neck,  —  while  tliere  they  cannon- 
aded our  Avorking  party  on  the  Neck,  —  tlieir  great  battery  fronting 
Charleston  harbor  had  tlie  American  flag  of  thirteen  stripes  displayed. 
This,  up  to  this  clay,  had  been  a  blue  Jlag  vnth  field  and  thirteen  stars. 
The  other  fiaff  never  hoisted  until  to-day."^ 

The  strij)ed  flag  then  hoisted  was  destined  soon  to  come  down,  for 
in  a  private  letter  dated  "Broad  Street,  Charlestown,  May  22,  1780," 
the  writer  says:  "On  the  memorable  12th  of  this  month  I  had  the 
pleasure  to  see  the  thirteen  stripes  with  several  white  pendants  lev- 
elled to  the  ground,  and  the  gates  of  Charlestown  opened  to  receive  our 
conquering  heroes,  General  Sir  Henry  Clinton  and  Admiral  Arbuth- 
not."  And  another  letter,  dated  "  May  19,  1780,"  says :  "  May  7,  they 
[the  continentals]  marched  out,  and  Captain  Hudson  of  the  navy 
marched  in  [to  Fort  Moultrie],  took  possession,  levelled  the  thirteen 
stripes  with  the  dust,  and  the  triumphant  English  flag  was  raised  on 
the  staff."  3 

The  '  Pennsylvania  Gazette '  of  April  23,  1783,  contains  the  resolve 
respecting  the  flag  of  June  14,  1777,  and  rec^uests  that  the  printers 
insert  the  resolution  in  their  respective  newspapers  in  order  that  it 

^  I.  J.  Greenwood,  on  Revolutionary  Uniforms  and  Flags,  in  Potter's  American 
Monthly,  1876,  vol.  vi.  p.  34. 

2  Extract  from  the  MS.  diary  of  Dr.  John  Jeffries,  now  in  the  possession  of  his  grand- 
son, Dr.  B.  Joy  Jeffries,  of  Boston,  Mass.  Dr.  John  Jeffries  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard, 
and,  Jan.  7,  1785,  in  furtherance  of  his  experiments  in  atmospheric  temperature,  made  a 
remarkable  balloon  voyage  from  Dover  Cliffs  over  the  English  Channel,  alighting  in  the 
forest  of  Guienne,  France.  In  1789,  he  returned  to  Boston,  where  he  was  born  in  1744, 
and  where  his  descendants  reside. 

8  From  the  Siege  of  Charleston,  S.  C,  published  by  J,  Munsell,  1867. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  285 

may  be  generally  known.  The  same  paper  states  that  "  at  a  meeting 
of  the  respectable  inhabitants  of  Pittsgrove  and  the  town  adjacent,  in 
Salem  County,  State  of  New  Jersey,  for  the  celebration  of  peace,  the 
day  was  introduced  with  the  raising  of  a  monument  of  great  height, 
on  which  was  displayed  the  ensign  of  peace  with  thirteen  stripes." 

Another  number  of  the  '  Gazette '  ^  says  :  "  It  is  positively  asserted 
that  the  flag  of  the  thirteen  United  States  of  America  has  been  grossly 
insulted  in  New  York,  and  not  permitted  to  be  hoisted  on  board  any 
American  vessel  in  that  port.  Congress  should  demand  immediate 
reparation  for  the  indignity  wantonly  offered  to  all  America,  and,  un- 
less satisfactory  concessions  are  instantly  made,  the  British  flag,  which 
now  streams  without  interruption  in  our  harbor,  Philadelphia,  should  be 
torn  down,  and  treated  with  every  mark  of  indignation  and  contempt." 

The  25th  of  November,  1783,  is  memorable  in  the  history  of  our 
flag  as  the  day  of  the  evacuation  of  New  York  by  the  British  troops. 
On  the  morning  of  that  day,  —  a  cold,  frosty,  clear  but  brilliant  morn- 
ing, —  General  Knox  marched  to  the  Bowery  Lane,  and  remained  until 
one  P.M.,  when  the  British  left  their  posts  and  marched  to  Whitehall. 
The  American  troops  followed,  and  before  three  p.:m.  General  Knox  took 
possession  of  Fort  George.  The  British  claimed  the  right  of  possession 
until  noon.  Mr.  Day,  who  kept  a  tavern  at  the  lower  end  of  Murray 
Street,  run  up,  the  American  flag  in  the  morning,  the  first  displayed  in 
the  city.  Cunningham,  the  British  provost-marshal,  ordered  it  down, 
and,  on  the  man's  refusal  to  take  it  down,  attempted  to  pull  it  down 
himself  He  was  met  at  the  door  by  the  proprietor's  wife,  a  stout 
woman,  fair,  fat,  and  forty,  who  came  at  and  beat  Cunningham  so 
vigorously  over  the  head  with  her  broomstick,  that  he  was  obliged  to 
decamp  amid  the  jeers  and  laughter  of  the  few  spectators,  and  leave 
the  star-spangled  banner  waving.  Dr.  Alexander  Anderson,  well 
known  as  the  first  wood  engraver  in  America,  and  who  died  in  1870, 
remembered  seeing  the  powder  fly  from  Cunningham's  wig,  and  re- 
lated the  story  to  Mr.  Bushnell  in  1863,  when  eighty-nine  years  of 
age.^ 

The  flag  hoisted  on  the  evacuation  of  the  city  was  for  a  long  time 
preserved  in  the  American  Museum  at  New  York,  and  was  destroyed 
when  that  building  was  burnt.  Mr.  Barnum  informs  me  that  the  flag 
was  well  authenticated  wlien  presented  to  Mr.  Scudder,  founder  of 
the  Museum,  in  1810.     The  flag  was  of  bunting,  about  nine  or  ten 

1  Pennsylvania  Gazette,  Jlay  28,  1 783. 

2  Narrative  of  the  Life  and  Adventures  of  Levi  Hanford,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution. 
By  Charles  J.  Bushnell,  New  York.     Svo.     Privately  printed,  1863,  p.  72. 


286  (HMCIN    AM»    I'lioi.iiKSS   OF    THE 

feet  wiile  by  twelve  m-  lillceii  in  leii<,4li,  ;iiid  had  the  thirteen  stars 
aud  stripes;  the  urnuigeiueut  uf  the  stars  is  not  remembered.  It 
was  always  run  out  in  front  of  the  Museum  (mi  the  anniversaries  of 
Evaeuation  Day  and  4th  of  July,  and  was  always  saluted  by  the  mili- 
tary when  passing.^ 

The  British  left  their  flag  nailed  to  its  staff  on  the  battery,  and 
removed  the  halyards  and  greased  the  jMjle.  There  are  several 
stories  as  to  how  the  flag  was  removed,  Ijut  it  is  generally  be- 
lieved John  Van  Orsdell,  or  Arsdale,  a  sailor,  proeuring  a  number  of 
cleats,  climbed  the  pole,  nailing  the  cleats  as  he  went,  and,  tearing 
down  the  British  flag,  nailed  up  the  stars  and  stripes  in  its  place. 
He  died  in  183t),  and  was  buried  with  military  honors  by  the  veteran 
corps  of  artillery,  of  which  he  was  the  first  lieutenant.  His  son,  David 
Van  Arsdale,  Nov.  25,  1879,  aged  eighty-four,  hoisted  the  stars  and 
stripes  over  the  battery, —  a  ceremony  he  had  performed  for  many  years. 
After  raising  the  flag,  the  veteran  proposed  "  three  cheers  for  our  flag, 
tln-ee  cheers  for  the  day  we  celebrate,  and  three  more  for  the  wives 
and  daughters  of  our  country ! "  which  were  given  with  a  will.  The 
old  gentleman  was  then  presented  with  a  portrait  of  himself,  elegantly 
framed,  and  in  his  endeavor  to  reply  broke  down  completely. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  revolutionary  struggle  on  the  28th  of 
February,  1784,  the  officers  of  the  line  of  the  Rhode  Island  conti- 
nental battalion  presented  to  the  assembly  the  colors  they  liad  so 
gallantly  borne,  with  the  following  address  :  — 

"  To  the  Honorable  the  General  Assembli/  of  the  State  of  Rhode  Islaiid  and 
Providence  Plantations : 
"  The  officers  of  the  line  of  this  State  beg  Uljorty  to  approach  tliis  hon- 
orable assembly  with  the  warmest  gratitude,  upon  exclianging  their  military 
emplojTQent  for  the  rank  of  citizens  ;  the  glorious  objects  of  the  late  con- 
troversy with  Great  Britain  being  happily  accomplished,  they  resume  their 
former  conditions  with  a  satisfaction  peculiar  to  freemen.  If  they  have  de- 
served the  approbation  of  their  country ;  if  they  have  gained  the  confidence 
of  the  States  ;  if  they  have  endured  hardships  and  encountered  difficulties, — 
they  feel  themselves  still  indebted  for  your  constant  attention  in  every  period 
of  the  war.  If  their  conduct  in  the  iield ;  if  their  wounds,  and  the  blood 
of  their  companions  who  have  nobly  fallen  by  their  side,  —  have  entitled  them 
to  any  share  in  the  laurels  of  their  countrymen,  they  are  fully  rewarded  in 
surrendering  to  your  Honors,  upon  this  occasion,  the  standards  of  their  corps, 
which  have  often  been  distinguished  by  the  bravery  of  your  soldiers  upon 
the  most  critical  and  important  occasions.     They  beg  you  will  be  pleased 

'  Letter  of  P.  T.  Barnum,  Nov.  22,  1871. 


I 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  287 

to  accept  them  with  their  most  cordial  acknowledgments,  and  be  assured  of 
the  profound  deference  with  which  they  have  the  honor  to  be 

"  Your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 

"Jeremiah  Olney. 

"  Pro\idence,  Feb.  28,  a.d.  1784.     In  behalf  of  the  officers." 

The  committee  to  whom  this  address  was  referred  prepared  the  fol- 
lowing answer,  which  the  assembly  voted  should  be  engrossed  in  a 
fair  copy  by  the  secretary,  and  signed  by  his  excellency  the  governor 
and  the  honorable  the  speaker  in  behalf  of  the  assembly,  and  pre- 
sented by  the  secretary  to  Colonel  Jeremiah  Olney;  and  that  the 
standards  should  be  carefully  preserved  under  the  immediate  care  of 
the  governor,  to  perpetuate  the  noble  exploits  of  the  brave  corps  :  — 

"  Gentlemen,  —  The  governor  and  company,  in  general  assembly  con- 
vened, with  the  most  pleasing  sensations  receive  your  affectionate  and 
polite  address.  They  congratulate  you  upon  the  happy  termination  of  a 
glorious  war,  and  upon  your  return  to  participate  with  citizens  and  free- 
men in  the  blessings  of  peace.  With  peculiar  satisfaction,  they  recollect  the 
bravery  and  good  conduct  of  the  officers  of  the  line  of  this  State,  who,  after 
suffering  all  the  toils  and  fatigues  of  a  long  and  bloody  contest,  crowned 
with  laurels  have  reassumed  domestic  life. 

"They  are  happy  in  receiving  those  standards,  which  have  been  often 
displayed  with  glory  and  bravery  in  the  face  of  very  powerful  enemies,  and 
will  carefully  preserve  the  same,  to  commemorate  the  achievements  of  so 
brave  a  corps. 

"We  are,  gentlemen,  in  behaK  of  both  houses  of  assembly, 

"With  respect  and  esteem,  your  very  humble  servants, 

"William  Greene,  Governor. 
"Feb.  28,  A.D.  1784,  William  Bradford,  Speaker. 

*'  To  the  Officers  of  the  Line  of  this  State's  late  Continental  Battalion."  ^ 

These  colors  are  preserved  in  the  office  of  the  Secretary  of  State  of 
Ehode  Island,  and  from  a  recent  examination  of  them  I  obtain  the 
following  description :  ^  — 

No.  1  is  of  white  silk,  ninety  inches  long  and  sixty-five  inches 
wide,  and  contains  thirteen  gilt  stars  in  the  corner,  on  a  very  light 
blue  ground  (probably  faded  with  time).  The  outline  of  each  star  is 
marked  with  a  darker  shade  of  blue,  with  a  shadow  on  the  left  side, 
thereby  making  the  gilt  star  more  prominent.  The  relative  position 
of  the  stars  in  parallel  lines  is  shown  in  Fig.  15,  Plate  V.     In  the 

^  Rhode  Island  Colonial  Records,  vol.  x.  pp.  14,  15. 

2  Letters  from  Hon.  J.  R.  Bartlett,  Secretary  of  State  of  Rhode  Island,  Dec.  26,  1871, 
and  Jan.  4,  1872. 


ORIGIN    AND    PROGRESS  OF   THE 


ceuti-e  of  the  flag  is  uu  anchor  and  a  \nv.cv  of  rope  twining  around  it, 
of  light  blue  silk,  the  same  shade  as  the  blue  union,  sewed  on.  Above 
the  anchor  is  a  scroll  painted  in  oil  colors,  inscribed  "  Hope,"  the 
motto  of  this  State.  The  oil  and  paint  have  so  rotted  the  silk  that 
this  part  of  the  flag  is  gone ;  otherwise,  save  a  little  of  the  edge  which 
is  torn  and  worn  away,  the  flag  is  entire.  At  the  connnencemcnt  of 
the  War  of  the  Itebellion,  tins  flag  was  taken  to  Washington  by  the 
Second  Ehode  Island  Regiment,  but  was  soon  returned. 

Flag  No.  2  is  of  white  silk,  fifty-one  inches  in  width,  and  its  pres- 
ent length  forty-live  inches ;  but  a  portion  of  the  lly  is  gone,  and  the 
flag  is  much  torn. 

It  contains  a  light  blue  corner  or  canton  of  silk  sewed  on  to  a 
white  field  of  silk.  The  canton  contains  thirteen  wliite  live-pointed 
stars  or  mullets  painted  on  the  sUk  and  arranged  in  parallel  lines  as 
in  No.  1,  though  not  so  well  formed.  In  the  centre  of  the  field  of  the 
flag,  painted  on  both  sides,  there  is  a  scroll  upon  which  was  painted 
"  E.  Island  Eegt."  Both  these  flags  are  regimental,  and  not  blazoned 
with  stripes.  The  date  of  their  presentation  to  the  regiments  has  not 
been  preserved. 

It  has  been  asserted  that  IMadame  Wooster  and  Mrs.  Roger  Sher- 


PfAC£    ^>Um.^  Hdvu.    A/:A..Jl^^jy^-^ 


£ey^^^ 


man  gave  to  the  Connecticut  troops  the  first  national  flag  ever  used  in 
that  State,  and  that  it  was  composed  of  portions  of  their  dresses.  Mrs. 
Ellet^  says  that  they  made  the  flag  is  certain,  but  it  could  not  have 

^  EUet's  AVoineu  of  the  American  lievolutioii. 


I 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  289 

been  the  first  one,  nor  did  they  heroically  rob  their  own  persons  to 
furnish  it.  The  flag  made  by  them  was  displayed  at  New  Haven  on 
the  public  rejoicing  for  the  peace,  and  is  thus  described  and  illustrated 
in  the  Diary  of  President  Ezra  Stiles,  of  Yale  College,  preserved  in 
the  college  library  :  — 

"  April  24,  1783.  Public  Rejoicing  for  the  Peace  in  New  Haven. 
At  sunrise  13  cannon  discharged  in  the  Green,  and  the  continental 
flag  displayed,  being  a  grand  silk  flag  presented  by  the  ladies,  cost  120 
dollars.  The  stripes  red  and  white,  with  an  azure  field  in  the  upper 
part  charged  with  13  stars.  On  the  same  field  and  among  the  stars 
was  the  arms  of  the  United  States,  the  field  of  which  contained  a  ship, 
a  plough,  and  3  sheaves  of  wheat ;  the  crest  an  eagle  volant ;  the  sup- 
porters two  white  horses.  The  arms  were  put  on  with  paint  and 
gilding.     It  took yards.     When  displayed  it  appeared  well." 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  good  man's  drawing  is  a  rude  attempt  to 
depict  the  flag,  and  that  it  has  the  Pennsylvania  motto,  "Virtue, 
Liberty,  Independence,"  not  mentioned  in  his  description.  The  fact 
being,  according  to  Mrs.  EUet,  that  the  ladies,  unacquainted  with 
the  arms  of  the  United  States  adopted  the  year  before,  turned  in  un- 
suspecting confidence  to  a  family  Bible  jpublished  in  Philadelphia, 
and  took  as  their  guide  the  arms  emblazoned  on  its  title-page,  which 
■were  those  of  Pennsylvania.  The  mistake  was  rectified  when  Eoger 
Sherman  returned  from  Congress. 

Dr.  Eodney  King,  of  Eoxboro,  Philadelphia,  wrote  me,  in  1875,  that 
he  had  in  his  possession  a  bill,  found  among  the  papers  of  his  grandfather, 
the  Hon.  Daniel  Eodney,  ex-Governor  of  the  State  of  Delaware,  dated 
1783,  for  "materials  for  a  Continental  Flag,"  one  of  the  items  of  which 
■was  "  for  a  piece  of  Green  silk."  Was  green,  excepting  for  the  branches 
of  a  pine-tree,  ever  any  part  of  a  '  continental  flag '  ?  According  to  the 
'  Port  Folio,'  on  the  4th  of  July,  1807,  the  Volunteer  Company  of  Eang- 
ers  of  Georgia  were  presented  with  an  elegant  standard,  the  field  of 
which  was  of  white  lustring,  with  the  accustomed  devices,  the  stripes 
formed  of  alternate  green  and  white,  affording  a  charming  contrast. 
The  words  "  E  Plurihus  Unum  "  above,  the  "  Augusta  Volunteer  Eang- 
ers "  below,  the  eagle,  which  was  incomparably  finished,  as  well  as 
the  stars. 


200  OlllGlN    AND   PROGRESS  OF  THE 

THE  STAKS   ANP   STRirE8,   FKOM  THE  PEACE  OF 
1783   TO    17U5. 

I 

»  ? 

.  dVx.aJL    WcA-a    a>va>0-u<q  v/o  cl  ^ 

H.  W.  Longfellow. 

The  independence  of  the  United  States  of  America  having  been 
recocrnized  by  Great  Britain,  the  stars  and  stripes  became  henceforward 
the  recognized  symbol  of  a  new  nation,  and  their  history  is  an  exhibit 
of  its  military,  naval,  civil,  and  commercial  progress.  Many  incidents 
personal  to  its  history,  however,  it  will  be  interesting  for  us  to  narrate. 
It  wHl  also  be  our  pleasant  duty  to  chronicle  its  first  appearance  m 
various  places,  and  its  progress  in  peace  as  weU  as  its  triumphs  m 


war 


The  treaty  of  peace  %vith  Great  Britain  was  no  sooner  announced 
than  the  white  wings  of  our  commerce  began  to  expand  all  over  the 


FLAG  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES.  291 

watery  globe,  under  the  genial  union  of  the  stars  and  stripes,  display- 
ing them  everywhere  to  the  wondering  gaze  of  distant  nations  and 
the  furthermost  isles  of  the  seas. 

The  honor  of  having  first  hoisted  the  stars  and  stripes  after  the 
treaty  of  peace  in  a  British  port  has  been  claimed  for  several  vessels, 
and  been  the  occasion  of  a  controversy,  in  which  claimants  for  ISTew- 
buryport,  Philadelphia,  Nantucket,  and  New  Bedford  have  taken  part. 
After  a  careful  examination  of  the  conflicting  accounts,  I  am  clearly 
of  opinion  that  to  the  ship  Bedford,  of  Nantucket,  Captain  William 
Mooers,  and  owned  by  William  Rotch,  of  New  Bedford,  must  be  as- 
signed the  honor.  1 

A  London  periodical,  published  in  1783,  thus  speaks  of  her  arrival 
in  the  Thames  :  ^  — 

"  The  ship  Bedford,  Captain  Mooers,  belonging  to  Massachusetts,, 
arrived  in  the  Downs  on  the  3d  of  February,  passed  Gravesend  the  3d, 
and  was  reported  at  the  custom-house  on  the  6th  inst.  She  was  not 
allowed  regular  entry  until  some  consultation  had  taken  place  between 
the  Commissioners  of  the  Customs  and  the  Lords  of  Council,  on  account 
of  the  many  acts  of  Parliament  in  force  against  the  rebels  of  America. 
She  was  loaded  with  four  hundred  and  eighty-seven  butts  of  whale 
oil,  is  American  built,  manned  wholly  by  American  seamen,  wears  the 
rebel  colors,  and  belongs  to  the  island  of  Nantucket,  in  Massachusetts. 
This  is  the  first  vessel  which  has  displayed  the  thirteen  rebellious 
stripes  of  America  in  any  British  port.  The  vessel  is  at  Horsledown, 
a  little  below  the  Tower,  and  is  intended  to  return  immediately  to 
New  England." 

In  the  summary  of  parliamentary  debates  in  the  same  magazine,. 
under  date  February  7,  — 

"  Mr.  Hamnut  begged  leave  to  inform  the  House  of  a  very  recent 
and  extraordinary  event.  There  was,  he  said,  at  the  time  of  his 
speaking,  an  American  ship  in  the  Thames,  with  the  thirteen  stripes 
flying  on  board.  The  ship  had  offered  to  enter  at  the  custom-house, 
but  the  officers  were  all  at  a  loss  how  to  behave.  His  motive  for 
mentioning  the  subject  was  that  ministers  might  take  such  steps  with 
the  American  commissioners  as  would  secure  free  intercourse  between 
this  country  and  America." 

Another  London  newspaper  of  the  same  date  reports  the  Bedford 

1  The  Political  Magazine.  Barnard's  History  of  England  (p.  705),  a  somewhat  rare 
book,  contains  the  same  account.  The  American  and  British  Chronicle  of  War  and 
Politics,  under  date  "Feb.  7,  1783,"  also  records,  "  First  American  ship  in  the  Thames, 
from  Nantucket." 


2y2  UKIULN    AND    I'KtXiKKSS   (iF   THE 

"as  the  fii*st  vessL'l  tliat  1ms  eiiU'ical  the  river  l)elongiii^f  to  the  Unitetl 
States."  AuJ  an  original  letter  I'roni  I'eter  Van  Schaack,  dated  Londun, 
Feb.  10,  1783,  contains  this  paragraph :  "  One  or  two  vessels  with  the 
thirteen  stripes  Hying  are  now  in  the  river  Thames,  and  their  crews 
caressed." 

The  'Gentleman's  Magazine'  for  1783  con-oborates  these  state- 
ments, and  says :  "  Monday,  Feb.  3,  1783  :  Tiou  vessels  were  entered 
at  the  custom-house  from  Nantucket,  an  American  island  near  Ilhode 
Island ;  a  third  ship  is  in  the  river.  They  are  entirely  laden  with  oil, 
and  come  under  a  pass  from  Admiral  Digby,  the  inhabitants  having 
agreed  to  remain  neutral  during  the  war." 

In  further  confirmation  of  the  Bedford's  being  the  first  to  display 
the  stars  and  stripes  in  the  Thames,  we  have  the  following  letter  from 
William  Rotch,  Jr.,  one  of  her  owners.  There  is  a  discrepancy  as  to 
the  date  of  her  arrival;  but  as  his  letter  was  written  nearly  sixty 
years  after  the  event  he  narrates,  it  may  be  presumed  the  contem- 
poraneous accounts  are  right  in  that  respect,  and  that  he  is  wrong. 

"  Xkw  Bedford,  8th  mo.  3d,  1842. 

"Dear  Friend,  —  In  my  reply  to  thy  letter  of  the  21st  ult.,  received  last 
evening,  according  to  the  best  of  my  recollection,  my  father  had  a  vessel 
built  by  Ichabod  Thomas,  at  North  Eiver,  just  before  the  Revolution,  for 
himself  and  Champion  &  Dickasou,  of  London,  for  the  London  trade.  After 
the  war  commenced,  she  laid  at  jS'antucket  several  years,  until  a  license  was 
procured  for  her  to  go  to  London  with  a  cargo  of  oU,  Timothy  Folger,  com- 
mander. Several  gentlemen  from  Boston  took  passage  in  her,  among  Avliom 
were  the  late  Governor  Winthrop,  Thomas  K.  Jones,  .  .  .  Hutchinson,  and 
some  others  whose  names  I  do  not  recollect. 

"In  1781,  Admiral  Digby  granted  thirty  Ucenses  for  our  vessels  to  go 
after  whales.  I  was  then  connected  with  my  father  and  I.  Rodman  in  busi- 
ness. Considerable  oil  was  obtained  in  1782.  In  the  fall  of  that  year,  I 
went  to  N'ew  York,  and  procured  from  Admiral  Digby  licenses  for  the  Bed- 
ford, WUliam  Mooers,  master,  and,  I  tliink,  the  Industry,  John  Chadwick, 
master.  They  loaded.  The  Bedford  sailed  first,  and  arrived  in  the  Downs  on 
the  23d  [3d]  of  February,  the  day  of  the  signing  of  the  preliminary  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  United  States,  France,  and  England  !  and  went  up  to 
London,  and  there  displayed  for  the  first  time  the  United  States  flag.  The 
Industry  arrived  afterwards,  and  was,  I  suppose,  the  second  to  display  it. 
The  widow  of  George  Hayley,  who  did  much  business  with  Xew  England, 
would  visit  the  old  Bedford,  and  see  the  flag  displayed.  She  was  the  sister 
of  the  celebrated  John  Wilkes. 

"  We  sent  the  sloop  Speedwell  to  Aux  Cayes  (St.  Domingo).  She  was 
taken  and  carried  into  Jamaica,  but  her  captain  was  released  one  day  after. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  293 

By  the  treaty,  the  war  ceased  in  that  latitude,  and  she  was  released  when 
she  showed  the  first  United  States  flag  there.  On  her  return  home,  every 
thing  was  very  low  by  the  return  of  peace.  "We  put  on  board  two  hundred 
boxes  of  candles,  and  with  "William  Johnson  (whose  widow,  I  learned,  lives 
at  Quassi)  as  supercargo,  sent  her  to  Quebec,  where  hers  was  the  first 
United  States  flag  exhibited. 

"  Should  thee  -wish  any  further  information  within  my  recollection,  I  will 
freely  communicate  it. 

"  I  am,  with  love  to  thy  wife, 

"  Thy  affectionate  friend, 

"  Wm.  Eotch,  Jun." 

The  London  papers  of  the  6th  notice  the  Bedford's  arrival  on 
the  3d. 

Thomas  Kempton,  of  New  Bedford,  who  was  living  in  1866,  said 
the  Bedford  was  built  at  New  Bedford,  before  the  year  1770,  probably 
by  James  Lowden,  as  he  was  the  proprietor  of  the  only  ship-yard 
there  at  that  time.  She  was  first  rigged  as  a  schooner,  afterwards 
changed  to  a  brig,  and  finally  rebuilt,  raised  upon,  furnished  with  an 
additional  deck,  and  rigged  as  a  sMj).  After  all  these  alterations,  she 
measured  only  170  or  180  tons.^  No  portrait  of  her  has  been  pre- 
served, and  her  history,  after  this  notable  cruise,  is  unknown. 

The  coinciding  testimony  of  these  contemporary  English  periodi- 
cals, the  discussion  in  Parliament,  the  evidence  of '  Barnard's  History,' 
and  the  statement  of  one  of  her  owners,  make  it  conclusive  that  the 
Bedford  was  the  first  vessel  to  hoist  the  stars  and  stripes  in  a  British 
port.  The  honor  has,  however,  been  claimed  for  the  ship  United 
States,  of  Boston,  owned  by  John  Hancock ;  for  a  Newburyport  ship, 
the  Comte  de  Grasse,  Nicholas  Johnson,  master ;  for  the  ship  William 
Penn,  of  Philadelphia,  Captain  Josiah ;  ^  and  for  the  bark  Maria,  be- 
longing to  the  owners  of  the  Bedford. 

In  18.59,  there  were  three  veterans  living  in  Nantucket  who  re- 
membered the  Bedford,  and  who  were  deeply  impressed  with  her 

1  The  Bedford  returned  to  Xantiicket  and  entered  at  the  custom-house,  May  31,  1783, 
from  London.     She  made  a  voyage  to  the  Brazils,  1773-76. 

The  tea-ships  whose  cargoes  were  turned  into  Boston  harbor,  Dec.  16,  1773,  were 
freiglited  by  the  Rotches  for  the  East  India  Company,  and  "a  few  years  since  the 
freight  for  that  tea  was  paid  for,  every  dollar  of  it,  to  the  said  Rotches  by  the  East  India 
Company,  oi  London."  —  Letter  of  F.  C.  Sanford,  of  Nantucket,  Oct.  29,  1871. 

William  Rotch,  Jun.,  died  at  New  Bedford,  April  17,  1850. 

'  A  coiTespondent  of  the  '  Philadelj^hia  Sunday  Dispatch,'  December,  1871,  says, 
that  when  Captain  Josiah  displayed  the  American  flag  in  England,  he  commanded  the 
Andrea  Doria. 


294  nuuiiN  AM)  i'i;()(;i:i;.s8  of  the 

tU'iiarture  lor  Kn-land,  whicli,  alter  tlie  siifTeriiii^s  of  tlie  lon<]f  aiul  dis- 
tressing war,  set'iiiL'd  like  scudiny  out  a  harbinger  of  peace. 

The  i)reliniinaries  of  peace  were  signed  on  the  last  of  November, 
1782,  but  up  to  the  21st  of  .bimiary,  ITS.';!,  it  was  only  known  as  a 
rumor  in  the  British  capital. 

The  first  publication  of  the  terms  of  the  treaty  was  Jan.  28,  1783, 
in  a  postscript  of  the  London  papers,  about  a  week  before  the  arrival 
of  the  Bedford.  The  king's  proclamation  was  not  published  until 
the  loth  of  February,  twelve  days  after  her  arrival.  The  news  was 
first  received  in  Boston,  April  23d,  but  the  treaty  was  not  signed  until 
September.  It  is  no  wonder,  then,  when  the  master  of  the  Bedford 
appeared  and  demanded  to  enter  his  vessel  at  the  custom-liou.se,  with 
her  cargo  of  oil,  coming  from  a  country  and  people  who  were  stUl 
considered  rebels,  his  appearance  created  some  consternation.  That, 
under  the  circumstances,  there  should  have  been  hesitancy  in  entering 
her  was  as  natural  as  that  her  arrival  should  be  noted  and  remem- 
bered. 

Captain  William  Mooers,  the  master  of  the  Bedford,  is  traditionally 
reported  as  one  of  nature's  noblemen,  and  his  prowess  as  a  whaleman 
is  familiar  to  all  who  have  made  themselves  acquainted  with  that  haz- 
ardous branch  of  our  national  enterprise.  Erect  and  commanding  in 
appearance,  standing  over  six  feet,  and  weighing  more  than  two  hun- 
dred pounds,  he  would  have  been  a  marked  man  out  of  a  thousand. 

The  ]\Iadame  Hayley,  alluded  to  in  Mr.  Botch's  letter,  was  a  sister 
of  John  Wilkes,  and  a  valuable  friend  to  Boston  and  America  during 
the  Revolution.  Both  she  and  Mr.  Botch  were  passengers  in  the 
United  States  (one  of  the  claimants  for  the  Bedford's  honors),  on  her 
return  from  London  to  Boston,  as  I  found  on  her  log-book,  which  I 
saw  and  examined  in  1865.  She  was  a  woman  of  much  energy  and 
great  mercantile  endowments.  While  in  Boston,  she  gave  £100 
towards  building  Charlestown  Bridge,  and  was  privileged  to  be  the 
first  person  to  pass  over  it  when  completed.^ 

1  The  first  pier  of  this  bridge  was  laid  on  the  14th  of  June,  1785,  and  the  bridge  was 
thrown  open  for  travel  June  17,  1786.  It  was  considered  at  the  time  the  greatest  enter- 
prise ever  undertaken  in  America.  It  was  the  longest  bridge  in  the  world.'and,  except 
the  abutments,  was  entirely  of  wood.  The  architect  of  the  bridge  was  Captain  John 
Stone,  of  Concord  ;  and  Lemuel  Cox,  an  ingenious  shipwright,  its  constnictor.  The 
opening  of  this  structure  upon  the  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill,  and  only 
eleven  years  after  that  event,  attracted  upwards  of  twenty  thousand  spectators.  A  public 
procession  was  formed,  consisting  of  both  branches  of  the  Legislature,  the  proprietors  and 
artisans  of  the  bridge,  military  and  civil  societies.  Salutes  were  fired  from  the  Castle, 
Copp's  and  Breed's  Hill ;  and  two  tables,  each  three  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long,  were 
laid  on  Breed's  Hill,  at  which  eight  hundred  guests  sat  down,  and  prolonged  the  i'estivi- 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  295 

The  Maria,  a  claimant  of  the  Bedford's  honors,  belonged  to  the 
same  owners.  Mrs.  Farrar,  a  granddaughter  of  William  Eotch,  in  her 
^  Eecollections  of  Seventy  Years,'  says,  "  I  have  often  heard  the  old 
gentleman  [William  Rotch]  tell,  with  pride  and  pleasure,  that  the 
Maria  was  the  first  ship  that  ever  unfurled  the  flag  of  the  United 
States  in  the  Thames."  ^  Mrs.  Farrar  has  certainly  confounded  the 
Maria  with  the  Bedford,  for  the  Maria  was  not  built  until  the  autumn 
of  1782,  and  was  lying  at  Nantucket  when  the  Bedford  was  at  anchor 
in  the  Downs.  Mr.  Rotch's  letter  was  in  reply  to  inquiries  respecting 
the  Maria. 

The  Maria  was  built  at  Pembroke,  now  called  Hanson,  for  a  pri- 
vateer. According  to  her  register  she  was  eighty-six  feet  long,  twenty- 
three  feet  one  inch  wide,  eleven  feet  six  and  a  half  inches  deep,  and 
measured  202||  tons.  She  was  purchased  by  Mr.  Eotch,  and  brought 
by  Captain  Mooers  to  Nantucket,  previous  to  his  sailing  thence  in  the 
Bedford.  On  his  return  from  that  voyage  he  took  the  Maria  to  Lon- 
don with  a  cargo  of  oil,  and  on  a  subsequent  voyage  he  made  in  her 
the  passage  from  Nantucket  to  Dover  in  twenty-one  days.  His  owner 
was  a  passenger  on  board .^  It  is  narrated  that  on  the  passage  Mr. 
Eotch,  during  a  storm,  became  alarmed,  and,  venturing  part  way  out 
of  the  cabin  gangway,  said,  "  Captain  Mooers,  it  woidd  be  more  con- 
ducive to  our  safety  for  thee  to  take  in  some  sail,  thee  had  letter  do 
so  !  "  To  which  Captain  Mooers  replied,  "  Mr.  Eotch,  I  have  under- 
taken to  carry  you  to  England ;  tliere  is  a  comfortable  cabin  for  you  ; 
I  am  commander  of  the  ship,  and  will  look  to  her  safety  ! "  He  could 
not  brook  directions  even  from  his  owner. 

The  Maria,  under  the  name  of  "Maria  Pochoco  "  and  the  Chilian  flag, 
continued  her  cruising  in  the  Pacific  until  1870,  when  a  notice  of  her 
springing  aleak  and  foundering  at  sea  was  published  in  the  San  Fran- 
cisco newspapers.  At  the  time  of  her  loss  she  was  in  such  good  con- 
dition she  bade  fair  to  outlast  her  century.     The  flag  she  first  wore, 

ties  until  evening.  —  See  Snow's  History  of  Boston ;  Drake's  Ancient  Landniarks  of 
Boston,  and  his  Fields  and  Alansions  of  Middlesex;  also  Columbian  Centinel,  and  the  Iii- 
depe7ident  Chronicle.  Doubtless  the  stars  and  stripes  were  flying,  though  no  mention  is 
made  of  them. 

1  Mrs.  P.  A.  Hanaford,  in  her  '  Field,  Gunboat,  Hospital,  and  Prison,'  perpetuates 
Mrs.  Farrar's  erroneous  statement,  and  makes  the  further  mistake  of  calling  William 
Eotch  the  father  of  Mrs.  Farrar,  and  the  Maria  a  whale-ship  at  the  time  of  her  voyage  to 
England.  The  pride  and  pleasure  of  the  venerable  owner  of  the  Maria  were  all  right,  as 
he  was  the  owner  of  the  P>edford,  and  both  ships  were  commanded  by  Captain  Mooers. 

2  The  Maria,  AVilliam  Mooers,  master,  sailed  from  Nantucket  for  London,  7th  mo. 
4th,  1785.  William  and  Benjamin  Eotch,  the  father  and  brother  of  William  Eotch,  .Tun., 
on  board  as  passengers,  going  to  establish  the  \\hale  fishery  from  an  I'jiglish  port. 


290  ORIGIN  AM)   l'K(>(;i;i;ss  of    Till-: 

tliough  ill  shreds,  is  said  to  be  in  existence  in  Xtiw  Jicdlord.  In 
18r)2,  she  was  hauled  upon  the  Fairhaven  railway  for  repairs,  but  no 
essential  improvement  or  alteration  in  lier  model  was  ever  made. 

After  her  voyaj^^e  to  London,  she  was  employed  in  the  whale  fishery, 
and  for  fifty  or  sixty  years  was  owned  by  Samuel  liodman,  of  New 
Bedford,  and  his  descendants.  Our  illustration 
represents  her  as  she  appeared  in.  1851).  It  is 
said  there  then  stood  to  her  credit  8250,000  ; 
and  she  had  been  of  no  expense  to  her 
underwriters  but  once,  and  then  only  for  a 
trilling  amount.  She  made  two  voyages  to  the 
Pacific  within  the  short  space  of. -tvvo  years,  re- 
turning each  time  witli  a  full  cargo  of  oil.  She 
concluded  her  first  ^vhaling  voyage  on  the  2Gth  of 
September,  1795,  .and  sailed  from  New  Bedford, 
"^^^S^^^^^r"^  on  her  twenty-seventh  and  last  Whaling  voyage, 
under  our  flag  on  the  29th  of  September,  1859. 

The  Maria,  1S6"J.  °  .  .   ,      '         . 

On  these  voyages  she  is  credited  with  having 
taken  24,419  barrels  of  sperm,  and  134  barrels,  of  whale  oil.^  In 
1856,  Mr.  Hardhitch,  of  Fairhaven,  who,  sixty-four  years  before,  liad 
assisted  in  making  her  a  suit  of  sails,  was  again  employed  on  the  same 
service  for  her,.  Feb.  24,  1863,  she  was  repaired  and  sold  at  Talcahu- 
ana,  and  passed  under  the  Chilian  flag,  probably  to  avoid  the  risk  of 
her  capture  by  rebel  cruisers.  Her  purchasers,  Messrs.  Burton  & 
Trumbull,  of  Talcahuana,  employed  her  in  the  coal  trade.  In  July  1, 
1866,  she  was  fitted  out  for  Talcahuana,  on  a  whaling  voyage,  under 
command  of  David  Briggs,  of  Dartmouth,  Mass.,  and  foundered  in 
1870,  or,  according  to  another  account,  was  sunk  that  year  in  the 
harbor  of  Payta.^     I  believe  the  latter  to  be  correct. 

The  honor  of  displaying  our  flag  in  England  for  the  first  time  does 
not,  however,  rest  with  any  vessel,  if  a  painted  representation  of  it  can 
be  considered.  In  that  case,  to  John  Singleton  Copley,  of  Boston, 
Mass.,  the  American  painter,  father  of  the  late  Lord  Lyndhurst,  must 
be  assigned  that  honor. 

Elkanah  Watson,  of  Philadelphia,  a  distinguished  patriot  and  phi- 
lanthropist, relates  in  his  '  Eeminiscences '  that,  at  the  close  of  our 
revolutionary  struggle,  having  on  the  occasion  of  Lord  Howe's  relief 
of  Gibraltar  received  one  hundred  guineas  as  the  result  of  a  wager, 

1  A  detailed  statement  of  tliese  voyages,  with  the  names  of  her  commanders  from 
1795  to  1856,  can  be  found  in  Ricketson's  '  History  of  Xew  Bedford.' 
^  Boston  Advertiser,  July  14,  1870. 


^^-^,, 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  297 

and  the  same  day  dining  with  Copley,  he  resolved  to  devote  that  sum 
to  a  portrait  of  himself.  The  painting  was  finished  all  but  the  back- 
ground, that  being  reserved  by  Copley  to  represent  a  ship  bearing 
to  America  intelligence  of  the  acknowledgment  of  independence,  —  a 
rising  sun  gilding  the  stars  and  stripes  of  the  new-born  nation  stream- 
ing from  her  gaff.  All  was  completed  save  the  flag,  which  the  painter 
did  not  think  it  prudent  to  insert,  as  his  gallery  was  a  constant 
resort  of  the  royal  family  and  nobility.  I  dined,  says  Watson,  with 
the  artist  on  the  glorious  5th  of  December,  1782,  after  listening  with 
him  to  the  speech  of  the  king  formally  receiving  and  recognizing  the 
United  States  of  America  as  one  of  the  nations  of  the  earth.  Previous 
to  dining,  and  immediately  after  our  return  from  the  House  of  Lords, 
Copley  invited  us  into  his  studio,  and  there  and  then,  with  a  bold  hand, 
master  touch,  and  American  heart,  attached  to  the  ship  the  stars 
and  stripes.  Thus,  while  the  words  of  acknowledgment  were  still 
warm  from  the  king's  lips,  the  late  rebel,  but  henceforth  free  colors, 
were  displayed  in  his  own  kingdom,  and  within  a  few  rods  of  his  own 
palace.^ 

In  the  grand  federal  procession  in  Philadelphia,  July  4,  1788,  to 
celebrate  the  Declaration  of  Independence  and  the  establishment  of 
the  Constitution,  among  the  numerous  flags  carried  was  one  of  white 
silk,  having  three  fleurs-de-lis  and  thirteen  stars  in  the  union,  over 
the  words,  Sixth  of  Feb.,  1778,  in  honor  of  the  French  alliance. 
The  calico  printers'  flag  had  in  the  centre  thirteen  stars  in  a  blue 
field,  and  thirteen  red  stripes  in  a  white  field,  surrounded  by  an  edge 
of  thirty-seven  prints  of  various  colors,  and  the  motto,  "May  the 
Union  govcrnnunt  protect  the  manufacturers  of  America ! "  The 
merchants  and  traders  carried  the  flag  of  a  merchant  ship ;  in  the 
union  were  ten  illuminated  stars,  and  three  traced  round  in  silver,  but 
not  yet  illuminated.     There  were  also  other  devices  on  the  flag. 

When  Washington  passed  through  Philadelphia,  April  20,  1789, 
en  route  to  ISTew  York,  to  assume  the  office  of  President,  he  was  re- 
ceived with  distinguished  honors.  In  the  river  were  boats  gayly 
adorned  with  ensigns,  "  among  which  was  what  was  then  a  novelty, 
—  an  American  jack  which  bore  eleven  stars,"  representing  the  eleven 

1  Life  and  Reminiscences  of  Elkanali  Watson.  8vo.  Through  the  kindness  of  D.  Ap- 
pleton  &  Co.  we  are  able  to  give  an  engraving  of  this  historic  portrait,  whicli  was  attached 
to  the  *  Reminiscences.'  Greville,  in  his  'Memoirs,'  relates  that  at  a  naval  review  the 
Duke  of  Richmond,  who  hated  George  III.,  when  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Sussex,  during  the 
American  war,  sailed  in  a  yacht  through  the  fleet  where  the  king  was,  with  American 
colors  at  his  masthead.  The  date  of  this  transaction  is  not  given,  and  it  is  not  certain 
the  stars  and  stripes  were  the  American  colors  hoisted. 


298  oKiiiiN  AM)  rKu(:;iiE8.s  UK   iiii; 

States  whicli  liad  at  tliat  time  ratified  the  Con.stitution.  On  the  cen- 
tre <»f  the  lloating  bridge  at  flrey's  Ferry  wa.s  raised  an  American 
onsign  ;  and  on  another  part  of  the  bridge  was  a  high  pole,  which 
bore  a  striped  liberty  cap  urnamented  with  stars,  and  beneath  it  a  blue 
flag,  witli  the  device  ot"  a  rattlesnake,  and  motto,  "  Don't  tread  on  iiic." 

Amid  many  conllicting  claims,  there  seems  little  doubt  that  to  the 
^iiip  Empress,  of  China,  oGO  tons,  Captain  John  (Ireen,  the  honor  be- 
longs of  being  the  iirst  vessel  to  carry  our  Hag  into  the  Chinese  sea. 
She  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  l'2d  of  February,  1784,  touched 
at  Cape  de  Verde  on  her  outward  voyage,  arrived  at  ^Macao  August 
23,  and  at  Whampoa  August  28,  where  she  saluted  the  shipjiing 
witli  thirteen  guns.  On  the  13th  of  September  she  was  visited  with 
great  ceremony  by  the  Hoppo,  or  chief  of  customs,  who  was  saluted  with 
nine  guns  on  his  arriving  on  board,  and  thirteen  guns  on  his  leaving  the 
ship.  She  returned  to  Xew  York  the  11th  of  May,  1785,  having  made 
the  round  voyage  in  less  than  fifteen  months.-^  She  was  wrecked  olf 
Dul)]iu  Bay,  Feb.  22,  1791,  then  bearing  the  name  of  '  Clara.' '^ 

When  the  thirteen  stripes  and  stars  first  appeared  at  Canton  much 
curiosity  was  excited  among  the  people.  News  was  circulated  that  a 
strange  ship  had  arrived  from  the  farther  end  of  the  world,  bearing  a 
flag  as  beautiful  as  a  fiower.  Everybody  went  to  see  the  Fav-lxe- 
cheun,  or  flower-flag  ship.  This  name  at  once  established  itself  in  the 
language,  and  America  is  now  called  Favj-kce-koJi,  the  flower-flag 
country,  and  an  American,  Fcao-kce-koch-yin,  flower-flag  country  man, 
—  a  more  complimentary  designation  than  that  of  red-headed  barba- 
rian, the  name  first  bestowed  on  the  Dutch. 

Foreign  names,  however  unmeaning  originally,  when  written  in 
Chinese  acquire  a  significance  wdiich  is  often  strikingly  curious.  Thus, 
the  two  Chinese  characters,  Yonrj-kee  (Yankee),  signify  the  flag  of  the 
ocean,  and  "Washington,  or  Wo-shinrj-tung,  as  it  would  be  written,  sig- 
nifies rescue  and  glory  at  last.^ 

The  young  prefect  of  I-ton-hien  said  :  "  We  call  the  In-ki-li  (Eng- 
lish) '  Hounrj-mao-jin'  that  is,  'men  of  red  hair,'  because  it  is  said 
they  have  hair  of  that  color ;  and  we  give  to  the  Ya-mchj-kien  (Amer- 
icans) the  name  of  the  '  men  of  the  flower  banner,'  because  they  carry 
at  the  masts  of  their  vessels  a  flag  striped  with  various  colors,  and 
from  the  resemblance  of  the  stars  to  the  blossoms  of  the  plum-tree."  * 

The  ship  Franklin,  of  Salem,  Captain  James  Devereaux,  is  believed 
to  have  been  the  first  to  carry  our  flag  to  Japan.     Slie  sailetl  from 

1  Shaw's  Journal.  2  Xew  York  Evening  Gazette  of  April  2,  1791. 

*  American  newspaper.  *  M.  Hue's  Journey  tlirougli  the  Chinese  Empire. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  299 

Boston  Dec.  11,  1798,  arrived  at  Batavia  April  28,  1799,  reached 
Japan  July  19,  1799,  and  arrived  home  May  20,  1800.  Her  log-book 
is  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  Essex  Institute  at  Salem. 

The  second  vessel  to  carry  our  flag  direct  to  Eastern  seas  was  the 
appropriately  named  sloop  Enterprise,  Captain  Stewart  Dean,  a  little 
sloop-rigged  vessel  of  eighty  tons,  built  at  Albany,  X.  .Y.,  and  like  the 
ordinary  Xorth  Eiver  craft.  She  sailed  in  1785,  and  returned  home 
within  the  year.  The  English  factory  at  Canton,  notwithstanding  the 
jealousies  and  interests  of  trade,  struck  with  the  boldness  of  the  ex- 
periment, received  these  adventurers  with  kindness  and  hospitality. 

The  next  vessel  to  make  the  adventure  to  China  was  the  Canton, 
of  Philadelphia,  Captain  Thomas  Truxton,  which  sailed  from  that  port 
early  in  1786,  and  returned  to  the  same  port  May,  1787,  after  a  suc- 
cessful voyage.  Congi^ess  granted  a  sea-letter  to  this  vessel,  which 
was  addressed  to  the  "  Most  serene  and  most  puissant,  high,  illustri- 
ous, noble,  honorable,  venerable,  wise,  and  prudent  emperors,  kings, 
republics,  princes,  dukes,  earls,  barons,  lords,  burgomasters,  counsellors, 
as  also  judges,  officers,  justiciaries,  and  regents  of  all  the  good  cities  and 
places,  whether  ecclesiastical  or  secular,  who  shall  see  these  presents 
or  hear  them  read,"  —  which  would  seem  to  be  sufficiently  compre- 
hensive for  her  protection. 

The  frigate  Alliance,  the  last  of  the  continental  frigates  retained 
by  government,  was  sold  at  Philadelphia,  June,  1785,  and  converted 
into  an  Indiaman.  She  sailed  from  Philadelphia  for  Canton  in  June, 
1785,  owned  by  Eobert  Morris,  and  under  command  of  Captain 
Thomas  Keed,  and  was  the  second  vessel  from  Philadelphia  to  China. 
She  returned  to  Philadelphia  Sept.  17,  1788.  The  AUiance,  taking 
soundings  off  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  steered  southeast  and  encircled 
all  the  eastern  and  southern  islands  of  the  Indian  Ocean.  Passing  the 
south  cape  of  New  Holland  in  the  course  northward  to  Canton,  between 
the  latitudes  of  7°  and  4°  S.,  and  between  longitudes  156°  and  162°  E., 
they  discovered  a  number  of  islands,  the  inhabitants  of  which  were 
black,  and  had  woolly,  curled  hair.  The  islands  were  also  inhabited 
by  brown  people,  with  straight  black  hair.  Captain  Reed  belie\ed 
himself  to  be  the  discoverer  of  these  islands,  and  named  the  principal 
one  Morris  Island,  and  another  Alliance  Island.^ 

The  honor  of  being  the  first  to  carry  our  flag  around  the  world  is 

1  In  1786,  at  an  entertainment  given  to  the  Americans  by  the  Portuguese  residents 
of  llacao,  at  dessert  the  tables  were  ornamented  with  gilded  paper  castles,  pagodas, 
and  other  Chinese  edifices,  in  which  were  confined  numerous  small  birds.  The  first 
toast  was  "Liberty"  and  at  the  word  the  dooi-s  of  these  paper  prisons  were  set  open  and 
tlie  little  captives  released,  and,  flying  about  in  every  direction,  seemed  to  enjoy  tlieiv 
liberty.  —  SJiaid's  Journal. 


300  OKKJIN    AM)    I'l.MXJKKSS   OF   THE 

assi'Mied  to  the  auspiciously  and  ai»i»r(>pnately  named  ship  Cohunbia, 
^vhiuh,  under  command  of  ("a])tains  Keiidrick  and  tliay,  circumnavi- 
gated tlie  glol.e  in  1780-VtU.i 

The  Columbia,  Captain  John  Kendrick,  and  sloop  Washington,  Cap- 
tiiin  Robert  CJray,  sailed  from  Boston  Se\)t.  30,  1787,  and  proceeded  to 
the  Cape  de  Verde,  and  thence  to  the  Falkland  Islands.  January,  1788, 
they  doubled  Cape  Horn,  and  immediately  after  were  separated  in  a 
violent  gale.  The  Washington,  continuing  her  course  through  the 
racific,  made  the  northwest  coast  in  August  near  latitude  4G°  N. 
Here  Captain  Gray  thought  he  perceived  indications  <jf  the  mouth  of 
a  river,  but  was  unable  to  ascertain  the  fact,  in  consequence  (»f  his 
vessel  grounding  and  his  being  attacked  by  savages.  With  the  loss 
of  one  man  killed  and  the  mate  wounded,  the  Washington  arrived  at 
Nootka  Sound  on  the  17th  of  September,  where,  some  days  later,  she 
was  joined  by  the  Columbia. 

The  two  vessels  spent  the  winter  in  the  Sound ;  and  the  Columbia 
lay  there  during  the  following  summer,  while  Captain  Gray,  in  the 
Washington,  explored  the  adjacent  waters.  On  his  return  to  Nootka, 
it  was  agreed  by  the  two  captains  that  Kendrick  should  take  com- 
mand of  the  sloop  and  remain  upon  the  coast,  while  Captain  Gray,  in 
the  Columbia,  should  carry  to  Canton  the  furs  which  had  been  col- 
lected by  both  vessels.  This  was  done ;  and  Gray  arrived  on  the  Gth 
of  December  at  Canton,  where  he  sold  his  furs,  and  took  a  cargo  of 
tea,  with  which  he  entered  Boston  on  the  10th  of  August,  1790,  hav- 
ing carried  the  thirteen  stars  and  thirteen  stripes  for  the  first  time 
around  the  world.^ 

Kendrick,  immediately  on  parting  with  the  Columbia,  proceeded  with 
the  Washington  to  the  Straits  of  Fuca,  which  he  sailed  through  to  its 
issue  in  the  Pacific  in  latitude  51°  K  To  him  belongs  the  credit  of  as- 
certaining that  Nootka  and  the  parts  adjacent  are  an  island,  to  which 
the  name  of  '  Vancouver  Island '  has  since  been  given.  Vancouver  was 
tlie  British  commander  who  followed  in  the  track  of  the  Americans 
a  year  later.  The  injustice  done  to  Kendrick  is  but  one  of  many  simi- 
lar instances,  —  the  greatest  of  all  being  that  our  continent  bears  the 
name,  not  of  Columbus  or  Cabot,  but  of  a  subsequent  navigator. 

Captain  Kendrick,  during  the  time  occupied  by  Gray  on  his  return 
voyage,  besides  collecting  furs,  engaged  in  various  speculations,  one  of 

1  Bulfinch's  Oregon  and  Eldorado. 

2  "  I  find  the  ship  Columbia  has  been  aiTived  some  days.  The  concerned  in  that  en- 
terprise have  sunk  fifty  per  cent  of  their  capital.  This  is  a  heavy  disappointment  to  them, 
as  they  calculated  every  owner  to  make  an  independent  fortune."  — MS.  Letter,  General 
Henry  Jackson,  dated  Boston,  22d  August,  1790. 


1 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  301 

which  was  the  collection  and  transportation  to  China  of  sandal-wood, 
which  grows  on  many  of  the  tropical  islands  of  the  Pacific,  and  is  in 
great  demand  throughout  the  Celestial  Empire  for  ornamental  fabrics 
and  medicinal  purposes. 

Captain  Kendrick  was  killed  in  exchanging  salutes  with  a  Spanish 
vessel  at  the  Sandwich  Islands.  The  wad  from  one  of  the  Spaniard's 
»uns  struck  him  as  he  stood  on  the  deck  of  his  vessel  in  his  dress- 
coat  and  cocked  hat,  as  the  commander  of  the  expedition,  and  was 
instantly  fatal. 

The  Columbia,  as  has  been  stated,  returned  to  Boston  under 
the  command  of  Gray.  Her  cargo  of  Chinese  articles  did  not  cover 
the  expense  of  the  voyage ;  nevertheless,  her  owners  refitted  her  for  a 
similar  cruise.  Again,  under  the  command  of  Gray,  she  sailed  from 
Boston  on  the  28th  of  September,  1790,  and  arrived  at  Clyoquot,  near 
the  Straits  of  Fuca,  June  5,  1791.  There  and  in  neighboring  waters 
she  remained  through  the  following  summer  and  winter,  trading  with 
the  natives  and  exploring.  Early  in  1792,  Gray  sailed  on  a  cruise 
southward  along  the  coast,  bent  on  ascertaining  the  truth  of  the  ap- 
pearances which  on  his  former  voyage  led  him  to  suspect  the  exist- 
ence of  a  river  discharging  its  waters  at  or  about  the  latitude  of  46°. 
During  this  cruise  he  met  with  Vancouver.  On  the  29th  of  April, 
Vancouver  writes  in  his  journal:  "At  four  o'clock,  a  sail  was  dis- 
covered at  the  westward,  standing  in  shore.  This  was  a  very  great 
novelty,  not  having  seen  any  vessel  but  our  consort  during  the  last 
eight  months.  She  soon  hoisted  American  colors,  and  fired  a  gun  to 
leeward.  At  six  we  spoke  her.  She  proved  to  be  the  ship  Columbia, 
commanded  by  Captain  Eobert  Gray,  belonging  to  Boston,  whence  she 
had  been  absent  nineteen  months.  I  sent  two  of  my  officers  on  board 
to  acquire  such  information  as  might  be  serviceable  in  our  future 
operations.  Captain  Gray  informed  them  of  his  having  been  off'  the 
mouth  of  a  river,  in  latitude  of  46°  10  north,  for  nine  days  ;  but  the 
outset  or  reflux  was  so  strong  as  to  prevent  his  entering." 

Vancouver  gave  no  credit  to  Captain  Gray's  statement,  and  re- 
marks :  "  I  was  thoroughly  persuaded,  as  were  most  persons  of  observa- 
tion on  board,  that  we  could  not  have  passed  any  safe  navigable 
opening,  harbor,  or  place  of  security  for  shipping,  from  Cape  Men- 
docino to  Luca's  Strait." 

After  parting  with  the  English  ship,  Gray  sailed  along  the  coast 
southward,  and  on  the  7th  of  May,  1792, "  saw  an  entrance  which  had 
a  very  good  appearance  of  a  harbor."  Passing  through  this  entrance, 
he  found  himself  in  a  bay,  "  well  sheltered  from  the  sea  by  long  sand- 


302 


OKKUN    AM*    I'KocKKSS   OF   THK 


bai*s  and  spits,"  vlioro  he  remained  three  ihiys  tiiuUiiL;  with  the  na- 
tives, and  then  resumed  his  voyage,  Ijestuwing  on  tlie  place  thus 
discovered  the  name  of  '  Ihilliiicli's  TIarhor,'  in  h(jnor  of  one  of  the 
owners  of  the  ship.     This  is  now  knnwn  as  '  (Iray's  Harbor.' 

At  daybreak  on  the  11th,  after  leaving  liulfinch's  Harlwr,  Gray 
observeil  the  entrance  of  his  desired  jjort,  bearing  east-soutlieast, 
distant  six  leagues,  and  running  into  it  with  all  sails  set,  between  the 
breakers,  he  anchored  at  one  o'clock  in  a  large  river  of  fresh  water 
ten  miles  above  its  mouth.  At  this  spot  he  remained  three  day.s, 
engaged  in  trading  with  the  natives  and  filling  his  casks  with  water ; 
and  then  sailed  up  the  river  al)Out  twelve  miles  along  its  northern 
shore,  where,  finding  lie  could  proceed  no  farther,  from  having  taken 
the  wrong  channel,  he  came  to  anchor.  On  the  20th,  he  recrossed  the 
liar  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  and  regained  the  Pacific. 

On  leaving  the  river,  Gray  gave  it  the  name  of  his  ship,  the 
Columbia,  the  name  it  still  bears.  He  called  the  southern  point  of 
land  at  the  entrance  '  Cape  Adams,'  and  the  northern, '  Cape  Hancock.' 
The  first  of  these  retains  its  name  on  our  maps,  but  the  latter  prom- 
ontory is  known  as  '  Cape  Disappointment,'  a  name  given  to  it  by 
Lieutenant  Meares,  an  English  navigator,  who,  like  Captain  Gray, 
judged  from  appearances  there  was  the  outlet  of  a  river  at  that  point, 
but  failed  finding  one,  and  so  recorded  his  failure  in  the  name  of  this 
conspicuous  headland,  which  marked  the  place  of  his  fruitless  search. 

From  the  mouth  of  Columbia,  Gray  sailed  to  Nootka  Sound,  where 
he  communicated  his  discoveries  to  the  Spanish  commandant,  Quadra ; 
to  whom  he  also  gave  charts,  Nvith  descriptions  of  Bulfincli's  Harbor 
and  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia.  He  departed  for  Canton  in  Septem- 
ber, and  sailed  thence  for  the  United  States. 

The  following  medal  was  struck  in  commemoration  of  these  events. 


The  voyages  of  Kendrick  and  Gray  were  not  profitable  to  the  ad- 
venturers, yet  of  benefit  to  the  country.     They  opened  the  way  to 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  303 

enterprises  in  the  same  region  which  were  eminently  successful.  In 
another  point  of  view,  these  expeditions  were  fraught  with  conse- 
quences of  the  utmost  importance.  Gray's  discovery  of  the  Columbia 
was  the  point  most  relied  upon  by  our  negotiators  for  establishing  the 
claim  of  the  United  States  to  the  part  of  the  continent  through  whicli 
it  flows ;  and  it  is  in  a  great  measure  owing  to  his  discovery  that  the 
State  of  Oregon  is  now  a  part  of  the  American  Eepublic. 

From  the  date  of  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia  Eiver  to  the  war 
of  1812-14,  the  direct  trade  between  the  American  coast  and  China 
was  almost  entirely  in  the  hands  of  citizens  of  the  United  States. 
The  British  merchants  were  restrained  from  pursuing  it  by  the  oppo- 
sition of  their  East  India  Company ;  the  Eussians  were  not  admitted 
into  Chinese  ports,  and  few  ships  of  any  other  nation  were  seen  in 
that  part  of  the  ocean.^ 

The  whaling-ship  Washington,  of  Nantucket,  under  command  of 
Captain  George  Bunker,  was  the  first  to  show  the  American  flag  in  a 
Spanish  Pacific  port. 

About  a  year  after  the  Columbia  had  completed  her  voyage  around 
the  world,  in  the  summer  of  1791,  six  ships,  three  of  them  new  and 
three  old,  were  sent  out  from  Nantucket  to  cruise  for  whales  in  that 
ocean.  All  sailed  under  the  new-born  "  Plag  of  the  free."  The  new 
ships  were  the  Bearce,  Hector,  and  Washington ;  the  old,  the  Ee- 
becca,  Favorite,  and  Warren.  None  of  them  exceeded  two  hundred 
and  fifty  tons  in  burthen,  and  all  were  heavy,  dull  sailers,  without 
copper  on  their  bottoms,  and  poorly  and  scantily  fitted ;  but  they  were 
manned  by  men  of  an  iron  nerve  and  an  energy  that  knew  no  turnino-. 
They  all  passed  around  Cape  Horn,  and  a  part  went  down  the  coast 
while  the  others  remained  on  the  coast  of  Chili. 

The  Washington  went  to  Callao,  on  the  coast  of  Peru,  and  on  the 
4th  of  July,  1792,  two  months  after  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia 
Eiver  by  Gray,  displayed  the  stars  and  stripes  in  that  port.  Lying 
there  was  an  English  whaling  vessel,  and  a  French  brig,  both  manned 
by  Nantucket  men,  who  assisted  Captain  Bunker  in  his  commemora- 
tion of  the  day .2 

In  1790,  a  rather  singular  incident  in  connection  with  the  stars  and 
stripes  happened  at  Londonderry,  in  Ireland.  Mr.  Lemuel  Cox,  who 
had  gained  considerable  reputation  as  tlie  builder  of  the  bridge  con- 
necting Boston  with  Charlestown,  Mass.,^  went  to  England,  where  he 

1  Bulfnich's  Oregon  and  Eldorado,  and  Vancouver's  Voyage.  The  Spanish  silver 
dollars  with  which  the  trade  was  conducted  received  the  name  of  '  Boston  dollars '  from 
tlie  natives,  a  name  they  are  still  known  by. 

2  Letter,  F.  C.  Sanford,  of  Nantucket.  8  See  ante,  p.  293. 


304  oKKJiN  AND  n{(K;KKss  or  tiik 

contracted  for  and  liuilt  sevend  bridges  on  the  same  general  plan ; 
among  others,  for  a  l)ridge  across  the  Foyle,  at  Lomlonderry,  where 
the  river  was  near  one  thousand  feet  widi',  sukI  the  water  forty  feet 
dee])  at  high  water,  —  an  engineering  feat  which  had  been  pronounced 
by  English  engineers  impracticable.  However,  with  twenty  ]>ostoiii- 
ans  and  a  few  laborers  Mr.  Cox  set  to  work  and  comi)leted  this 
bridge,  consisting  of  fifty-eight  arches,  all  (jf  American  oak,  in  four 
months.  Not  a  log  of  the  wood  was  imported  belbre  the  1st  of  May, 
and  the  bridge  was  completed  in  Novemljer.  The  cost  was  about 
£15,000.1 

"  The  bridge  being  completed,  or  nearly  s(3,  on  the  22d  of  November, 
1790,  Mr.  Cox  gave  the  people  leave  to  pass  over  free,  in  order  to  save 
them  the  expense  of  ferriage ;  and  the  first  day  that  persons  were 
admitted  to  pass  over,  with  the  consent  of  the  authorities  he  hoisted 
the  American  iiag  in  the  midst  of  it,  without  the  smallest  inten- 
tion of  giving  the  least  offence.  This  proceeding  was  looked  upon 
by  every  person  in  an  innocent  point  of  view,  until  about  four  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  wlien  detachments  from  the  Fortieth  Eegiment, 
under  the  command  of  the  mayor,  marched  to  the  bridge,  and  a 
desperate  affray  ensued,  the  American  flag  flying  all  the  time.  The 
workmen  were  all  Bostonians,  who,  in  the  very  teeth  of  the  magis- 
tracy and  soldiery,  cut,  with  tlieir  axes,  the  entrance  to  the  bridge 
open,  in  order  to  let  the  people  pass.  Three  men,  viz. Cunning- 
ham,  of  Dollartown,    a    master    weaver,    Alexander    Eeed,   weaver, 

and McLaughlin,  a  laborer,  were  killed,   and   several   severely 

wounded.  During  the  whole  action  the  army  fought  under  the  thir- 
teen stripes ;  and,  what  is  very  extraordinary,  an  officer  fired  the  first 
shot."  2 

This  was  undoubtedly  the  first  action  fought  in  Ireland  under  the 
stars  and  stripes,  and  probably  the  last.  IVIr.  Cox  was  taken  to  the 
jail  for  safe-keeping  from  the  fury  of  the  populace,  and  that  the  dis- 
turbance lasted  several  days  is  evident  from  the  following  notice 
issued  by  the  mayor  three  days  later:  — 

1  Britisli  Chronicle  or  Union  Gazette,  Kelso,  Oct.  15,  1790. 

Murray's  Handbook  of  Ireland  .says  :  "It  was  a  gi-eat  curiosity,  being  1,068  feet  long 
and  40  feet  wide,  and  laid  on  oak  piles,  the  pieces  of  which  were  16  feet  asunder, 
bound  together  by  thirteen  string  pieces  equally  divided  and  transversely  bolted.  It  is 
now  superseded  by  a  new  bridge,  costing  £100,000,  which  serves  both  for  the  Northern 
Counties  Railway  and  a  public  road.  In  Hall's  Ireland,  vol.  ill.  ]).  212,  ('o.x'.s  bridge  is 
described,  and  a  view  of  it  given. 

2  Independent  Chronicle  and  Universal  Advertiser,  March  17,  1791,  and  Coliuiibiaii 
Centinel,  March  19,  1791,  under  heading  '  Londonilerry,'  Nov.  23,  1790. 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  305 

"Common  Hall. 

"  The  mayor  requests  the  citizens  of  'Derry  may  meet  him  this  day  at 
twelve  o'clock,  in  the  town-hall,  in  order  to  consider  of  such  measures  as 
may  be  deemed  necessary  to  maintain  the  laws,  and  preserve  the  public  tran- 
quillity. 

"Tuesday  Morxixg,  Nov.  25,  1790." 

The  cause  of  the  riot  is  not  so  clear,  as  there  are  several  versions 
of  it,  though  all  agree  that  the  American  flag  was  hoisted  over  the 
bridge,  and  in  the  number  of  killed  and  wounded.  It  seems  to  have 
"been  an  Irish  shindy.  The  '  Columbian  Centinel,'  in  commenting 
upon  it,  says :  "  Upon  inquiry,  we  find  Mr.  Cox  received  orders  from 
the  mayor  and  corporation  of  'Derry  to  open  the  bridge  on  the  day 
mentioned,  for  the  benefit  of  the  people,  and,  as  the  workmen  and 
timber  were  American,  permitted  him  to  display  upon  the  bridge  the 
American  flag.  The  novelty  of  these  circumstances  drew  together  a 
large  concourse  of  people.  The  watermen  who  were  thus  thrown  out 
of  business,  collected  in  numbers  to  oppose  the  passing  and  repassing 
-of  the  people ;  this  occasioned  a  fracas,"  &c} 

Later,  the  Centinel  contains  extracts  from  an  English  paper,  assign- 
ing the  following  as  the  causes  of  the  disturbances,  and  which  probably 
is  a  correct  accoimt  of  them.  "  From  the  day  that  the  communication 
was  opened  by  means  of  the  bridge,  an  idea  prevailed  among  the  lower 
orders  of  the  people  that  the  passage  was  to  be  entirely  free,  and  that 
no  toll  would  be  exacted.  .  .  .  For  the  first  week,  the  corporation 
did  not  think  it  necessary  to  assert  their  right,  and  permitted  a  free 
passage.  Unfortunately,  this  indulgence  was  misconstrued,  and  the 
populace  confirmed  in  their  opinion  that  there  was  no  power  to  oblige 
them  to  pay  toll.  Under  this  idea,  when  the  gate  was  erected  for  the 
purpose  of  collecting  toll,  the  multitude,  as  they  came  to  market,  were 
discontented,  and  many,  heated  with  liquor,  refused  to  pay  any  toU 
The  mayor,  sheriff,  and  several  magistrates  endeavored  to  persuade 
them  from  their  illegal  opposition ;  but  the  numbers  increased,  and 
they  boldly  proceeded  down  the  toU-gate  in  spite  of  the  magistrates, 
who  were  obliged  to  caU  for  a  guard  of  soldiers,  and,  the  riot  increas- 
ing, to  bring  to  their  support  nearly  the  whole  of  the  Fortieth  Regiment. 
Tlie  military,  charging  their  bayonets,  drove  the  rioters  across  the 
bridge  to  the  water-side,  but  they  had  no  sooner  got  upon  the  street 
than  they  turned  about  and  gave  battle  to  the  soldiers  with  repeated 
volleys  of  stones  and  brickbats.     Again  the  magistrates  entreated  the 

1  Columbian  Ceritinel,  March  19,  1791. 
20 


30G  (iKIClN    AM)    rUoiiUKSS   OF   Till-: 

rioters  to  disperse,  ami  warned  tliein  (if  the  fatal  conse(|uences  of  their 
outmges ;  but  they  continued  the  attack.  At  first,  the  military  were 
ordered  to  fire  in  the  air,  then  at  the  to[)S  of  houses ;  but  the  desper- 
ation of  the  mob  increasing,  the  soldiers  were  ordered  to  level  their 
muskets.     About  five  in  the  evening  the  mob  dispersed."  ^ 

^Ir.  Cox  returned  to  the  United  States,  where  he  pursued  liis  me- 
chanical tastes,  and  in  179G  was  granted  one  thousand  acres  of  land 
in  Maine  by  the  legislature  of  Massachusetts,  for  his  various  inven- 
tions, and  died  at  Charlestown,  Mass.,  Feb.  18, 180G.  The  rude  wood- 
cut at  the  head  of  the  '  broadside '  circulated  at  the  opening  of  the 
Charlestown  bridge  was  executed  "  by  that  masterpiece  of  ingenuity, 
Mr.  Lemuel  Cox."  ^ 

On  Monday,  May  2,  1791,  H.  B.  M.  ship  Alligator,  28,  Isaac  Coffin, 
Esq.,  commander,  from  Halifax,  arrived  at  Boston,  and  on  passing  the 
Castle  saluted  the  flag  of  the  United  States  with  thirteen  guns,  which 
was  immediately  returned  by  the  fortress.  "  This  mutual  attention  in 
powers,"  says  the  '  Columbian  Centinel,'  "who  w^ere  lately  hostile  to  each 
other,  shows  the  superior  liberality  of  the  age  in  which  we  live,  and 
proclaims  to  the  world  the  verification  of  that  memorable  instru- 
ment, the  Declaration  of  Independence,  in  which  our  political  fathers 
declared  that  they  '  should  hold  the  king  and  subjects  of  Great  Britain 
as  they  did  the  rest  of  the  workl,  —  enemies  in  war ;  in  peace, 
friends.' "  ^ 

This  was  probably  the  first  salute  in  Boston  to  our  flag  by  a  British 
vessel  of  war,  and  it  will  be  observed  her  commander  was  an  Ameri- 
can by  birth.  The  vessel  had  recently  left  England,  only  stopping  at 
Halifax  on  her  passage  out. 

FIFTEEN   STARS   AND   FIFTEEN   STRIPES. 

1795-1818. 

Early  in  1794,  in  consequence  of  the  admission  of  Vermont, 
March  4,  1791,  and  Kentucky,  June  1,  1792,  into  the  sisterhood  of 
the  Union,  an  act  was  passed  increasing  the  stars  and  stripes  on  our 
flag  from  thirteen  to  fifteen,  but  not  to  take  effect  until  ]\Iay,  1795. 

The  act  for  this  alteration  originated  in  the  Senate,  and  when  it 

i  Columbian  Centinel,  April  2,  1791.     Letter  from  LondondeiTy,  Nov.  30,  1790. 
2  See  Francis  S.  Drake's  American  Biogi-apliical  Dictionary,  and  Samuel  Adams  Drake's 
Historic  Fields  and  Mansions  of  Middlesex. 
^  Columbian  Centinel,  May  3,  1791. 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  307 

came  down  to  the  House  was  the  occasion  of  considerable  debate  and 
opposition,  illustrating  the  temper  of  the  time  as  well  as  the  design  of 
the  flag. 

"  Jan.  7,  1794.  The  House  resolved  itself  into  a  committee  of  the 
whole  House  on  the  bill  sent  from  the  Senate,  entitled,  'An  Act 
making  an  alteration  in  the  flag  of  the  United  States.' 

"  Mr.  Goodhue  thought  it  a  trifling  business,  which  ought  not  to 
engross  the  attention  of  the  House,  when  it  was  its  duty  to  discuss 
matters  of  infinitely  greater  consequence.  If  we  alter  the  flag  from 
thirteen  to  fifteen  stripes,  and  two  additional  stars,  because  Vermont 
and  Kentucky  have  been  added,  we  may  go  on  adding  and  altering  at 
this  rate  for  one  hundred  years  to  come.  It  is  very  likely  before 
fifteen  years  elapse  we  shall  consist  of  twenty  States.  The  flag  ouglit 
to  be  permanent." 

In  almost  literal  fulfilment  of  this  opinion,  when  the  flag  was  re- 
modelled, in  1818,  twenty-four  years  later,  the  new  union  contained 
twenty  stars,  representatives  of  as  many  States. 

"  Mr.  Lyman  differed  in  opinion  with  Mr.  Goodhue.  He  thought  it 
of  the  greatest  importance  not  to  offend  new  States. 

"  Mr.  Thatcher  ridiculed  the  idea  of  being  at  so  much  trouble  on  a 
consummate  piece  of  frivolity.  At  this  rate,  every  State  should  alter 
its  public  seal  when  an  additional  county  or  township  was  formed. 
He  was  sorry  to  see  the  House  take  up  their  time  with  such  trifles. 

"Mr.  Greenup  considered  it  of  very  great  consequence  to  inform 
the  rest  of  the  world  we  had  added  two  additional  States. 

"  Mr.  Niles  was  very  sorry  such  a  matter  should  for  a  moment  have 
hindered  the  House  from  going  into  more  important  matters.  He  did 
not  think  the  alteration  either  worth  the  trouble  of  adopting  or  reject- 
ing, but  he  supposed  the  shortest  way  to  get  rid  of  it  was  to  agree  to 
it ;  and  for  that  reason,  and  no  other,  he  advised  to  pass  it  as  soon  as 
possible." 

The  committee  having  agreed  upon  the  alteration,  the  chairman 
reported  the  bill,  and  the  House  took  it  up. 

"  Mr.  Boudinot  said  he  thought  it  of  consequence  to  keep  the  citi- 
zens of  Vermont  and  Kentucky  in  good  humor.  They  might  be 
affronted  at  our  rejecting  the  bill. 

"  Mr.  Goodhue,  continuing  his  opposition,  said  he  felt  for  the  honor 
of  the  House  when  spending  their  time  in  such  sort  of  business ;  ^  but 
since  it  must  be  passed,  he  had  only  to  beg  as  a  favor  that  it  might 

1  What  would  he  say  to  tlie  business  habits  of  our  modern  Congresses,  and  the  time 
wasted  in  frivolous  debates  and  buncombe  sjieeches. 


308  (IKICIN    AM)    I'KoCKKSS    oK    TlIK 

not  appear  upuu  the  juuinal  and  '^o  iiiUj  the  world  as  the  first  bill 
passed  this  session. 

"Mr.  Madisou  was  ior  the  bill  passing. 

"  Mr.  Giles  thought  it  proper  that  the  idea  should  Ijc  preserved  of 
the  number  of  our  States  and  the  number  of  stripes  corresponding. 
The  expense  was  but  trifling,  compared  with  that  ul"  forming  the  gov- 
ernment of  a  new  State. 

"  Mr.  Smith  said  that  this  alteration  would  cost  liim  live  hundred 
dollars,  and  every  vessel  in  the  Union  sixty  dollars.  He  could  not 
conceive  what  the  Senate  meant  by  sending  tliem  such  bills.  He 
supposed  it  was  for  want  of  something  better  to  do.  He  sliould  in- 
dulge them,  but  let  us  have  no  more  alterations  of  the  sort.  Let  the 
flag  be  permanent." 

The  bill  thus  debated  was  finally  passed  and  approved  on  the  13th 
day  of  January,  1794.  It  was  the  first  bill  completed  at  that  session 
of  Congress,  and  reads  as  follows  :  — 

"  Be  it  enacted,  <i-c.,  That  from  and  after  the  first  day  of  May,  one 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-five,  the  flag  of  the  United  States 
be  fifteen  stripes,  alternate  red  and  white ;  that  the  union  be  fifteen 
stars,  white  in  a  blue  field." 

The  same  Congress,  on  the  27th  of  March,  1794,  authorized  the 
building  of  the  frigate  Constitution  and  five  other  frigates,  the  com- 
mencement of  a  new  navy.  The  new  flag  floated  over  her  and  all  of 
our  vessels  of  war  throughout  the  war  of  1812-14. 

"When  Mr.  Monroe,  the  United  States  minister,  presented  his  cre- 
dentials on  the  14th  of  August,  1794,  to  the  French  Eepublic,  and 
communicated  to  the  National  Convention  the  wish  of  his  fellow-citi- 
zens for  the  prosperity  of  the  nation,  the  convention,  on  the  report  of 
the  Committee  of  Public  Safety,  to  whom  his  credentials  had  been  re- 
ferred, decreed  that  he  should  be  introduced  into  the  bosom  of  the 
convention,  and  the  president  should  give  him  the  fraternal  embrace, 
as  a  symbol  of  the  friendship  which  united  the  American  and  French 
people. 

In  the  National  Convention,  Aug.  15,  1794,  the  discussions  on  the 
organization  of  the  several  committees  \vere  commenced,  but  the  de- 
liberation was  soon  after  interrupted  by  the  arrival  of  the  minister 
plenipotentiary  from  the  United  States.  He  was  conducted  into  the 
centre  of  the  hall,  and  the  secretary  read  the  translation  of  his  dis- 
course and  credential  letters,  signed  by  George  Washington,  President 
of  the  United  States,  and  Edmund  liandolph.  Secretary  of  State,  at 
Philadelphia,  May  28.     The   reading   of  this  was   accompanied   by 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  309 

repeated  snouts  of  "  Vive  la  Bepuhlique  !  Vive  les  Bepubliques  !  and 
unusual  acclamations  of  applause."  The  discourse  was  ordered  to  be 
printed  in  the  French  and  American  languages,  and  was,  in  part,  as 
follows :  — 

"  Among  other  things,  Mr.  Monroe  observed  that  as  a  certain  proof 
of  the  great  desire  of  his  countrymen  for  the  freedom,  prosperity,  and 
happiness  of  the  French  Republic,  he  assured  them  that  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  had  requested  the  President  to  make  known  to  them 
this  sentiment,  and  while  acting  agxeeably  to  the  desire  of  the  two 
Houses,  the  President  enjoined  him  to  declare  the  congeniality  of  his 
sentiment  with  theirs." 

The  secretary  then  read  the  letter  of  credentials,  and  the  president 
of  the  convention  replied  :  — 

"  The  French  people  have  never  forgotten  that  they  owe  to  the 
Americans  the  imitation  of  liberty.  They  admired  the  sublime  insur- 
rection of  the  American  people  against  Albion  of  old,  so  proud  and 
now  so  disgraced.  They  sent  their  armies  to  assist  the  Americans, 
and  in  strengthening  the  independence  of  that  country,  the  French, 
at  the  same  time,  learned  to  break  the  sceptre  of  their  own  tyranny, 
and  erect  a  statue  of  liberty  on  the  ruins  of  a  throne  founded  upon 
the  corruption  and  the  crimes  of  fourscore  centuries." 

The  President  proceeded  to  remark  "  that  the  alliance  between  the 
two  republics  was  not  merely  a  diplomatic  transaction,  but  an  alliance 
of  cordial  friendship."  He  hoped  that  this  alliance  would  be  indisso- 
luble, and  prove  the  scourge  of  tyrants  and  the  protection  of  the  rights 
of  man.  He  observed  how  differently  an  American  ambassador  would 
have  been  received  in  France  six  years  before,  by  the  usurper  of  the 
liberty  of  the  people ;  and  how  much  merit  he  would  have  claimed 
for  ha\ing  graciously  condescended  to  take  the  United  States  under 
his  protection.  "At  this  day,"  he  said,  "  it  is  the  sovereign  people 
itself,  represented  by  its  faithful  deputies,  that  receives  the  ambassador 
with  real  attachment,  while  affected  mortality  (?)  is  at  an  end."  He 
longed  to  crown  it  with  the  fraternal  embrace.  "  I  am  charged,"  said 
he,  "  to  give  it  in  the  name  of  the  nation.  Come  and  receive  it  in  the 
name  of  the  American  nation,  and  let  tliis  scene  destroy  tlie  last  hope 
of  the  impious  coalition  of  tyrants." 

The  President  then  gave  the  fraternal  kiss  and  embrace  to  the 
minister,  and  declared  that  he  recognized  James  Monroe  in  tliis 
quality. 

"  It  was  then  decreed,  on  the  motion  of  Mons.  Bayle,  that  the  colors 
of  both  nations  should  be  suspended  at  the  vault  of  tlie  hall,  as  a  sign 


:;i()  (iKHiiN  AM)  i'K(m;ui:s.s  or  iiii-: 

of  pi'iiR'timl  allianre  ami  uiiiitn."  The  Minister  took  liis  seat  on  the 
mouutjiin  un  tlie  left  •»!'  the  rresident,  and  received  the  fraternal  kiss 
fmni  si'veral  deputies.  The  sitting  of  the  convention  was  suspended. 
On  the  25  Fructidor  (Septemlier  2r)th),  about  a  niontli  after  this 
scene,  the  President  "  Bkrn.vkd  of  Saints  "  announced  to  the  conven- 
tion the  receipt  of  a  stand  of  colors  by  the  hands  of  an  ollicer  of  the 
United  States  from  tlie  minister  plenipotentiary  of  the  United  States, 
to  be  placed  in  the  hall  of  the  National  Convention  at  the  side  of  the 
French  colors,  accompanied  by  the  ibllowing  letter :  — 

"  The  Minister  of  the  United  States  of  America  to  the  President  (f  the 
National  Convention : 

"Citizen  President,  —  The  convention  having  decreed  that  the  colors 
of  the  American  and  French  republics  should  be  united  and  stream  together 
in  the  place  of  its  sittings,  as  a  testimony  of  the  union  and  friendsliip  wliich 
ought  to  subsist  for  ever  between  the  two  nations,  I  thouglit  that  I  could  not 
better  manifest  the  deep  impression  which  this  decree  has  made  on  me,  and 
express  the  thankful  sensations  of  my  constituents,  than  by  procuring  their 
colors  to  be  carefully  executed,  and  in  offering  them  in  the  name  of  the 
American  people  to  the  representatives  of  the  French  nation. 

"  I  have  had  them  made  in  the  form  lately  decreed  by  Congress  [fifteen 
stripes  and  fifteen  stars],  and  have  trusted  them  to  Captain  Barney,  an  offi- 
cer of  distinguished  merit,  who  has  rendered  us  great  services  by  sea,  in  tlie 
course  of  our  revolution.  He  is  charged  to  present  and  to  deposit  tliem  on 
the  spot  which  j^ou  shall  judge  proper  to  appoint  for  tliem.  Accept,  citizen 
president,  this  standard  as  a  new  pledge  of  the  sensibility  with  wluch  the 
American  people  always  receive  the  interest  and  friendship  which  their  good 
and  brave  allies  give  them  ;  as  also  of  the  pleasure  and  ardor  witli  which  they 
seize  every  opportunity  of  cementing  and  consolidating  the  union  and  good 
understanding  between  the  two  nations." 

Captain  Barney  being  ordered  to  be  admitted,  entered  the  bar  with 
the  standard,  amidst  universal  shouts  of  applause,  which  also  accom- 
panied the  reading  of  Mr.  Monroe's  letter. 

In  delivering  the  standard,  Captain  Barney  said :  — 
"  CiTiZEX  President  :  Having  been  directed  by  the  minister  plen- 
ipotentiary of  the  United  States  of  America  to  present  the  National 
Convention  the  flag  asked  of  him,  —  the  flag  under  the  auspices  of 
■which  I  have  had  the  honor  to  fight  against  our  common  enemy  dur- 
ing the  M-ar  which  has  assured  liberty  and  independence,  —  I  discharge 
the  duty  with  the  most  lively  satisfaction,  and  deliver  it  to  you. 
Henceforth,  suspended  on  the  side  of  that  of  the  French  Republic,  it 
will  become  the  symbol  of  the  union  which  subsists  between  the  two 


1 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  311 

nations,  and  last,  I  hope,  as  long  as  the  freedom  which  they  have  so 
bravely  acquired  and  so  wisely  consolidated." 

A  member  said :  "  The  citizen  who  has  just  spoke  at  the  bar  is  one 
of  the  most  distinguished  sea-officers  of  America.  He  has  rendered 
great  service  to  the  liberty  of  his  country,  and  he  could  render  the 
same  to  the  liberty  of  France.  I  demand  that  this  observation  be 
referred  to  the  examination  of  the  Committee  of  Public  Safety,  and 
that  the  fraternal  embrace  be  given  to  this  brave  officer." 

Tliis  proposition  was  received  with  applause.  Several  voices  cried, 
"  The  fraternal  embrace  ! "  which  was  decreed ;  and  Barney  went  up  to 
the  chair  of  the  President  and  received  the  fraternal  embrace,  amidst 
unanimous  acclamation  and  applause.  The  fraternal  embrace  con- 
sisted of  a  hug,  and  a  kiss  upon  each  cheek.  A  member  arose  in  his 
place  (a  Matthieu)  and  proposed  that  their  new  brother,  citoyen  Bar- 
ney, should  be  employed  in  the  navy  of  the  republic.  The  resolution 
passed  unanimously ;  but  Barney  was  at  the  time,  from  his  other  en- 
gagements, obliged  to  decline  the  honor.  Subsequently  he  received 
and  accepted  the  rank  of  capitaine  de  vaisseau  clu  premier,  and  a  com- 
mission as  chef  de  division  des  armees  navales,  answering  to  the  rank 
of  commodore  in  our  service. 

When  the  grand  ceremony  decreed  by  the  ISTational  Convention  in 
honor  of  Jean  Jacques  Rousseau,  on  depositing  his  remains  in  the 
Pantheon,  took  place,  Mr.  Monroe  and  all  the  Americans  at  Paris 
were  especially  invited  to  be  present.  The  population  of  Paris  united 
in  one  moving  mass  to  honor  them.  The  urn  containing  the  ashes  of 
Jean  Jacques  was  placed  on  a  platform  erected  over  the  centre  of  the 
basin  of  the  principal  jet  d'ecm  in  the  Garden  of  the  Tuileries,  where 
it  remained  until  the  procession  was  formed  and  prepared  to  advance  ; 
it  was  then  taken  down,  and,  surrounded  by  the  trappings  of  mourn- 
ing, removed  to  the  place  assigned  it  in  the  procession.  The  Ameri- 
can minister,  and  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  who  accompanied 
him,  were  placed  immediately  in  front  of  the  members  of  the  National 
Convention,  who  appeared  in  official  costumes.  The  American  flag, 
so  recently  presented  to  the  convention  by  Mr.  Monroe,  borne  by 
Captain  Joshua  Barney  and  a  nephew  of  Mr.  Monroe,  preceded  the 
column  of  Americans,  an  honor  which  the  National  Convention  ap- 
pointed to  them.  A  tricolored  cordon,  supported  by  the  orphan 
sons  of  revolutionary  soldiers,  "  les  eleves  de  la  nation,"  crossed  the 
front,  and  led  down  each  flank  of  the  two  columns  composed  of 
Americans  and  the  members  of  the  National  Convention.  These 
youths  were  dressed  in  blue  jackets  and  trousers,  and  scarlet  vests, 
and  were  several  hundreds  in  number.     The  procession  moved  from 


:;rj  okkjix  ani>  1"i;(>(;ki;ss  ok   iiik 

the  rahue  ol"  the  Tuilcries  down  the  piiiieiiml  avenue  of  the  ^'arden, 
to  the  Place  de  la  Revolution,  thence,  by  the  boulevards,  through  Rue 
St.  Honore  and  other  principal  streets  to  the  Pont  Neuf,  and  thence 
to  the  Pantheon.  The  window.s  of  every  hou.se  from  top  to  bottom, 
on  either  hand,  throughout  the  whole  extent  of  the  march,  were 
crowdeil  with  full-dressed  females  waving  handkerchiefs  and  small 
tricolored  flags,  while  from  every  story  of  each  house  a  large  flag  of 
the  same  description  permanently  projected.  The  distance  from  the 
Palace  of  the  Tuileries  to  the  Pantheon,  computing  the  meandering 
of  the  procession,  was  about  two  miles.  Arrived  at  the  Pantheon, 
Mr.  Monroe  and  his  suite  were  the  only  persons  pei-niitted  to  enter 
the  National  Convention,  to  witness  the  conclusion  of  the  ceremony.^ 

It  is  a  little  singular  that,  after  all  these  ceremonies,  Mr.  Monroe 
omitted  to  make  any  mention  of  tliem  in  his  ofticial  despatches.  In  a 
postscript  to  a  despatch  to  the  Secretary  of  State,  dated  March  6, 1795,^ 
six  mouths  after  these  occurrences,  he  says  he  had  "  forgotten  to  notify 
him  otticially  of  his  having  presented  the  French  National  Convention 
with  our  flag,"  and  adds  :  "  It  was  done  in  consequence  of  an  order  of  its 
body,  for  its  suspension  in  its  halls,  and  an  intimation  from  the  Presi- 
dent himself  that  they  had  none,  and  were  ignorant  of  the  model." 

In  return,  on  the  1st  of  January,  1796,^  the  minister  of  the  French 
Republic  to  the  United  States  presented  the  colors  of  France  *  to  the 
United  States,  and  addressed  the  President  as  follows  :  — 

"  Mr.  President  :  I  come  to  acquit  myself  of  a  duty  very  dear  to 
my  heart.     I  come  to  deposit  in  your  hands,  and  in  the  midst  of  a 

1  Life  of  Commodore  Joshua  Barney. 

2  American  State  Papers,  vol.  i.  1832  edition,  p.  698. 

8  Washington  received  a  communication  from  the  French  minister  on  the  22d  of 
December,  and  proposed  to  receive  the  colors  on  the  first  day  of  the  new  year,  a  day  of 
general  joy  and  congratulation. 

*  These  colors  were  the  tricolor  which  had  been  established  by  the  following  decree, 
and  succeeded  the  colors,  &c.,  decreed  by  the  National  Assembly,  Oct.  21,  1790,  and 
were  hoisted  over  the  fleet  at  Brest  with  ceremonies  and  festivity,  Jan.  11,  1791. 

Feb.  15,  1793.  The  National  Convention  of  France,  in  consequence  of  the  report  of 
St.  Andre,  passed  the  following  decree  :  — 

"  1st.  The  maritime  flag  decreed  by  the  National  Constitutional  Assembly  is  sup- 
pressed. 

"  2d.  The  national  flag  shall  henceforth  be  formed  of  the  three  national  colors  disposed 
in  three  equal  bands,  put  in  a  vertical  direction,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  blue  be  affixed 
to  the  stafi"  of  the  flag,  the  white  in  the  middle,  and  the  red  floating  in  the  air. 

"  3d.  The  flag  called  the  'jack,'  and  the  flag  on  the  stern  of  the  ships,  shall  be  disposed 
in  the  same  manner,  obsei-ving  the  iisual  proportion  of  size. 

"  4th.  The  streamers  (pennants)  shall  likewise  be  formed  of  three  colors  ;  of  wliich 
one-fifth  shall  be  blue,  one-fifth  white,  and  three-fifths  red. 

"  5th.  The  national  flag  shall  be  hoisted  in  all  the  ships  of  the  republic  on  the  20th  of 
May;   and  the  minister  of  marine  shall  give  the  necessary  orders  for  that  pui-j'ose." 


I 


FLAG  OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  313 

people  justly  renowned  for  their  courage  and  their  love  of  liberty,  the 
symbol  of  the  triumphs  and  of  the  enfranchisement  of  my  nation.  .  .  . 
The  National  Convention,  the  organ  of  the  will  of  the  French  nation, 
have  more  than  once  expressed  their  sentiments  to  the  American 
people ;  but,  above  all,  these  burst  forth  on  that  august  day,  when  the 
minister  of  the  United  States  presented  to  the  national  representation 
the  colors  of  his  country.  Desiring  never  to  lose  recollections  so  dear 
to  Frenchmen,  as  they  must  be  to  Americans,  the  convention  ordered 
that  these  colors  should  be  placed  in  the  hall  of  their  sittings.  They 
had  experienced  sensations  too  agreeable  not  to  cause  them  to  be  par- 
taken of  by  their  allies,  and  decreed  that  to  them  the  national  colors 
should  be  presented. 

"  Mr.  Peesident  :  I  do  not  doubt  their  expectations  will  be  fulfilled, 
and  I  am  convinced  that  every  citizen  will  receive,  with  pleasing 
emotion,  this  jElag,  elsewhere  the  terror  of  the  enemies  of  liberty,  here 
the  certain  pledge  of  faithful  friendship ;  especially  when  they  recol- 
lect that  it  guides  to  combat  men  who  have  shared  their  toils,  and 
who  were  prepared  for  liberty,  by  aiding  them  to  acquire  their  own." 

General  Washington,  in  his  reply  the  same  day  to  this  address, 
after  expressing  his  congratulations  on  the  formation  and  establish- 
ment of  the  French  Eepublic,  said :  "  I  receive,  sir,  with  lively  sensi- 
bility, the  symbol  of  the  triumphs  and  of  the  enfranchisement  of  your 
nation,  the  colors  of  France,  which  you  have  now  presented  to  the 
United  States.  The  transaction  will  be  announced  to  Congress,  and 
the  colors  will  be  deposited  with  those  archives  of  the  United  States 
which  are  at  once  the  evidence  and  the  memorial  of  their  freedom  and 
independence.  May  these  be  perpetual !  and  may  the  friendship  of 
the  two  republics  be  commensurate  with  their  existence  ! "  ^ 

The  House  proceeded  at  once  to  consider  the  above,  and 

"  Resolved,  unanimously,  That  the  President  be  requested  to  make 
known  to  the  representatives  of  the  French  people  that  this  House 
had  received  with  the  most  sincere  and  lively  sensibility  the  commu- 
nication of  the  Committee  of  Public  Safety,  dated  the  21st  of  October, 
1794,  accompanied  by  the  colors  of  the  French  Eej^ublic ;  and  to 
assure  them  that  the  presentation  of  the  colors  of  the  French  Eepub- 
lic to  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  is  deemed  the  most  honorable 
testimonial  of  the  existing  sympathies  and  affections  of  the  two  repub- 
lics founded  upon  their  solid  and  reciprocal  interests  ;  and  that  this 
House  rejoices  in  the  opportunity  thereby  afforded  to  congratulate 
the  French  nation  upon  the  brilliant  and  glorious  achievements  which 
have  been  accomplished  under   their  influence  during  the  present 

1  American  State  Papers,  3d  ed.,  vol.  ii.  p.  100. 


;;14  OKICI.N    AM>    J'liOUKESS   OF   TJIK 

alllictiug  war,  ami  eoiilideiitly  hopes  that  tho.su  achicveineuts  will  be 
uttL'Uik'd  witli  tlie  perfect  attainment  of  their  object,  —  the  permanent 
establishment  of  the  liberties  and  happiness  of  a  i^^eat  ami  magnani- 
mous people." 

]\Ir.  (iiles  and  Mr.  Smith  were  appointed  a  committee  to  wait  upon 
the  President  with  this  resolution.^ 

Mr.  Adet,  the  French  minister  to  the  United  States,  was  not  satis- 
fied with  this  disposition  of  the  tricolor,  and  nine  days  later  writes  to 
I\Ir.  rickering,  Secretary  of  State,  thus  :  "  When  the  National  Conven- 
tion decreed  that  the  French  Hag  should  Ite  presented  by  its  minister 
to  the  United  States,  there  was  but  one  opinion  as  to  the  place  in 
which  it  should  be  deposited.  A  decree  had  placed  yours  in  the  hall 
of  the  legislative  body.  Every  one  thought  tliat  the  French  flag 
would  with  you  receive  the  same  honor ;  all  my  fellow-citizens  liave, 
one  after  another,  contemplated  that  pledge  of  your  friendship,  and 
each  one  believed  that  the  Americans  would  also  have  the  same  eager- 
ness to  view  the  symbol  of  the  enfranchisement  of  a  friendly  nation, 
who,  like  them,  had  purchased  their  liberty  at  the  price  of  blood. 
This  expectation  has  not  been  fulfilled,  and  it  has  been  decided  that 
the  French  flag  shall  be  shut  up  among  the  archives.  Wliatever  may 
be  the  expression  of  friendship  in  the  answer  of  the  President,  liow- 
ever  amicable,  also,  are  the  resolutions  of  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives, I  cannot  doubt,  sir,  that  the  order  made  for  preserving  a  flag 
which  the  republic  sent  only  to  the  United  States  will  l)e  looked 
upon  by  it  as  a  mark  of  contempt  or  indifference.  Pride,  sir,  you 
know,  is  the  portion  of  a  free  people ;  and  it  is  never  wounded  but  at 
the  expense  of  friendship.  The  present  circumstances  are  extremely 
delicate ;  and  when  I  am  convinced  the  American  government  had  no 
intention  of  leading  the  French  Ptepublic  to  think  that  the  gift  of  her 
flag  is  worth  nothing  in  its  eyes,  should  it  not  give  her  authentic 
proof  of  it  ?  Would  it  not  be  convenient  to  fix  this  flag  in  a  similar 
place  to  that  which  yours  occupies  in  France,  and  where  the  national 
honor  expected  to  see  it  ? " 

Mr.  Pickering,  in  his  reply,  dated  Jan.  15,  1796,  regrets  that  the 
real  and  essential  friendship  of  two  free  people  should  be  wounded  by 
a  circumstance  of  this  kind,  resulting  from  the  different  ideas  they 
entertain  of  the  mode  most  proper  for  preserving  the  sign  of  tlieir  lib- 
erty, and  of  the  victories  and  triumphs  by  which  it  was  acquired,  and 

1  American  State  Papers,  3d  ed.,  vol.  ii.  p.  TOO.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know 
the  further  history  of  these  colors  thus  officially  received,  as  also  of  the  stars  and  stripes 
presented  to  the  National  Convention  by  Jlr.  Monroe.  Is  the  French  flag  still  "shut  up 
among  the  archives  "  of  the  State  Department  ? 


I 


FLAG  OF  THE   UNITED   STATES.  315 

'Calls  to  mind  that  the  representatives  of  the  French  people  assembled 
in  one  room,  and  that  their  own  colors  were  exhibited  there  when  it 
was  decreed  the  colors  of  the  United  States  should  be.  That,  on  the 
contrary,  the  people  of  the  United  States  were  represented  by  the 
President  or  Executive,  the  Senate,  and  the  House  of  Eepresentatives, 
the  President  being  the  sole  constitutional  organ  of  communication 
with  foreign  nations.  "When,  therefore,  the  colors  of  France  were 
delivered  to  the  President,  they  were  in  the  only  proper  manner  pre- 
sented to  the  people  of  the  United  States  of  America,  for  wdiom  the 
President  is  the  only  constitutional  depositary  of  foreign  communica- 
tions. Of  these,  the  President  transmits  to  the  two  Houses  of  Con- 
gress such  as  he  thinks  proper  for  their  information ;  and  thus  the 
colors  of  France  were  exhibited  to  their  view.  But  the  United  States 
have  never  made  a  pulilic  display  of  their  own  colors,  except  in  their 
ships  and  in  their  military  establishments."  "  Under  these  circum- 
stances, what  honor  could  be  shown  to  the  colors  of  France  more  re- 
spectful than  to  deposit  them  with  the  e\'idences  and  memorials  of 
our  own  freedom  and  independence  ?  If  to  the  United  States  only 
the  colors  of  France  have  been  presented,  I  answer  that  the  colors  of 
France  alone  have  been  deposited  with  our  national  archives,  that 
both  may  be  preserved  with  equal  care."  He  closes  with  this  digni- 
iied  rebuke  to  the  minister  for  dictating  the  proper  place  for  the  de- 
posit of  the  French  flag :  "  I  must  also  remark  that  the  people  of  the 
United  States  have  exhibited  nowhere  in  their  deliberative  assemblies 
any  public  spectacles  as  the  tokens  of  their  victories,  the  symbols  of 
their  triumphs,  or  the  monuments  of  their  freedom.  Understanding 
in  what  true  liberty  consists,  contented  with  its  enjoyment,  and  know- 
ing how  to  preserve  it,  they  reverence  their  own  customs,  while  they 
respect  those  of  their  sister  republic.  This  I  conceive,  sir,  is  the  way 
to  maintain  peace  and  good  harmony  between  France  and  the  United 
States,  and  not  by  demanding  an  adoption  of  the  manners  of  the  other : 
in  these  we  must  be  mutually  free."  "  This  explanation,  sir,  I  hope 
will  be  satisfactory  to  you  and  to  your  government,  and  in  concur- 
rence with  the  manner  of  receiving  the  French  colors,  and  the  unani- 
mous sentiments  of  affection  and  good  wishes  expressed  on  the 
occasion  by  the  President,  the  Senate,  and  the  House  of  Eepresenta- 
tives, effectually  repel  every  idea  that  could  wound  the  friendship 
subsisting  between  the  two  nations."  ^ 

1  American  State  Papers,  1832,  vol.  i.  p.  656.  This  captious  Frenchman,  a  few 
months  later,  made  official  complaint  that  the  'Philadelphia  Directory'  for  1796  gave 
precedence  on  its  list  of  foreign  ministers  to  the  minister  of  Great  Britain  over  those  of 


316  OKii.ix  WD  i'i;(h;ue^.s  ov  tiik 

In  1707,  tlie  little  .-.liip-ii'^gccl  boat  Betsey,  of  only  ninety  tons, 
Captain  Edmund  Fanning,  sailed  IVoni  New  York,  and  carried  the 
stars  and  stripes  around  the  world  ;  she  returned  at  the  end  of  two  years 
with  a  valuable  cargo  of  silks,  teas,  china,  and  nankeens,  and  with  a 
healthy  crew  of  young  fellows  all  decked  in  China  silk  jackets  and 
blanched  chip  hats  trimmed  with  blue  ribbons.  The  ship  presented  a 
daily  sight  at  the  Flymarket  wharf,  where  hundreds  were  daily  vis- 
itors to  see  a  ship  of  war  in  beautiful  miniature,  with  a  battery  tier 
of  guns  fore  and  aft.  The  voyage  was  a  successful  one,  and  resulted 
in  one  thousand  dollars  apiece  to  the  seamen,  and  gifts  of  silk,  nan- 
keen, &c.  The  Betsey  was  at  first  intended  for  a  New  York  and 
Charleston  packet,  and  rigged  as  a  brig.  She  was  built  in  New  York, 
in  1792,  and  so  far  up  town  as  to  be  launched  across  three  streets,  her 
master-builder  having  a  fancy  to  build  her  before  his  own  door  in 
Cheapside  Street.  She  is  probably  the  smallest  sliip  that  ever  com- 
pleted the  circumnavigation  of  the  globe. 

Every  thing  connected  with  the  frigate  Constitution,  of  glorious 
memories  and  victories,  still  existing  to  stimulate  the  patriotism 
of  our  naval  aspirants,  is  of  interest,  and  we  are  happy  to  be  able  to 
record  the  name  of  the  person  who  first  hoisted  our  flag  over  her,  with 
no  conception  of  the  glorious  history  she  would  make  for  it.  Her  keel 
was  laid  in  1794,  but  she  was  not  launched  until  Oct.  21,  1797.  It 
was  intended  she  should  be  the  first  vessel  of  the  new  and  permanent 
navy.  But  two  of  the  six  frigates  ordered  to  be  built  under  the  same 
law  were  launched  before  her ;  viz..  The  United  States,  launched  July 
10,  1797,  and  destroyed  at  Norfolk,  April  20,  1861  ;  and  the  Constel- 
lation, launched  Sept.  7,  1797,  broken  up  in  1854,  and  now  repre- 
sented by  a  razee  ship  of  the  same  name. 

The  Constitution,  better  known  as  '  Old  Ironsides,'  often  repaired 
and  rebuilt,  remains  of  the  same  model,  and  is  of  the  same  tonnage 
and  general  appearance  as  when  launched.  She  was  modelled  by 
Joshua  Humphries,  and  built  by  George  Claghorne  and  Mr.  Hartt,  of 
Boston. 

When  ready  to  be  launched,  Commodore  Samuel  Nicholson,  who 
had  the  superintendence  of  her  construction,  left  the  ship-yard  to  get 
his  breakfast,  leaving  express  orders  not  to  hoist  any  flag  over  her 
until  his  return,  intending  to  reserve  that  honor  to  himself.  Among 
the  workmen  upon  her  was  a  shipwright  and  caulker  named  Samuel 
Bentley,  who,  with  the  assistance  of  Harris,  another  workman,  bent 

France  and  Spain.     Mr.  Pickering,  of  course,  replies  that  the  United  States  has  no  con- 
trol over  the  publication  of  almanacs  and  directories. 


FLAG   OF    THE   UNITED   STATES.  317 

on  and  hoisted  the  stars  and  stripes  during  'the  commodore's  ab- 
sence. When  the  commodore  retin^ned  'and  saw  the  flair  floating 
over  her,  he  was  very  wrathy,  and  expressed  himself  to  the  offenclino- 
workmen  in  words  more  strong  than  polite.  Could  he  have  foreseen 
the  future  of  the  noble  frigate,  he  would  have  been  still  more  excited 
at  Bentley's  little  coup  cVetat.  He  had,  however,  the  satisfaction  of 
being  the  first  to  command  her,  and  she  was  the  first  of  the  new 
frigates  to  carry  the  fifteen  stars  and  fifteen  stripes  under  canvas 
upon  the  deep  blue  sea.     Bentley  died  in  Boston,  in  1852. 

The  fifteen  stars  and  fifteen  stripes  were  worn  by  the  Constitution 
before  Tripoli,  and  throughout  the  war  of  1812.  It  was  the  flao-  worn 
by  the  Constellation  in  her  actions  with  L'Insurgente  and  La  Ven- 
geance ;  the  flag  that  waved  over  Derne ;  the  flag  of  Lake  Erie,  Fort 
McHenry,  and  New  Orleans,  and  of  our  naval  victories  on  the  Atlan- 
tic ;  and  which  was  carried  around  both  Cape  Horn  and  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  in  the  Essex,  the  first  United  States  vessel  of  war  to 
show  a  pennant  beyond  either. 

On  the  6th  of  January,  1800,  the  Essex,  Captain  Edward  Preble, 
sailed  from  New  York  for  Batavia,  in  company  with  the  Congress. 
When  six  days  out,  the  Congress  was  dismasted,  and  the  Essex, 
knowing  nothing  of  the  disaster,  proceeded  on  her  voyage  alone. 

On  the  28th  of  March,  1800,  she  doubled  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope 
on  her  outward  voyage,  and  on  the  27th  of  August,  1800,  repassed  it 
after  a  tempestuous  passage  on  her  return  home,  and  thus  was  the 
first  vessel  of  the  ITnited  States  navy  to  pass  and  repass  that  stormy 
barrier,  rightly  named  by  its  discoverer  ''  Cabo  de  las  Tormentas."  It 
was  also  the  good  fortune  of  the  Essex  under  Commodore  David 
Porter,  on  her  last  and  most  celebrated  cruise,  to  be  the  first  vessel 
of  our  navy  to  pass  around  Cape  Horn.  The  Essex  left  St.  Catharine's, 
Brazil,  on  the  26th  of  January,  1813,  passed  the  Cape  on  the  14th  of 
February,  and,  after  a  most  stormy  and  tempestuous  time  in  weather- 
ing it,  encountered  a  pleasant  southwest  breeze  in  the  Pacific  Ocean 
on  the  5th,  and  arrived  off  Valparaiso  on  the  13th  of  March,  where 
she  anchored  on  the  15th  of  the  same  month. 

The  Cape  was  made  on  the  14th  of  February  under  the  promising 
auspices  of  a  tolerably  clear  horizon,  a  moderate  wind  from  the  west- 
ward, and  a  bright  sun.  Every  man  was  exulting  in  their  escape 
from  the  dreaded  terrors  of  Cape  Horn,  when  suddenly  a  tempest 
burst  upon  the  ship  which  raised  an  irregular  and  dangerous  sea, 
and  reduced  her  flowing  canvas  to  storm  staysails.  Storm  succeeded 
storm,  with  intervals  of  deceitful  calm,  which  encouraged  the  making 


3l(S  oiJKJiN  AND  i'i:()(;ki:ss  ok  tiik 

of  sail,  antl  aiMiiil  lu  the  labor  ol'  lliu  hard-\vorkin<i;  crew,  wlio  wcni 
imiiK'iliately  forced  to  reef  tigain,  to  meet  the  ooininy;  blast. 

On  the  last  day  of  February,  being  in  latitude  HO"  S.,  Ca]itain 
Porter,  as  his  ship  glided  on  a  smooth  sea  before  a  modemte  breeze, 
congratulated  himself  upon  the  cheering  prospect,  and  made  prepara- 
tions for  fine  weather,  thinking  the  dangers  and  disagreeable  attend- 
ants of  a  passage  around  the  Cape  all  over.  The  wind,  however,  soon 
freshened  to  a  gale,  and  l)lew  with  a  fury  exceeding  any  thing  before 
experienced  during  the  Aoyage.  It  was  ho])ed,  Irom  the  excessive 
violence  of  the  wind,  that  it  would  soon  blow  out  its  strength.  This 
hope  failing,  all  on  board,  worn  out  with  fatigue  and  anxiety,  alarnu'd 
by  the  terrors  of  a  lee-shore,  and  in  nioinentary  expectation  of  the  loss 
of  the  masts  and  bowsprit,  began  to  consider  their  safety  hopeless. 
The  ship,  with  her  water-ways  gaping  and  her  timbers  separating 
widely  from  the  heavy  and  continued  straining  to  wiiicli  slie  had 
been  so  long  exposed,  now  made  a  great  deal  of  water,  and,  to  add 
to  the  fearfulness  of  the  danger,  the  pumps  had  become  choked.  The 
sea  meantime  had  arisen  to  a  great  height,  threatening  to  swallow  the 
ship  at  every  roll.  For  two  days  the  storm  continued  unabated,  but 
as  the  good  ship  had  resisted  its  violence,  "  to  the  astonishment  of 
all,  without  receiving  any  considerable  injiny,"  it  was  hoped  from  her 
excellent  qualities  she  might  be  able  to  weather  the  storm.  Before 
the  third  day  had  passed,  however,  an  enormous  sea  broke  over  the 
ship,  and  for  an  instant  destroyed  all  hope.  The  gun-deck  ports  were 
burst  in,  Ijoth  Ijoats  on  the  quarter  stove,  the  spare  spars  washed  from 
the  chains,  the  head-rails  swept  away,  the  hammock  stanchion  crushed, 
and  the  ship  perfectly  deluged  and  ^ater-logged.  One  man,  an  old 
sailor,  the  boatswain,  who  had  been  taken  from  an  English  packet, 
was  so  appalled  that  he  cried  out  in  his  despair  that  the  ship's  inroad- 
side  was  stove  in,  and  that  she  was  sinking.  The  alarm  ran  through- 
out the  vessel  from  the  spar-deck  to  the  gun-deck,  and  was  caught 
up  by  those  below  on  the  berth-deck,  who,  deluged  by  the  torrents 
of  water  rushing  down  the  hatchways,  and  swept  by  huge  seas  out 
of  their  hammocks,  believed  that  the  Essex  was  about  to  plunge 
for  ever  into  the  depths  of  the  ocean.  The  men  at  the  wheel,  how- 
ever, who  were  only  able  to  keep  to  their  post  by  clinging  with  all 
their  might,  distinguished  themselves  by  their  cool  intrepidity,  and 
were  rewarded  by  Captain  Porter  after  the  storm  by  advancement 
in  rank,  while  others,  who  had  shrank  from  the  terrors  of  the  scene, 
were  rebuked  for  their  timidity. 

Leaving  this  tempestuous  weather  behind,  the  Essex  quickly  passed 


FLAG   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  319 

the  inhospitable  coasts  of  Patagonia  and  Lower  Chili,  and  sailed  into 
smoother  seas  and  pleasant  weather. 

The  Essex  cruise  furnishes  one  of  the  most  remarkable  chapters  in 
our  naval  history.  On  the  19th  of  November,  1813,  Captain  Porter 
hoisted  our  flag  and  took  possession  of  Nukahiva,  one  of  the  Marquesas 
Islands  in  the  South  Pacific,  setting  forth  his  claims  to  its  p)OSsession 
in  the  following  declaration,  which  was  signed  by  himself  and  attested 
by  fifteen  of  his  officers  as  witnesses  :  — 

"  Declaration. 

"  It  is  hereby  made  known  to  the  world,  that  I,  David  Porter,  a  captain 
in  the  navy  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  now  in  command  of  the 
United  States  frigate  '  Essex,'  have,  on  the  part  of  the  said  United  States, 
taken  possession  of  the  island  called  by  the  natives  'Nookahiva,'  generally 
known  by  the  name  of  '  Sir  Henry  Martin's  Island,'  but  now  called  '  Madison 
Island.'  That  by  the  request  and  assistance  of  the  friendly  tribes  residing 
in  the  valley  of  Tienhoi,  as  well  as  of  the  tribes  residing  on  the  mountams, 
whom  we  have  conquered  and  rendered  tributary  to  our  flag,  I  have  caused 
the  village  of  Madison  to  be  built,  consisting  of  six  convenient  houses,  a 
rope-walk,  bakery,  and  other  appurtenances,  and  for  the  protection  of  the 
same,  as  well  as  for  that  of  the  friendly  natives,  I  have  constructed  a  fort, 
calculated  for  mounting  sixteen  guns,  whereon  I  have  mounted  four,  and 
called  the  same  '  Fort  Madison.' 

"  Our  right  to  this  island,  being  founded  on  priority  of  discovery,  con- 
quest, and  possession,  cannot  be  disputed ;  but  the  natives,  to  secure  to 
themselves  that  friendly  protection  which  their  defenceless  situation  so 
much  required,  have  requested  to  be  admitted  into  the  great  American  fam- 
ily, whose  pure  republican  pohcy  approaches  so  near  their  own ;  and,  in 
order  to  encourage  these  views  to  their  own  interest  and  happiness,  as  well 
as  to  render  secure  our  claim  to  an  island  valuable  on  many  considerations, 
I  have  taken  on  myself  to  promise  them  that  they  shall  be  so  adopted  ;  that 
our  chief  shall  be  their  chief ,  and  they  have  given  assurances  that  such  of 
their  brethren  as  may  hereafter  visit  them  from  tlie  United  States  shall 
enjoy  a  welcome  and  hospitable  reception  among  them,  and  be  furnished 
with  whatever  refreshments  and  supplies  the  island  may  afford  ;  that  they 
will  protect  them  against  all  their  enemies,  and  that,  as  far  as  lies  in  tlieir 
power,  they  will  prevent  the  subjects  of  Great  Britain  (knowing  them  to  be 
such)  from  coming  among  them  until  peace  shall  have  taken  place  between 
the  two  nations. 

"  Presents,  consisting  of  the  produce  of  the  island  to  a  great  amount, 
have  been  brought  in  by  every  tribe  in  the  island,  not  excepting  the  most 
remote,  and  have  been  enumerated  as  follows  :  [Here  follows  the  enumera- 
tion of  thirty-one  tribes.]     Most  of  the  above  have  requested  to  be  taken 


320  oKItilN    AND    I'1{()(;KI;ss   of   'IIIK 

under  the  proU-ctinn  of  our  Hag;   and  al